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Distribution for all countries except 
North, Central and South America 

maruzen co., ltd. 

Distribution for North, 
Central and South America 


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(^A /d. /O^) 


Edition exclusively for North, Central and South 
America. According to an agreement with Kraus 
Reprint Ltd., Vaduz, the export to all other 
countries is prohibited without previous consent 
by Manizen Co., Ltd., Tokyo 

Reprinted in Japan 

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AocD, the lapport of. 408{!ChinMd priestt, arrival of 896 

Aman, annual proviaion for SOS.Cliolera morbus, the cure of. ... . 39 

Amoy, Christian roirisions at. . . . 160 Christianitj, toleration of^. 154 

Amoy, notices of the city 362 

ArtJoy, population of 363 

Amoy, Protect mt mis.>i>n8 at... SSff 

Amoy, the dispensary at Ic^l 

Amoy, port duties at 479 

Anderson, Rev. R.'s sermon .... 431 

Apples from Boston, u s. a 224 i 

Architecture of the Chinese. . 
Ba5o::ok, ophthiLnit; hospital 

B'ani'vobnce, tiall of United .... 405 
Bettleheim, Rev. Dr. E J.. . . 160,576 

Besi, letter of bishop 25C 

Bible, Chinese version of the. . .. 161 
Bible, revision of Chi. versions. . 108 

Bills, or prominary notes 21C 

Bishop of Coc hi nrh nx 117 

Borneo, Brit auihorities in 498 

Borneo, Dutch ) oss ^sions in. . . 504 

Bradley, Death of Mrs 83 

Bridge, at Puhchaii 187 

Brid|;man, Rev. Jamas G. ordina. 3^ 
British authorities corr. with 512,^34 

British tonnage duei 15C 

B.-iti^h trade at the five ports. . . 39t 

Bu'Iha, an image of 474 

Budhistic print, nctice of. 351 

Bu 'iaKgrounds, notice of 4C7 

CAif To.f , a missionary field 67 

Canton, character of the people.. 57 

Canton, description of 57 

Canton, its foreign commerce. . . 5c/ 
Canton, its native trade ..*.... 50 
Canton, entrance to xhs city . . . . 110. 

Canton ou;rhc to be opened 6ii 

Canton, prohibitions at 561 

Ctnton wfilk around theeity. . 59,317 
Canton, f.ireign rssideots ac ... 420 

Canton, entrance to 278 

CanLoUf foreiifn trade at 292 

Calendar for the year. ? 

Caleni^r of the Chinese 44 

Callerv's notices of Gon^alves. . 69 
Catholic miasious in China. .. 39.?5C 
Catholic missions in Manchuria. 4.53 
Catholica at Fuhchau 20:) 

Chtisan, restored by the English. 376 

'Chusan to be stirrendered 377 

IChusan, the island restored 432 

City, foreigners alio sired to enter 46,61 
iCoast, nivifrntion of the Chinese 99 

iCochinchini, notices of 113 

'■^fiffins, preparation of 402 

229, C ifTmed dead, notices of 313 

80|J'o!ie^e of Rizzrlaa ;. .. 40 

C >mi?ierci&l houses, list of 3 

{Commission, the Svredish 10 

Comr t m, case of Mr. C. S. 554 

Confucian tract, nct'.ce of 377 

Consulate at Fuhchsu 191 

'Consular establishments, 9,10 

Consuls, foreign, in China 110 

'.Converts, Chinese at Amoy 357 

Cooper, capt visits Japan 172 

Corea, Catholic mission in 504 

Corea, missions in 453 

Corea, tlie king of 277 

Cormorants, notices of 207 

Correspondence, withBrit res. 512,534 

Custorrs rf the people 44 

DiNisii Man-of-war, notice of.. . 461 

Dean, death of Mrs. 527 

Dead, a pile of remains 320 

Decapitations at the Potter-field. 224 

Democracy of the Chinese 57 

Dialect? spokrn in the country. . 66 

Diseases in Hongkong 124 

Dyer's, epitaph of Rev. 8. 1G8 

CARTHqcAXB at Ningpo 477 

Flmperor's autograph assent.... 277 
Epitaphs on Morrison's |^ravet. . 105 
Everett, arrival of commissioner. 527 
Everett, U.S.A. minister to China 156 
Eve reu's interview with Kiying. 624 

Examination of oflicers 276 

Examiintion, the triennial Sr** 

Factories, the Thirteen 372 

Feuds among the villages at Amoy 693 
Fire, means of extini^uishing. . . 4C9 

Fire-places, notices of. 195 

Foreigners, relief of sick 439 

Foreigners, pop. feeling towards. 157 

Catholic missions in Corea 596 Foreigners, their freedom 46 

Chap«]a of the Chinese Chistians 2S2i|FreiieL commtrcial mgulationi .. 10 

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French lection 158 

Fuhchau, foreign trade at S97 

Fuhchau, indemnity obtained et. 471 

Fuhchau, notices of 2S5 

Fuhch.iu fu, notices of li"5,20t 

Fuhshan, a visit to 64 

Cazettss, the Peking 521 

Gvnii, hill of the nine 197 

Goia-hoa, Danish man-of-war. . . 461 

Gon,ulve8, Biogfrsphy of 61' 

Gon.iilveii, his wrllingd 71 

God, words for, in Chinese. . 163,311 

Grain, scarcity of 5^} 

Hall of United Benevolence. . . 40t? 

Manners of the people 44 

McClatehle, Rev. T. Mnrriagc of 328 

Medal for British soldiers 159 

Med. M. Soc. hospiul Shanghai. 2dl 

Meteor, notices or 280 

Mien-kdi honored with an hei*. . 22d 

M iiitarv uniform, its style 45 

Min, scenery of the . . .* 225 

Min, navii^atioii of the 280 

Missionaries at the five ports. ... 110 

Mi»)iionarie8, two French 528 

iMission, the theory of 481 

MiBAions at Shdngh&i 476 

Misi»ionary station, Fuhchau 217 

-,-^,jMoh?.mrno.'^an buildin-fs 3*20 

Hf^dde's notices of Cochinchina. 1 13 iMohamnied-ins, notice of 323 

Hillier, C. B. marriage of 32d.|Muhnmmedans at Fuhchau 204 

Hinefl, remarks on Oregon 84 iMohammedani: m practiced 43 

Hobson, deatli of Mrs, B. 224 Monetary system at Fuhchau. . . 210 

Hongkong, colonial govt. of. . . . 8 'Morrison Education Society .... 601 

llongkonor, diseases. &c. in. . . . 124 Morrison Ed. Soc. Fund 56 

Hon^rkong, houjics. &.c. in 13.5 .Morrison's epitaphs 105 

Horsburgh, monumant of capt J. 101 jMorrison, painting of Dr. R 56 

Hospital at ^Shanjhii 28l!j orrison, but of the hon. J. R.. . 56 

H ts. ital. Med. Mi^. at Xin^i)o. . 3412 Mn)berry tree in Cochinchina. .. 115 

Hot spring at Fuhchau 200 jMulbery t:ee, in Manila 529 

Humanity, remans on 329 ;Mnrderous attack on foreigners. 431 

Hants' Merchant's Magazine. . . 345 Museum, Chinese in Boston. . . . 347 

I'LiMO temple, notices of. 319 .Mythology of the Chinese 41 

Intoxicating liquors, notice of. . . 43('| Nemesis, the bark 445 

Japan, Cooper's visit to 172 ; Ne w year, its p ospects 1 

Jews, few in China 43 Ningpo, foreign trade at 297 

Jin, signification of 321) jNingpo, Missions at 477 

Kidnapping in China 327 iNino^po, mir^isionary 342 

Kinsr, Charles W. notice of 346 Officehs, the meritorious 276 

Kiyin'Xi a Chinese vessel 64 .Ordination of a Chinese, evang.. 528 

Lama, a singular sptcies of . . . . 4i) jOregon Territory, notice of. . . . 84 
Lesfation, the French 9 ,PAnENT8, worship of the deceased 49 

Legation, the U. S. A 10, 

Lighthouse on Iloinania 1 102, 

Lightening, death by 2t?3 

Lin Tsch<<U promoted 274' 

Liquors, notice of intoxicating. . 4-13 

Lisiang, kinsr of Corea 277, 

Literati at Fuhchau 213: 

Lockhart, Dr. VV. Report 281, 

Lucky-cloud, emperor's horse . 37()! 

Macao, disturbances in £23; 

Macao, Port rejnlations 3*25, 

Macao, made a free port I Hi 

Macgowan'^ Med. report.... . 34-^| 

Magazine, Hum's Merchant's. . . 345 

Maladministration, notices of. . . 475' 

Manchuria, misHions in 4.5.'- 

Manchu pop. at Fuhchau 19H 

Manifesto, exciting riot 41 1 

Peking Gazettes, 221 4i7J<:32 1,37 4,473 
Peninsular &> Orie. Steam Com.. 619 

Piracy, a case of noticed 326 

Placards, exciting riot 48 

Plover, the surveying ship 159 

Pluto, the steam-ship 445 

Polytheism of the Chinese 42 

Portuirue«>e govt Macao 10 

Prefect of Canton's office 219 

Prefect of Canton, Liii 1.57 

Premare's Notitia Lin. Sinice.. . 140 

Prohibitions at Canton 561 

Proverbs, a list of Chinese 140 

1uKK."»-nowAOER, the august. . . 160 

'^lesidents, list of foreign 3 

JIates of Freight 622 

Utes of Passage 621 

Hate? of Postage 630 

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Residence* of foreigners. . . 280,3124! Superintendeucy of British trade 8 

Riot notice of in Canton 346 Synoptical tables of trade 291 

Riot of January in Canton 46 .TiRirr, the Chinese 263 

Rizzolati, letter of the Rt Rev. . 39j jTeaa. export of, to the U.Kingdom 386 

Salute on Sabbath days 159. Teas, expert of, to the U. S. A.. 396 

fiLinmAn'a I4n«nifttl TT#\nn>1rrkn<r I'^Q;'*" 

Seamen's Hospital, Honsrkong. . 159; 
Secret societies at Sin;;apor8 300,400 
Sermon hy Rev. R. Anderson. . . 481 

Sermon by Rev. G. Srnitli HM 

Shanghai, notices of the city .. . 466 
Shanghai, thermometer at 289 

Sbinghdi, foreign trade at 296 Tsing Lien Kan, noticed 274 

Sliangh&i, port regulations at. . . 566 

Shipping at Canton 166 

Siam, missionary labors in 80 

Si<^wn, the brig 445 

Silk, export of, to the U. Kinfir(Io:n 38.1 
Silk, export of, to the U. &'A. . 400! 

Smith, sermon by Rev. G 234 

Smith, Journal of Rev. G ]a5 

Spirit, remarks on the word 16 { 

Steam3 n, commercial 277 

Storms of rain and thunder 223 

Sn)ne- tables and pestles 471 

Su Aman, statements regirlinsf. 307 
Subscriptions, mode of obtaining 4\^ 
Saperstitions among the people. 478| 

The tweiitv-one millions paid. . . 55 

Tonnage dues on Brit vessels. . 150 

Tonnage, foreign, statement of . 165 

Traditions, the worship of 45 

Treaty, with England, indemnity 55 

Treaty with the French 10 

Turon, notices of 114 

1'yfoon, notice of a 445 

U. S. A. Trade in China 400 

Vaccination, remarks on 285 

Vessels, British tonnago dues. . . 150 

Ves el, foreign, in China 165 

Vocabulary, Ei g!ish and Chinese 145 

Wa r, civil, in }<'uhkien 476 

War, the eflfocts of the late 65 

Watch-lowers, notice of 194 

Wheat for rations 471 

Widows, support of 402 

Williams' Vocabulary 145 

Wolcott, H. G. u. s. A. consul. . . 224 
Vangtsz* kiang, navigation of. . 99 


No. 1. 

A«T. I. The new year: prospects and desiderata; comparative Chinese 
and Erglish Calendar for the current year ; list of commercial housea 
ai:d foreign officers in China, 1 

Art. II. Treaty between his Mojesty King of the French and the 

Emperor of China, si^rned in the French and Chinese languages. ]0 

Art. IJI. Notices of the Catholic religion in China, in a letter from the 

Rt. Rev. Joseph Rizzolati, vicar apostolic of, 33 

Art. IV. Riot in Canton ; proclnmation alJowina foreigners to enter the 
city ; counter proclamations by the gentry and people ; placard before 
the prefect's gate ; demolition and burning of his offices by the popu- 
lace; further proclamations from thehi^hrinthor.tios toqniet the people. 47 

AaT. V. Journal of Occurrences : popular disturbances hushed ; payment 
of the twenty-one millions completed ; new prefect; ships of war at 
W'hampoa; difficult questions; Lin TidhsQ made governor-general; 
nothern ports, Shanghai, Ninerpo, Fuchau, Amoy ; Hongkong; 

Chinese new year; protcslant mission ; Morrison Fund, 55 

No. 2. 

Art. I Description of the city of Canton ; number and character of the 
inhabitants; iU commerce; walks around the walls and into the adja- 
cent country ; ingress to the city ; note to the governor from Sir John 
Francis Davis ; trip to Fuhsh^n ; effects of the late war ; different dia- 
lecta; a missionary nlation ^ 

AaT. II. Notice Bio^fraphique sur le pere J. A. Goncalves, comprising 

an account of his life with notices of his various sinological productions. 59 

Akt JIJ. Missionary labors in Siam : ophthalmic hospital in Bangkok : 
death of Mr#. Bradley ; schools and present prospect of the mission.. . BO 

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VI coNTEirra. 

Art. iV 

Oregon Territory i ita topography, climate, produetioni, popala- 
tlon, political relations, 6lc. By Rev. Oustavos Hinrs 84 

Art. V. Navigation of the Chin(*se seas: mouth of the Ydngtsz* kiAng; 
Wilsung river and port of Shinghii; liglit-housp to the memory of 
Horjbur&rh propoai'd t'> be i»rect;*d on RKimiji Outer Island 98 

Art. VI. Rpilaphs on the grravea of the R*.*/ R, Mori sen, ii. n., th*» hon. 

J. R. M^rris'tn, and the R^v S i>yer, ii. lh»* English cemetery, Macao IC4 

Art. VU Ch'-nese ver.^i ms of the Holy S;;ript!irea: need revisrm; list 

of words cliiming pirtic'iiiraitenti^^n ; pr.^pnjed meeting of deleirfttps JQS 

Art. VIII. .lournal of Occurrenrvn : fbrei^fn cmsiii ; prote^tnntmifisiona- 
ries in China; disnus^ion n^girdinij f>rfigners enle/ing Ihs? city 

suspended; renewed ; Misao ta b-* iniJ^ pirlially a .^r:»e port 110 

No. 3. 

Art. I. Notices of C:»chiriCh:n"j, andediipnTa via'tin 18.13, by I lledde 113 

Art. II Review of J SM87S inciden'.nl to IC':rop:^;!:i« in Ch'.nn, uirlicularly 

in FTon/kong inu for lh« ear I ?4.'>, cxii-bled ..•. p:ib!.c pnpors 124 

Art III. List of hiuj»-.' .nd public bu IcIiujT'I nn the ishnd of Hon/koiil, 
w';lii stalenii-ntf of l.h«' r» ven.»e a:rl expenditure of the colony during 
the year end.njr 31st December, Ii^45 135 

Art. I v. Chineae prov.'rbs, selected from a oilcclion in the English 

version of P. Prfemiire's N 'ttiii Lin juap S ij".c<s 143 

Art. V. Ying Hw.i Ynn f . L-h-kiai, or an English nnd Chinese Voca- 
bulary, in ih»» c^ufl diaiocl ]4S 

Art. Vi Gutdnenl of tonnnge dues, import and export duties, paid by 

Bnfsh vessels in the p-jrt of Canton f.oin 1st Jan. to Di-c , 1845. 150 

Art. Vli An imperial decree providing for the furtiier toleration of 
Christianity, gunting the restoration of real estate to Christians 
throuifh the emfiire 154 

Art. VIIi. Journal of Occurrences : memorial regard-ng the late prefect 
of Canton; proclamation by the present prefect : popular feeling to* 
wards foreigners ; the French Le^aton ; Mr. Everett ; the China 
Medal ; Seamen's hospital in Hongkong; M.jrnson Education Society ; 

8abl>ath day salutes; the Plover; Amoy ; Liiichi) ; die., &c 157 

No. 4 

Art. 1. Revision of the Chinese version of the Bible ; remarks on the words 

for God, Father, Son, Spirit, Soul, Prophet, Baptism and Sabbath ... 161 

Art. II. Statements of the number, to:inn;re, &.c , of the merchant vessels 

of different niiions in the port of Cr.nion, for the year 1^45 165 

Art. III. Seme account of C'^ptaMi Mercntor Cooper's vlst to Js.pan in 

the whale Ship Minhnitan of Sag Harb:>r. Ey C. F. VVinhuiw. m. d. 1S7 

Art. IV. Report of the Dispensary at Amoy, rrn.n the l.^t of February 

lrM4, to 1st of July 1845. By. J. C. Hkpsu -.n, m, d 181 

Art. V. Notices of Fuhchau fi), being an extract from the Journal of the 
Rev. George ^mith, M. A Oxon : during an exploratory visit and 
rasidence at the five cmsular ports of China 185 

Art. VI. Destruction of the prefect's office, reported to the emperor in a 

memorial from the governnr-jjeaeral and governor of CanlDn 219 

Art. Vll. Exlracls fro:n the Peking Gaieties, .N js. I to 4 for the twenty- 
sixth year of the reijrn of hia imperial majesty Taukn'fing a o. Id46. 221 

Art. Vlll. Jonrnal of O.icurrences : scarcity of gnin ; rain and thunder 
storms; hail ; death.s by llghtninar; Kiying's interview with governor 
Davis; imperial preacMils ; review of troopj; public executions; com- 
modore B'ddle and the U. S. A. Legation ; new C3nsul at Sh^ngh&i; 

the five ports; Macao; death of Mrs. Hobsan 223 

No. 5. 

Art. I. Noticesof the city of Fuhchau, from the News of the World, with 

remarks on ihe navigation of the river M'n,by capt. R Collinson, r.n 225 

Art. II. An addrrss on the subjsot of Christian Missiona: being two 

sermons prcacht^d in the Colonial Church, at Hongkong, on Sunday. 234 

Art. IJI. Letter of bishop Be.Vj, apostolic vicar of ^Shantnng to the Di- 
rtctors of the Work (in luly). Dated Nanking, May Utb, 1843. 850 

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ooKTBirrt. Til 

Ait. IV. The tariff of duties to be leried oo merchandiae Imported and 
tsporttd (by citiaens of the United States) d&c, dtc 869 

Aat. V. Extracts from the Pelting Gasottes, Nos. 5 to 8 for the twenty- 
sixth year of the reign of his imperial majesty T6ukw&ng, a. o. 1845. 873 

Amr.'VI. Journal of Occurrences : the island of Chnsan to be immediately 
made over to the Chinese ; commercial steamers allowed to carry mer- 
chandiae; cnrrespandence regarding Hongkong; a meteor; the for- 

tign residences at Canton, their limited extent, dtc 977 

No. 6. 

Art. I. Report of the Medical Missionary Society *8 hospital at ShAnghiii. 881 

AxT. 11 Synoptical tables of the foreign trade at Canton for the year 
ending 3Iat December, 1845. with retarns, Az , of the trade at Shang- 
hai, Ningpo, Fuhehsu, end Anioy 991 

AftT. III. Roman Catholic missions in China, with particulars respecting 
the number of missionaries and C9nverts 893 

AftT. V. So Amin : annual provision for the support of his widow and 
mother, voluntarily by the person who caused his death 306 

AftT. VI. Terms for Deity to be used in the Chinene version of the Eihle : 
the words Shkngti, lien, and Shin examined and illustraied 311 

AftT. VII. A walk around the city of Canton : houses of tlie i-oiIi ned dead ; 
the riing temple: Mohammedan buildings; scenery on the north ; 
forts; an old citadel ; a remarkable burial place* ; Ac ' 317 

AftT. VI II. King Pdu or Peking Gazettes : with extracts and notices from 

No. 9th March 3d to No. 16th March 17th 1846 3:i 

AftT. IX. Journal of Occurrences: residences for foreigners; renting of 
houses end ground; review of troops; the U. S A. squadron ; Macao 

e>rt regulations ; piracies; kidnapping; admiralty court at llonirkong; 
nglish troops at Chusan ; two Chinese catholic priests; dx.&,c.... 33i 
No. 7. 

AftT- I. On the signification of the character jin : jin chl n^n yen 339 

AftT. II. Report of the Ningpo missionary hospital, to the Medical Mis- 
sionary Society of (*hina 348 

AftT. 111. Hunt's Merchant's Mafaiine: comn^^rce a liberal pursuit: 
commerce of China ; China ana the China peace ; Chinese Museum. 345 

AftT. IV. Translation of a fiudhistic print, (descriptive of the) on thou- 
sand handed, and tboos:- jcI eyed goddess of mercy To-lo-nf 351 

AftT. V. Amoy : memoranda of the Protestant missions from their com- 
mencement, with notices of the city and island 355 

AftT. VI. Notices of the riot in Canton, which occurred on the evening 
ofJuly 8ih, 1846 364 

AftT. VII. King Puu or Peking Gazettes: with -extracts and notices from 
No. 17th M-rch imh Irj No. 3-2d April 19th 1046 374 

Art. VIII. Jour.nal of Occurrences : triennial osaminatinns in the eight^^en 
provinces : restoration of Chnsan : coionin! church, at Hongkong, relief 
for destitute foreigners ; opium farm ; ty^yhoon in the Chinese seas ; &c 378 

No. 8. 

AftT. I. A Confucian tract, exhorting mankind nl v ys to preserve their 

celestial prmcipies and their good hearta 377 

AxT. II. Particulars of th9 export of Teas and Raw Silk to the United 

Kingdom in each vesji'l from 3i)th .lune, *S45, to Ut July, 1816 886 

AxT. III. Export of Teas to the United States from 3.)th June, 1845, to 

1st July 1846; with export of silk and sundries 396 

AftT. IV. Notices of the Roman Catholic missions in the province of 

St'ohuen, in letters tran!*iated by a Correspondent, 400 

AftT. V. Regulations, &c , of the Hall of United Benevolence for the 

relief uf widows, the support of aged, providing of coffins, &c • 403 

AftT. VI. List of foreign residents in Canton. August, 1846 426 

AftT. Vir Journal of Occurrences : the late .iot ; s murderous attack ; the 
Nemesis ; Chmese soldiers ; vagabonds and fot 1 condition of the streets ; 
chaplain for Whampoa ; annual meeting of the Morrison Education 
Society; relief of destitute sick foreigners in China; consulates; eva- 
eufttJOA of Chusan; Ningpo; Roman Catholic missionaries; 4lc 431 

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No. 9. 

Art I. Chinese views of mtozicatin|f liquor, as desohb«d in an addMts 

bj one of the ancient kin^ eztraoied from the Sh6 King 439 

Art.. II. Particalara of the tyfoon, in the Chinese sets, encoantered hj 
the steam ship Pinto, the bark Nemesis, and the brig Siewa 445 

Aar. III. Missions in Manchuria and Corea. Letter of mj lord Venrales, 
ano. vie. of Man. to the members of the central councils of the work 435 

Art. IV. Notices of the Danish man-of-war, the Galathea, now on a cruise 
round the world 4^1 

Art. V. Remarks regarding the translation of the terms for the Deitj in 
the Chinese version of the Holy Scrpitures 464 

Art. VI. Notices of Sh^nghAi : its position and extent ; iu houws, pubic 

buildings, nrdens, population, commerce, Ac 466 

Art. VII. Peking Gaiettes : notes and extracts ftom the No. 33d for 
April 20th to No. 45th for May 15th 1846 473 

AaT. VII. Journal of Occurrences : facilities for intercourse and business 
at Shanghai : fearful omens and earthquake at NininM; indemnity for 

losses at Fubchau ; affairs at Anioy, Hongkong and Canton : ^ko 476 

No. 10. 

Art. I. The theory of Missions to the heathen : a sermon presehed at the 
ordination of Mr. Edward Webb, as a Missionary to the heathen 482 

Art. II. British authorities in Borneo: forcing the Bruni rirer, the 
capture of forts and of the town of Borneo (Bruni) 498 

Art. III. Government of Borneo and its Dependencies, a proclamation 

bv the governor-general of Netherlands India, published at Buitensorg. 604 

Art. IV. Roman Catholic Missions in Corea : Letter of M. Ferreol, bishop 
d&c., snd apostolic vicar of Corea, to the Directors of the Seminary of 
Missions £trangeres 507 

Art. V. Local Correspondence, between H. B. M. con. Mr. Macgregor 
and Brit, residents in Canton, regarding public Nuisances, etc 519 

Art. VI. Journal of Occurrences : disturbances in Macao ; arrival of the 
U. S. A. Commissioner: return of Rev. Mr. Dean ; new Missionaries; 
death of Mrs. Oevan ; local correspondence ; Peking Gazettes ; trien- 
nial examination ; drought ; Christian ordinat:on of a Chinese preacher : 
two Roman Catholic missionaries from Tibet ; missionaries from Siam. 536 

No. 11. 

Art. I. On the Multicaultsor Mulberry tree at Manila. By M. I. Hedde. 639 

Art. II. Local Correspondence between her Britannic Majesty's consul 

Mr Macgregor and British residents in Canton 534 

Art. III. The Queen v. Compton, before the Supreme Court, Hong- 
kong, Tue»da^ the twenty-fourth November, ld46 55 

Art. IV. Prohibitions, forbidding all foreigners, except those actually 
engaged in trade and their assistants, to reside at Canton 661 

Art. V. Port Regulations of Sii^nghai, drawn up by H. B. Majesty's 

Consul, Rutherford Aloock, Esq. and dated November 6th, 1846 566 

Art. VI. Remarks on the words and phrases best suited to express the 

names of God in Chinese 568 

Art. VII. Journal of Occurrences : Keying; military reviews and exa- 
minations; examiners and new literary chancellor; literary banquet; 
Mr. Everett; the Nemesis; military guards; their inefficiency; ill 
treatment of English seamen ; letter from captain Pickin ; &c., &c... 574 
No. 12. 

Art. I. Remarks on the words and phrases best suited to express the 

names of God in Chinese 577 

Aru. II. The Eighth Annual Report of the Morrison Education Society 

for the year ending September 30th, 1846 601 

Ats. 111. Steam communication between China and the west as main- 
tained by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Company and the Brit- 
ish Lords of the Admiralty ; rates of postage, passage, &c ... 618 

Art. IV. Journal of Occurrences : Peking Gaiettes ; feuds among the vil- 
lages at Amoy ; Shlnghili, Amoy and Vuhchau ; public affairs at Hong- 
kong iind Tanton; the Chinese vessel Kiying: arrival of missionaries. 24 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Vol. XV, — Jaxuahy, 184(i. — No. 1. 

Art. I. The new year: proiptris and JeiiJefaia; cmnfaraiiwt 
Chinese and English Calendar for ike current fear; Kst of 
commercial houses and foreign ogicers in China. 
Canton, January Ist, 1846. To all our readers, near mtd remote, 
friends and auangera, we wish a happy new yea/. To the great 
Author of the innumerable bleaainga that have crowned the past, we 
would join with the people of ail lands io ascriptions of praise and 
thanksgiving and in humbly supplicating their continuance. During 
the last year peace and prosperity, with very Ihniled exceptions, have 
prevailed throughout the whole worM. The opening prospects of the 
new year, in China, are fairer than we have ever before known them. 
But they are not cloudless. Tliere are here so many things which 
are politically and morally wrong, that troublous commotions seem 
inevitable. Our confldeiice is in Him who ruleth over the nations, 
and who can say to the people, as to the waves, thus far shalt thou 
come. Old foundations will doubtless be broken up, and revolutions 
come, and with more or less violence. In such circumstances, it is, 
on every account, in the higlresf degree desirable that foreigners, 
especially those who reside fif this country, should know the language 
of the Chinese, understand their laws, manners, customs, wants, 
prejudices, — in a word, every thing that pertains to the people and 
their country. We shall rejoice if we can, in any way, aid others in 
supplying these desiderata. Pour hundred millions of people are 
to receive the religion which is from above, with the accompani- 
ments of Christian civil iz:itioii. The ar(s and sciences are here to 
receive a new cast, and friendly relations nid commerce to be great- 
ly extended and improved 

VOL. XV. NO. I i Digitized by Google 

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Aga MemxA Bor.Rov Shrbrajke. I 
Agn Mp«*r7a Mahomrd Shoerajor 


Shuiiwoodcen Abdoollnliff. 
Jafnrbhoy Budroodeen. 
Shaik HusBun Shaikammed. 
Nuzraoodeen Sojatolly. 
Shurrufuily Chandabhoy. 
Shaik Munaoor Ncjamully. 
Akdersoi*, Chalmers A Co. 
James S. Anderson. 
Patrick Chalmers. 

James D. Park. 
Agassix, Arthui. 

Arthur Affassis. 
Edmund Moller. 
Ardasrsr Furpoonjee- 
Badbnoch, p. Hongkanf, 

William Burgess, 
Barket, Georoe. 

William Barnet. 
H. Wiltshire. 
Bell Sl Co., Canton and Hongkong. 
William Bell, England. 
Sir 6. G. de H. Larpert, br. Eng 
Alfred Wilkinson. 
J. Mackrill Smith. 

Archibald Melville. 
T. Dale. 
Richard Oibbs. 
Francis Wilkinson. 
BiRLRT, Francis B. Hong, and CaiUon 
(George J. Benneth. 
H. F. Edwards. 
BousTEAD &. Co., Hongkong. 
Edward Bousteau. 
Benjamin Butler Manila. 
Gustav C. Schwabe Liverpool. 
Adam Sykes Singapore^ 
R. Aspinell,jr. 
Martin Wilhelmy. 
W. Hutchinson. 
W. C. Farquhar. 
BovET, Brothers, iV Co. 
1. Bovol 
F Bo vet. 

A. Bugnon. 
BowRA, C. W. Hongkong. 

W. A. Bowra. 

W. Stevenitt, 

J. C. Buchanan. 

F. Thompson. 

H. Rutherford. 
BouLLB, N. Hongkong. 
Bull, Isaac M. 

P. Dyer Vinton. 
BuRD, LAitoB 6l Co., Hongkong. 
John Burd. 

D. L. Procter, Jr. 

W. T. Rom. 
Bush A Co., Hongkong 
F. T. Bush. 

C. H. Brinley. 

R. Rangel. 

H, H. Abercrombie. 

George R. West. 
BuRiORjBB Pestorjrr. 


Byramjee Rustomjbe. 
Byramjbb Moiicherjbb Brurdara. 
Maneckjee Bomanjre. 
Cursetjee Eduljee. 
China Mail, Hongkong. 

Andrew Shortrede, Editor. 


Francisco C. Barradas. 
Jose da Silva. 
Manool Braga. 
Joad Grason. 
Vicente Barradas. 
Chishole, D. Hongkong. 
Collins, J. Hongkong. 
Comklatb, T. G. Hongkong. 
CoMFTow, C. S. &. Co. 
C. S. Compton, 

Edward M. Daniell, {England), 
William Dickinson, „ 

Charles Sanders. 
A. E. H. Campliell. 
OiMSTocK, S. W. Himgkonir. 
('owasjkk SoB.*Bjr.K Patkll, 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

List of Commercinl Houses, Agents, Spe, 


CooTV^ee Bomiigee. 
Cawt^ee Fran^ee. 
Sapooijee Bomtigee. 


Cawa^ee Shapoonee L. 

Frarajee Shapoorjee Lun^^rana. 

Festoi^jee Jamicetjpe Moti walla 

Hormu^ee Jamae^jee Naadvrsha 

Neaierwaniee Dorabjee M^hta. 

Pestonjee Bvramjee Colah. 

Ruatomjee Pestoi^iee Moti walla 

Rattunjee Doaaabhoy Modie. 

Marewaniee Edaljee. 

Framjee Hormusjce. 
CiiooKK» Jas. At Mabskt. 

Jaa. Crooke, mhsent, 

George Maiaey, 

W. K. Soodgrais, 
CuMiTJBS Pkstoicjbb Camah. 

Boijorjee Hormusjee tf ac4a. 
Padabhot Burjoiubb. 

Muncheijee Shapoorjee. 

Dhanjeebhoj Oadabhoy. 

Borabjee Byxamjee Colah. 


Sutterwanjee Bomanjee Mody, 
B«rjo«jee Framjee. 
Rustomjec Oadabhoy £amajee. 
DhfiQJeehhoy Hormuajee H. 


Paixas a Co. 

Mrilliam Dallaa, Evgl^Md, 
Gfegory Colea, BmgUmd^ 
Btepbefi Ponder, ab. 

F. ChapBiaa. 

John Bolt 
Dewt a Co., HonglMMf. 

Lancelot D««t EmgUuU, 
George T. B raise. 
William Lestie, CsNtoa. 
Wilkinson Dent. 
F. C. Orummond, ab0€Mi, 
Jaim Peni, mhtewL 

Ednrard Pereira. 

Henry Dickinson. 

M. W. Pitcher. 

i. Caldecott Smith, Can. 

O. 11. Scbumacher. 

J. Bowman. 

James Trabshaw. 

Joaauim Caldas, Canton. 
PiROM, Gray dt Co., Cnnlon^ Sikanghm 
R. Dirom, EmgloMd, 
W. F. Gray 
W. W. DaW. 
W. F. Hunter, Bouthatf. 
T. F. Gray, BomJioy, 
p. PotUfF, Shfugfi i. 

W. Ellis. 

C. Ryder. 
G. UoiBon. 
J. Hodgson, Skfingkai. 

D. Sillar, ShhtghS, 


Rattoi\jee Framjee. 
Dadabhov Jamsetjee. 
DvRKAiv, J. A. JR., Macao^ 

Adhemar Damn. 
Duos, Rawlk a Co., ShringhSi 
Kdoljkr Framjbb Sob 9l Co. 
Bomonjee EduUee, 
Oadabhoy EduQee, 
Edwards, R. 

Farrcomb, Edward. Notanr Publio, 
Solicitor, Attorney and Proctor of 
I the Supreme Coart, Hom^hmg, 
Fbarojc, C. Macao. 

Miguel de Souxa, jr. 
FfscHRR, Willis A Co. 

Maximilian Fischer. 
Joseph Bales, jr. Liverpaoi. 
Daniel Willis. „ 

W. A. Meufing. 
Edward Reiiners. 
Stephen K. Brabner. 
Fitzpatricr, John. 
Fi.KTriiKR & Co., Hongkong. 
Angus Fletcher. 
Duncan Fletcher. 
George Fiiidlay. 

A. M. Coriella. 
Ford, M. A Co., Hongkong, 
Martin Ford. 

Alfred Ford. 
Fox, Rawson dcCo., Honntionir ^Canton 
T. S. Rawsun, England, 
William Blenkin, 
Samuel Rawson, 
Arthur J. Empson. (ok.) 
Alexander F. Crooin. 

C. Empson, Sk&ngkai. 
Fraser Sinclair. 
Patrick McCart 
W. H. Luce Skangkai. 
H. 8. Norris, Skangk&i, 
William Kay, Skangk^ 
Henry Balkwell. 
F. D. Syme, ^moy, 
loxe de Britto. 
FRAMiar. Jamsktjkx. 
FaANSLv.x, W. H. Hongkong, 
Dennis G. Jonc^s. 
Henry Thompson. 
J. B. R(*medios. 
Frirvo or China, Hongkong. 
John Carr, Editor. 

Liiii iM. de Azevedo. 
Antoiiiii dp Azevrdo 
Anloitiu de . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


List of Commercial llousrs. Agents, ^e. 

Roqtti de 

FuRCK, F. lUM^kmig. 

D. Stevens. 
A- Guicliard. 

FuftDOOKJRK, A. dk D. 

ArdaiMvr Tardoonjec 

JalbJioy Cursetjee. 
GsMMRLi., W. &, T., 6l Co., H&nt^kimg 

William Grmiijeli, Glasgow 

Henry Robert Marker. 
W. F. Bevan. 

E. Warden. 
George Napier. 

GiBB, LiTiitoeToii iL Co., Hongkong. 
Thomas A. Gibb [CnnUm 

W. Potter Livingston, England, 
Joseph G. Livingston. 
J. Skinner. 
Thomas Jones. 

George Gibb. 

W. H. Wardley 

J. D. Gibb, Shanghai. 

GlLM AR iL Co. 

R. J. Gilinan. 

A. Johnson. 

L. Josephs. 

W. H. Vacher. 

J. Williams. 

A. J. Tounr. 

J. Jarvie, Hongkong, 

A. Hudson, „ 

A. Bowman, ShAnghai. 

8. Comptnn, Shtinghnif 

J. Wildman, „ 

GaiSWOLD, JOHR N. Alsop, 
Hakt, C. H. Macao, 
Hastiros, tk Co. 

Joseph Sleains, Liverpool. 

Thomas Rowley, London. 

William Hastings. 
J. Whittall. 


Framjee Heerajee. 

Shavuckshaw Rustomjee. 

Framjee Nowrojee. 
Hbbbjbbbhoy Ardasrrr ^ Co. 

Heexjeebhoy Hormusjee. 

Ardaseer Rustomjee. 

Corsetjee Hosungiee. 
Hbabi>, AoeusTiRB A Co. 

Augustine Heard, U. Statu. 

Geo. B. Dixwell. 

John Heard. 

Joseph L. Roberts. 
Oliver £. RoberU. 
John 8. Bnien. 
Hboar &. Co., Hongkong and Canton. 

Joseph Hej^n, Littrpooi. 

William Gillinan, Liverpool. 

I Augustus Carter. 

William W-ird Brown 
I Ferdinand Rlnss. 

John T. Curtllier 

Robert K.t. 

Siiniuol Hill. 

iUERIiRR.«<'N, WaT»OS & Co. 

C p. Henderiiun, Manekcsicr. 
J. P. Watifoii. 
8. Mackenxie. 
Hrras, Pki»mo dk i.Ai, Marao^ 
Hkyi., Wii.i.iaji 8. Hon^kong^ 
|Hoi.LiD.%Y, WiBK, 6l Co. Hong and C. 
John HoUiday, England. 
Jiihii Wise. 
R. J. Farbridge, England. 

J. 8hepard. 

Thomas Kirby. 

R. Bremridge. 

Wm. Pyke, Shanghai. 

Charles Waters, „ 

Thomas Pyke 

T. O. Kershaw. 
HoLGATK, Hkkry, Hongkong. 
IHororokg Oisprrbabv, Hong and C. 
Peter Young. 

Samuel Maijoribanks, {Canton), 
B. M. Kenuedv. 

James H. Tonng. 

Jnxino da Roxa. 

Florencio de Souxa. 

Atliannxio de Souxa. 


John Cairns, £ditor. 

Antonio H. Carvalho. 
Joxe H. Carvalho. 
Cepriano £. do Roxario. 
rioRMrffjKK Fhamjkr. 

Ru»iniiijee Byramjee. 
Cursetjee Rustomjee Daver. 
Pestonjee Dinshawjee. 
Riistotiijee Ruttnnjee. 
HoRMi'aiKK Cawasjkb, Macao. 
HuMruKYS ^ Co., Hongkong, 
Alfred Humphreys. 
A. H. Fryer. 

A. L. de Encarna^ad. 
HuGRKsnoR &. Co., Hong and Canton, 

Charles Hughesdon. 
Henry Rutter. 

William Rutter. 
Jardtrk,Mathe8or a, Co., Hongkong 
Alexander Matheson. 
Donald Matheson. 
David Jardine, Canton. 
William Stewart. 
Joseph Jardine. 
A. Grant Dallas, ShanghSi. 

B. A. Baretto, Macao. 
3. A. Baretto. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

List of Commercial lluuso Agtnis, S;r. 


J. C. Bowring. 
J. B. Cornpto'n 
John Currie. 
Duncan Forbes, Amoy. 
John Goddard. 
James Grant. 
Augustus Howell. 
G'rvas Hunipston. 
John Jackson. 
William W. Maciver. 
Alex. W. Macpherson 
W. F. S. Matheson. 
John T. Mounsey. 
Jo«c M. d'Ouleiro. 
Floriano A. Range! . 
R. H. Rolfe. 
A. SiWeira. 
C. F. Still. 
Charles Wills. 
Jamiisoic, How A, Co., Hong and C 
J. F. Edger. 
G. Jamieson, Glasgoto. 
John Gifibrd, CalcuUa. 
William Melrose. 
Alexander Walker. 
Richard Rothwell. 
W. Henry, 
R. B. Sherard, 
Jaktib, J. 

Just, L. HsfV*<wV- „ , 
Just, Jr. L. («A#«rf,) Hongkong. 
Douglas Lapraik. 
F. Saunders. 
Kkrhkdt MACoaBGoa A Co. 
Kirk ir iaoHS, Medical practitioners, 
^ Skdngkaiand Wusung, 

Thomas Kirk, 
James Irons, 
LAifR, William, , ^ „ , 
Lahk, Rowland Sl Co., Hongkong, 
Thomas Ash Lane. 
Thomas H. Rowland. 
Lattbt a Co., Hontrkong, 
LiRDSAY & Co., Hongkong and Canton 
H. H. Lindsay JSn^. 
Crawford Kefr. 
Walter Davidson. 
W. Fryer. 
H. Dundas. 
T. Buxton. 
W. Hogg. 

Angelo V. Barradas. 
LowRiB, RoBBBT, Hongkong. 
Maclban, Dbarib, & Co. 
R. H. Hunter. 
Robert Eglinton, England. 
Charles Dearie England, 
A. C. Maclean Calndta. 
H. McF^won, Calrutta. 
Frank Duncan, limnhay. 

n c. RtMd 

R. Thorburr 
JoheugeT F n.Mi|<«' i> 
Marciarit d« Sih a 
M.vrvicAR 6l Co., HoK^rkongund Can. 
J. Mac vicar Ene. 
D. L. Burn, {aljsent) 
Gilbert Smith. 

Tlioa. D. Neavr, 
Henry Ffsst'ndtMi. 
W. C lA^Geyt. 
C. Milnr. 
Thomas S. Smith. 
T. C. Piccope, 
J. Campos. 
F. Grand|>re. 
Mabokjkb Bomoicjek. 

Cursctjee Eduljee. 
Markwick, C. Hong, (auctioneer.) 

George Norris. 
Mar^ al, J. C. 

McKffiGHT, Thomas, Hongkong^ Naval 
Storekeeper and agent Victualler. 
Mc Murray & Co., Hongkong, 
McEwKi* &, Co., Hongkong, 
Alexander Wilson. 
Robert Wallace. 

W. D. Lewis. 


MiLNB, C. Hongkong. 
MouL, Hbnrt ol Co. 

Henry Moul, England. 

John SiWerlock. 

George Moul. 
McRROW &> Co., Hongkong ^' Canton, 

D. C. Mackey, C^i/aft/a. 

Y. J. Murrow. 

Johannes Leffler. 
Charles W. Murray. 
W. N. Piccope. 
C. G. Clarke. 
James Marshall. 
Narabhot, D. a C. 

Pestonjee Dhunjeebhoy. 

Dhunjeebhoy Dossabhoy. 

Dadabhoy Sorabjee. 
Nessbrvab JEK Byramjbk Fackberaje 

Nesserwanjee Framjee. 

Aspendearjee Tamoojee. 
Nbwman, Edward (auctioneer.) Hong, 
NicoL, William M. Hongkong, 
NoLDFORTH, C G. HoRgkong. 
\ooR M.\hombt Dhatoobhoy. 
Nusserwanjse Cama, p. &. D. 

Pestonjee Nowrojee Poochajee. 

Dorabjee Nesserwanjee Cam. 

Hormusjee Messerwanjee Pooc 
Nyb, T'arkiw & Co. 

Gidt^on Nyp, Jr. {ahsejit). 

William W. Parkin 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


List of Commrrcial Houses ^ Agents^ S^c, 

dement O. Nye. 

Thutnas 9. H. fij%» 
Henry M. Olmsted. 
Timothy J. Durrell. 
J. Kreyhenagen. 
J. P. Van Loffelt. 
J. de Encarna^ao. 


C. W. King, {deceased), 
W. H. Morsa, (MbstfU,) 
A. A.Ritchie. 
Jamea A. Bancker. 

F. A. King. 

R. H. Douglaaa. 

D. O. King. 
OaiBNTAL Baxk, Uonffkong. 

8. J. D. Campbell, ^Manager.) 
James Sinclair, (Accountant ) 
James MacEwen, (Dep. Acct.) 
Archd. Dunlop, do. 

F. J. Augier. 

Joee M. de Noronha. 
OswiLD, R. ^ Co., Hongkong^ 
Richard Oswald. 

Henry Lind. 

P. Marcuasen. 
Patullo, S. E. 
Pestonjkc, D. die M. 

Dadabhoy Pestonjee. 
Manockjee Pestonjee. 
Manoekjee Cowasjee. 
PnroHJti FaAMJR Cama dt Co. 
Manackjee Nanabhoy. 
Ruatomjee Framiee. 
Bomaajee Mancner|ee. 
Limjeebhoy JamMijee. 
Cowasiee Peatonjee. 
Pestomjkk Rvstomjbb Huckihjbb. 
PnTOMJKK CuasKTjaK Jam. Modt. 
Hormoajee Pealonjee. 
Jamsetjee Cursetjee. 
Phillips Mooaa dt Co., Hongkong^ 
J. Phillipa, 

£. Cohen. 

J. Samson. 

A. Lewis, Shanghai^ 

T. J. Birdseye, ShAngh&iy 
Rawlb, Duos <r Co., Hongkong^ 
S. B. Rawle. 
N. Duus. 

William Hay. 

John Willaume. 

F. T. Derkheim 

I. P. Pereira. 

J. A. de Jesos. 
Rathbowrs Worthiwoton &l Co. 
William Rathbone, Jr. Eng. 
S. G. Rathbone, ahgent. 
Jaiiios Worlhinglon 
Tilo^na^ Monr.rriff. 

F. Duval. 
C Mnltby. 
D. P. Simoena. 
Rbtrtaax dt Co., Mucao^ 
H. O. Reynvaan. 
RiPLET, Smith Sl Co. 

Philipa W. Ripley. 
H. H. Smith. 
CapUin T. Smith. 


RoasBLL Sl Co. 

Warren Delano, jr. 
Paul 8. Forbes. 
D. N. Spooner. 
J. T. Oilman. 
Edward Delano. 
W. H. King. 

George Perkinc. 

S. J. Hallam. 

W. P. Pierce. 

£. A. Low. 

Robert 8. Stargia. 

F. Reiche. 

F. A. HiUard. 

8. Rangel. 

Q. da Silva. 

P. J. Loureiro, jr. 
ROSTOMJEB dt Co., D. dk M. 

Dadabhoy Ruatomjee, (mb.) 
Manetkjee Ruatomjee, (ah.) 
Merwanjee Jejeebhojr, (ok.) 
Dhunjeebhoy Byramjee. 
Dadabhoy Byramjee. 
Jamoojee Nuaserwanjee. 
Curaetjee Dhunjeebhoy. 
Nuaaerwanjee DhunjeeblMy. 
Jamaetjee Kduljee. 
Monefaevjiee £<m|be. 
Dadabhoy Hosuniee. 
Nuaaerwanjee Pallunjee Patell. 
Fortunate T. Marquea. 


Peatonjee Hormusjee Camtfjer. 
RuttoifBe HoRnuaiee Camajee. 
Boffabjee rramjer CracavK 
Monockjee Coot^rjee. 
Ryaic, Jahbl, 
Sassooic, Eliaoo D. 

Moses Dahood*. 
A. d'Miranda. 
Scott, William, & Co., Hongkong^ 
William Scott, 
A<dam Scott. 

Candido Gutierrea; 
Sbarb, Benjamin, 
Shatuchskaw Rustomjeb. 
Smith <Sl Brimelow, Hongkong. 
James Smith. 
Jameti Brituelow. 

JoAoph Thomas Glew. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C-ohniai Oovtrnmfnt of Uwglcottg, 


Smith, John, Marao. 

M. de Sotiu. 

Braz de Almeida. 

Onorio M''ir9al. 
Spriko, F. Hongktmg. 

Sanbarton TeniuL 
Stkwart, PATatcic, Maiao^ 
Strachah, O. Hongkong. 
Straciiak, R. Hongkong, 


Sword db Co.^ Johk D. 
John D. Sword. 
John B. Trott. 

Edward Canninf^ham. 
Thomas, Riplkt 6l Co., Hongkong^ 
Thomas Ripley Liverpool, 
Charles Shaw. 

R. P. Saul. 
J. H. Winch. 
J. Bland. 
J. Loinax. 
Q. A. Gatierres. 
Thomsoh a Co., Hsic at 
I'lBRs, Boorkb Sl Co. 
C. a Tiers. 
H F. Bourne. 
R. P. de Silver. 
TowHSKND, Jr. p. (auctioneer), Hong, 
TuRNKa Sl Co. Hongkong and Cnnton^ 
William Thompson, EngUnd. 
Thom. W. L. Mackeau, „ 
Patrick Dudgeon, 
John Stewart 

A. McCulloeh, SKongkai. 
John H. Cannan. 
Duncan J. Kaj. 
Craven Wilson, Skdngkii 
R. Laing. 
E. H. Levin. 
A. Small. 
W. Walkiushaw. 

R. N. Snow. 
J. de Jesns. 

^VATHOf, T. Bos WALL, M. D. 

fU;.mael Welmore, Jr. 
Natlianiel Kinsman. 
William Moore. 

Q. H. Lampson. 
Stephen T. Baldwin. 
Joseph C. AnthoB. 
William H. Oilman. 
J. C. Rogers. 
Florencio Onlierres. 
Arnaldo Botelho. 
Wblch dt Stockbr, Hongkong^ 
D. Barnard. 
H. Tyndale. 
WoLcoTT, Batrs a, Co., Skingkn^ 
Henry Griswold Woleott, 
Edwards Whipple Bates, 
John Hetherington, 
Vajc Baskl, M. J. Sbhr, 
L. Wysmpn, 
W. T. H. Van Ryck, 
A. T. Tromp, 
D. T. Bulsing, 
T. B. Rodrigues, 
VamdeR Buro Romswinckkl dkCo. 
P. Tiedeman, Jr. 

L. C. Delmarle, (cAifsitf). 
F. H. Tiedeman. 
Vavchkr, Edwaro, 
Vkysky dL Co. 

James Veyscy, 

Joliu.H O. Peiver. 
Victoria Dispbnsart, Hongkong^ Mne 
Thomas Hunter. 
George K. Barton. 
John Onaya. 
M. Roaasiu. 
Jose Lead. 

Ehtablishmbnt of H. B. M.'s Ministek Plknipotbniary and 

CifiRF SuPERinTKffDKnT 0t Britikh Tr;io£ in China. 

At Hongkong. 
His Excellency, Sir John Francis I H. M. Plenipotentiary and Chief 
Davit, Bart., &c., &c., &c. ( Superintendent of British Trade. 
Alexander R. Johnston, Esq. Secretary. (Absent.) 

Adam W. Elmslie, Esq. 
Rev. Charles Gutzlaflf, 
Martin C. Morrison, Esq. 
Alexander Bird, Esq. 

Officiating Secretary. 
Chinese Secretary. 
Assistant Secretary. 
Acting Chief Assistaut. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. CoUnial Oorenimenf of f/atigLu/i^^. 9 

Mr. William Connor, • / . . , 

Mr. Horace Oakley, ] A«"st»"ls- 

Mr. William Nicol, Acting Assistant. 

//. B. MccjrMys (hrtsulaiv at Canton: 
Francis C. Macgrrgor, Esq. Consul. 

Richard Belgrave Jackson. £.sq. Vice-consul. 
Thomas Mayor Meadows, E.sq. Interpreter. 

Mr. John Backhou.^e, Senior Assistant. 

Mr. Edward Fry Giles, Junior Assist<int. 

N. de St. Croix, Esq. Consular Agent Wharapoa. 

H, B, 3Iajc<iti/s Cumulate at Amoy. 
Templr Billiard Laytox, E:iq. Ofliciating Consul. 
George G. Sullivan, Esq. Vice-consul. 

R. Gingell, Esq. Acting Interpreter. 

Mr. F. L. HerTsl^tt, Actincr Senior Assistant. 

Ju. r r Assi.stant and Medical At- 

Mr. C. A. Winchester, | 


//. B. Majesty* $ Consulate at Fuchaufii, 
Rutherford Alcock, Esq, Consul. 


Harry S. Parkcs, Interpreter. 

Mr. James T. Walker, ScMiior Assistant. 

Mr. Ch. Tyrrell Watkins, Junior Assistant. 

//. B. Majesty's Consulate at JS'ingpo. 
Robert Thom, Esq Consul. 

C. A. Sinclair, Esq. Acting Interpreter. 

Mr. Patrick Hague, Senior A^bi-stuiit 

JI. B. iVajrsfj/s Consulate at Shdughai. 

Capt. Gkork Balfocr Mad. Art. Consul. 

Daniel Brooke Robertson, Esq. Vice-consul. 

Walter Henry Medhurst, jr. Esq: Intcrpi-elrr. 

Mr. Frederick Howe Hale, Senior Assist, and Mod. Attend. 

Mr. Frederick Harvey, Second Assislanf. 

Mr. F. Robertson, Acting Junior Assistant. 


M. DF. Lagrf.nk, Minister Plmipotentiary, tVr. 

M. Le Marquia dc F. fc Vnyor, ^ . , ^ . ^ - ^. 

Mr f* . 4 ij . ' i^'in tarns of Isenatiou. 

. Le Cunipt dc Harcourl, \ .' » 

N. B. H. K. and ."•lili- nxv abcur to rctnin to Franco, having accoi«plir.h*»rt 
r.lic objocU of the Mns;ii(in 

VOL. XV. NO. I i 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


French and Chinese. Commercial Treaft/, 


Hon. Alf.\'Anf»kr H. Everbtt, Cnmmissvmer, (ab.) 

CoinnHxlore Biddic, Adiiig CoMMtssioner^ 

Rev. Peter Parker, m. d. Secretary S^ Chinese Interpreter. 

C. F. LiiJEVALcii, Commissioner, 


Paul S. Forbes, esq. 
Henry Wolcott, esq. 

U. S. A, Consnf, Canton. 

U. S. A. Vicc'Con., Shanghai and Ningpo. 

31. J. Senn Van Basel, Netherlands ihnsuL 


H. E. Joz<^ Greworio Pcgado, Governor. 

Jonquim A. dc Moracs Carneiro, Jtidfre. 

Frnncisco de Assis Fernandes, SuhstiftUe to the Judge. 

D. Geroniino Pereira de Matta, Bishop. 

Anr. FT. Treaty brtirren his Mqjrffy Kin^^ of JWnrh and the 
EiftfHTor of China^ signed in the French and Chinese Ian- 
ffifofffs. Ilw:'inffpi't, Oct. 54/A, 1R41. 

Lo »rr.atnl iMiipiro do (^hinc of \e irrnnd oinpiri* «li» Frnnrr .iy:int f»n dep»i« 
loiirrlniips «l«'!« coinrnprQC et dr» nnvi<rntinn^ \o trrnnd Kmprroiir dn ffrnnd 
rmpirr do ('hinr ; ol \o grand Ktiiporoiir «iu irrnnd oinpirr do Franoo out 
ponso a roiidro «oa rftfation* roifulicTo«, ot a on favoriser lo dovclcppomcnt 
j u f«rj u ' n por po tn i to . 

A oos cnusoR, los prands Emperonrs do« donx^royanmos ont d^tormino do 
conoluro do onnimnn accord un trailA d'amiti6 de commorcc ot do navigation, 
profoiidriiiont ot solidoinont fondo aiir lo« int^rf'ts nmtnola. 

C'oi^t pnurqnoi los doux otnpiros ont spocialcmcnt dcU'gu6 dcs plonipoton- 
tiairofi rospeotifs poor traitipr Tos affairos. 

Lo irrand Bmporetir dn umnd empiro d(* Chino a d^l^iju^ RV, 8«^na-prfcopf- 
our dn princo imperial, nn dos pr6!iidonH du consoil t\o la irnorre, gouvernour- 
grnf'ral'dos dnox fJuHn^ ot mombr^ de la fnmillo imi>orialo; 

Et lo ffrand Emporeur dU srrand omplro do Franco a dolrgno Jinprono 
r.oinmo miniKtre plonipotontiairc ot onvf»y^ oxtrnordinairo ; 

fiOsqnols s'otant montro mutiionomont lours pouvoirs, ol, vitrification faito, 
JOS «yant tronvofl en bonne et duo formo, sont convcnus dcs articles snivans 
ot los ont arr'^tr?. 

.\otc. The thrrr in Chinrsr atistrrr/np tn fkr term French^ for 
f^nvcninicf. in printing y a rti rrprescnted by three pcrpenAicufar ttroKt^. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


French and Chinese Vommrrritd Treaty. 




5'j j^ 1 ^ t ffi a ^ f. •« it i 


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French cummercial regulations fob the fivk Pokts: 
in tiiirty-fivk articles. 

Art. lor. Dor6navant rEinpereur du grand Empire dc France et rEmpor- 
cur du grand empire de Chine, ainsi que kfl sujeU des ileux empires, soruni 
unis par une amiti6 perp6tueI1e, sans distinelioo dc iiersonnes uu de localiles. 
Tousjouiront d*une protoclion pleine et eaiidre pour leurs propridt^s aussi 
bien que pour leurs persounes. 

Art. II. Dor^navant tout Fran^aia pourra sc transporter avcc sa fainille 
dans les cinq ports de Canton, EmouT, FuClieu, N'.m Fo Hdn-Hdii, pour y r?8i- 
der et commercer en toute security., saus eutravcs ni restrictions. Tout navire 
Iran^ais pourra, suiyapt que bou lui semblera, mouiller dans les cinq ports, 
aller et venir pour y faire le cniomerce. Mais il est clairoment iuterdit de 
pf'nrtrer et de commereer dans d'autres ports dc Chine, cumuie aussi de fairo 
sur les c5l?8 des vtntes ou dcs ;ichats claudeslins. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

i-2 fSrnuk and (7hi9r^ Ctmrnrrri^l IVfafy. Jan. 

3i •r 1 1 1* It- 1 1 ^ji -^ ii t ^ 

^ «E I la ^^ ^E JIM # ^ A 15c fi 

A *ii li r^ :4^ ^ ^ A m ^ ff ^1 iin 

1 9 M ^ # '^ 4' /F- 3£ ;{fMa ^ t 

^ M ® I 5S f r- 1 I ^ ^ t )^ 

S'il y avail dcs infractions h cct article, la cargaison dc ces navires pourra 
^trc confisquec au profit du grouvornemcnt chinois, sauf Ips exceptions claire- 
mcnt tns6rL'es dans Tarticle 30. Mais Ics aiitoritcs locales qui aurout saisi 
CCS marchandiscs dcvront, avant dVn prononcor la confiscation, en avertir 
proroptemcnt \e. consul francdis du port Ic plus voisin. 

Art. III. l-.e8 propriMcs dc toutc nature que los Francdis auront dans Ics 
cinq ports nc pourront otrc ni nialtraitccs iii violrcs par les Chinois. Los 
autorit^s chinoisos ne pourront pas non plus, quoi qu'il arrive, frapper dc 
requisition ou prendre par force les navires francais, pour quclque service 
public ou priv6 que cc pui^^c ctrc. 

Art. IV. L'Kinpcrcur du grand empire dc France pourra, suivant son hon 
plaisir, nomni6r dcs consuls ou ai^ens consul.aires dans Ics cinq ports dc la 
Chine ouvcrts au commerce, pour y traitor los nffaircs relatives aux noffo- 
i;'ianB, el vciller a c« que les rf'Sflenicns soh-nt Ktriclemfnt phsorvrs. Loj* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Frmrh anil (Jliinrsf Commirr.ial Trraly. 


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ife^ff lit 
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IP g ^ ^ ^1 

autoritffl chinoises de Tendroit Iraiteront ce consul ou Agent congul&ire &vee 
tou9 lea fgards qui lui sont dus, et dans leurs communications officielles ils 
sttivront une parfaitc egalit^. 

Si les consuls ou agens consulnircs avaient quclque sujet de plainte, ils en 
feront part au surintendant des cinq ports, ou, i. son d^faut, d Tautorit^ su- 
p6rieure de la province, afin qu'il examine mfirement et decide lachose aycc 
justice et equity. En cas que le consul ou agent consulaire ft^t absent, les 
r.apitaines et negocians fran^ais pourront charger le consul d'un royaum«* 
dt* g6rer leurs aflfaircs, ou, si cela n>tait pas praticable, ils s'adresseront 
directemmt et clairemcnt au chef de la douane, leqnel ayisera aux moyens de 
bicn traiter ces affaires, et fera en sorte quo cos capitaines et n6gocians jouis- 
sent den avantages du present trait6. 

Art. V. L'Empercur des Frnnrais sera libre d'envoyer des navires de 
gum* dans \cn cinq portji pour y stntionner, niamtenir I'ordre parmi les mar- 
chands et niatelols, H fa ire eii sorii* que le runnul puisse exercer son autoritc; 


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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

14 French and Chinese Commercial Treaty. ixs. 

i?; 2S^ 31 ^:Ja ^ 1 Rg A tt ;K H ^ t 

^mn^\ T> W a«) H T^ ;t # ^ 1^ 

Les equipages des navirea 4e gyerre scront soumis il dee r6glemen8 qui obvier- 
ont aux inconveniena de toute nature qui pourraient survenir, et les comiuand- 
ans de ces navires recevront Torder de faire eji6cuter les dispositionii de Tart. 
23, relatif aux communications des navires avec la terre et d la police des 

Quant aux navires de guerre, il est clairement convenu et arr6te qu'ils ne 
paieront aucune esp^ce de droits. 

Aax. VI. Les Fran^ais qui commerceront dans les cinq ports paieront 
les droits d'imporUtion et d'e;cporUtion conform^mont au tarif annexe au 
pr6sent traite, sous le sccau et la signature des pl^nipotentiaircs des deux 
Empires. Ces droiU pe pourront etre augi»entes d lavenir, et il ne pourra 
non plus y avoir des surtaxes quelconques. 

I^s FranvaJB seront libres d importer, soit de France, soit de royaumcs 
(Grangers, et d'exporter, n'importe pour quel pays, toute marchandiHo qui, 
duns le Urif sigu^' maintcnant, nc se Irouvc pas etre I'objet do prohibition ou 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Frrnrli and Cliincst^ Vomimrckd Trcuff/. 


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^'ikmi^itm^^^^ ^^ M 1 M 

IJfc A K^ {g lag ♦&? 

f» ^if n$ * |5i 1 z 

dc nioiiopole. L<» gouverpment chinois no poiirra pas adonl<*r aw larif ile 
nouvpaux articlca do prohibition ou dc monopole. Si A Tavrnir oii voNlait 
apporlcr d<«8 modifications an tarif, on dcvra w consiiltor d'aUord uxor. U* 
fTouvcrncment iran<;ais, et Ics changcmcns ne pourront ctrc fails quapn's} 
rlrr touibi' d'accord. 

Quant an tirif et aux traitrs arn'les niaintcnarit, ou qni srpont hrrWn dnn« 
la Kuite, lea nc'gocinna, rt on ^oncral tons los KraricaiH, partont ot toojours, 
Horont traitfs c.oinmc la nation la pins favnriso?, san** q«J*il y ait a^iouno dif 
forenro ; ot si a I'avenir on faisi-iit des n-dnctions dans Ic tarif, los Pran^ais en 
jouiraiont 6galoinont. 

AuT. VII. LoK Marchandisos fran«jaisOH .7ni aiiront nrqnitti' los droits dan*, 
un drs cinq ports, suivant lo tarif ponrront otre t'rnnsporti'os dnns rint^rient 
par los niarrhands rhinois, ot paioront los droits do tninsil d'aprrs los roglo 
nions on viq[Uour mainlonant, satis qu'il soit ponnis do los frappor do snrtaxos. 
car lo tanx actucl dc ccs droita cat inodtTC , il nc faut pas qu'il soit ».uprrnc>!<.? 
h Tavomr. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

11> /'Vc/ecA md VkincM' i'tmmaclal Tratlt/. J.\n'. 

I ^ J3 iittip ^ I lai 

I /^»J IV S - M ^ Z I M'J fH 
a if )^^ I ^ ife 1 1^ t IS ^ ^ 

SBi dt^» agcQS de ill douanc ii'observalent paa cos articles divers, et exijrea- 
icnt dbs rMribuiionh iUfgiilcH, oiVprclevuient des droits plus cleves, ou les 
fois cbinoisc^s. 

Ani. VIM. Le torif (^iahW 6tanl jtiste ct coiivenable, il n y a plus de pre- 
texte a la cnntrebande, et il est A presumer que les nnvires uiarclmnds fraii- 
vais qui iroiit dnns les ciii<l ports lie se livreront a auccun de es nrtes chuides- 
tins. Si crp^ndant drs iiegociahs ou des navires faisaient la C(»ntrebaiide 
dans an des cinq jjorts, ou d^barquaiciit fraudulcuscnient des inarchandises 
prohibfc^s, toines' ces marcbondiaeH, n' impore leur nature ou lour val»!ur, 
Hcraieht saisies par les autorrtes locales et confisquf-os ou profit du ffouveriie- 
nient chinois. Et de plus raulorit6 chinojsc pourrait, si bon hii Kenibluil 
inlerdire au navire contrebandier rentr6p de la Chine, et le laire sorlir du port 
aussiiot aprfs la liquidation des son conipteH. 

AiiT. IX. La corporation privilegiee des iiiarrliandR h.inisl/»R, qui autrifoia 
^iwtait u Canton, ayant etc Ieg;aleincut suppriiuOe, les Kran(;ai;> ricront librcs 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

IB46. French and CUnese Commercial Treaiy. VT 

^nmtiii6f6»ftni»mt ii« 



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ft T> flat Will Jht#^«lfi 

fUni lei cinq porta, de tn&ter de rachtit et de la yenie des mmrohandises 
d'imporUtion on d 'exportation, avec tel Chinoia (Jiie bon leur aemblera, sans 
qa*on aoit oblige de recourir i Tinterrention de qui que ce aoit 

A TaTenir, il ne pourra pas y avoir d'autre Booi6l6 d individus qui en se coali- 
lant ezercent un monopole stir le comitteree. 

£n cas de contraTention A cette rftgle, le consul en pr^Tiendrait lea tutor 
it6s chinoises, qui ayiseraient auz mojens d^eztirpation. Mais lea fonction- 
naires de Tempire chinois devront a TaTance empecher oes coalitions, afin 
d*(loigner tout ce qui pourrait d^truire la libra concurrence dans le oommeroe. 

Art. X. Si A TaTenir des Chinois deriennent d4biteurs de capitainea on 
de n6gocians francais, et leur font ^prouTer des pertes, n'importe que ce aoit 
par fraude on autrament, les Francais ne pourront point Toir reoonrs A U soli- 
duit6 des hanistes snivant les anciena r^glemcns. Mais ils dront en faire part- 
au consul, qui en communication A Tautorite lucale ; et oelle-oi, apr^s ayoir, 
«zamin^ Taffairc, fera ses efforts pour cuntraindra les pscv^nus i satisfiure A< 
VOL. zv. NO. I. 3 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

18 tVcnch ami Chinese Commercial Treaty. Jan. 

91 S«^^lft^;L«?^fl + m* 

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Icum ongag^eniciM suivaut les lois. Mais si le di'bilur ne ])eut6tre retrouvi:, s'il 
ost en taillitr, s'il est mort, ou quo, son patrituoinc 6taiit (*piii86, il n*ait plus 
loH moyeus dc payur, les nrgocians fran^^ais ne pourront point appcter Ics 
.tutor! U'S en garantie. 

Si des Fran<;ai:j trnmpaient des Cliiuois, ou ne leur payaient pas les marchan- 
ilisos, le consul iVairyais s'effbrcera de la moinc muniere do r^intOgrcr Ics 
Chinois. Mais ceux-ci ne pourront point rendre le consul ou le ^uverncmcnt 
t'ran^ais rcsponsables. 

Art. XI. Tout navire franfjais arrivant dans le roisinage d'un des cinq 
oortB aura la faculte d'engager soi-meme un pilote povr se faire aussiOt con- 
iluire dans le port: "I lorsqu'aprrts AToir acquittu tous les droits il voudra niet!n» 
h la volie, le pilote devra iinmediatemcnt le conduire bors du port, sans que 
Toll puisse y apportcr des obHtacled ou du retard. 

Tout individu qui voudra r^trc pilote des navires fronrais pourra, »ur la prrs- 
t ritaliuii de trois cortificjts dc capitaiuctf de navire, ntrc design^ coinnie pilote Ic consul, suivan que cela se piutiquuit punr d'autres natiuutf. La tclributiou 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


French and Chinese Comnureial TVeat^. 


# A n M t i 

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dee pilotes sera 6quit&bleinent fiifee par lea consuls ou agens consulaires dans 
Ics cinq ports, en raison de la distance parcourue et des circonstances danger- 
eases qui se sont pr^scnt^s. 

Art. XII. Lorsque le pilote aura conduit dans l'int6rieur du port un bai- 
iment de commerce fran^^ais, le chef de la douane d616guera un ou doux de 
ses employ6s probes pour suivrc le navire et veiiler d ce qu'il ne rc commctte 
aucune fraude. Cesemploy6s monteront k bord du navire inarchand ou resteroiit 
dans leur propre bateau, suivant qu'ils le jugeront convenable. 

Lcnrs frais de solde et de nourriture aeront couveris par la douane chinoise, 
sans que Ton puissc rien exiger du capitaine ni du consignataire du navire * 
en cas de contravention k ce regkment, on punira la fautc d'apr6s les lois 
proportionnellemeut au monlant de Texaetion que Ton fera restituer en son 

Art. XIII. Lorsqu'uii navire fran^ais sera entrf daus un port, le capitaine, 
ou le subrocargue, ou le consignataire, devra, s'il n'y a pas dVmpechernont, 
prt'HCUter au consul les papiers du bord, Ic manifesto du navire, etc., dans Tes- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

86 F^emck*aiui Chinese Commercial Treaty. 3 An. 



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pace do yingi-quatre heure«. Dani les vingt-qaatre beures apr^a qu'il aura, 
re^u les papiers ds boi'd ei le nuLnifeate, le consul communtquera au chef de la 
douane use note d6taill^ expliovant clairement le nom du nayire, I'^tquipage, 
le tonnage et la. natnre des marchandiaes ; aprds quoi le chef de la douane 
dgltvrera imm^^diatement le permis d'ouyrir la cale. 

Si, par la n6gligcnce du eapiiaiae, les papiers du bord et le manifesie n*6tai- 
ent pas pr6saiU(*Ji ajii consul dans les qya^ante-huit heures qui suiyront I'entr^ 
du n&yire, chaque jour de retard ^ptrai^era wnejiixien^e de 50 piastres au profit 
du gouyernenient cbinois; uais le montant 4^ i'amejpde ne pourra pas d6passer 
200 piastres. 

Si, avant 4'»vo>r re^u le permis, le eapitaiae euyrait la cale de son propre 
mouyeipept, «i d6barquait des marchandises, oa infligerait une a nende de 500 
piastres, et les narcliandises d6barqu6e8 sejaint saisies au profit du gouver- 
uement cbinois. 

Art. XIV. Tout nayire fjran^ais enire dans un port, qui nVura pas encore 
re^u le permis de dibarquement dont il est parle A Tartide 16, pourra, dans 
Tcspacc de deux jours, sortir de ce ^>ouj: allcr dam un autre sans qu'il ait au- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

184G. FVenck and Ckineu Commercial Trtaty. 21 

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can droit de tonnage ou de doaane A payer danv le premier port, pQiaqii*il dem 
ensuite acquitter cet droita dans le port ou v^effectuera la rente de aea march- 

Aar. XV. Deux joura apr^ qu^un navire quelconque aera entr6 daua un 
port, il aura d pajrer lea droita de tonnage en leur entier, d^apr^s les regies 
suivantea : Tout navire jaugeant 150 tonneaux et au-dessai, paiera ciuq dizi^- 
mes de tafil par tonneau \ toute eap^ee de aurchargea que Ton perceyait autrefoia 
k rentr6e et d la aortie dea navirea lont compl6tement aupprim^ea, et on ne 
pourra paa en 6tablir d'autrea d I'avenir. 

Toutea lea foia que le paiement de cea droita aura lieu, le chef de la douane 
d^livrera un re^u ezpliquant dairement que lea droita de tonnage ont 6t4 ac- 
quitt6s. Si ce uavire va dans un autre port, lora de aon entr^ dana ce port, it 
aoumettra le re^u k la verification, et il ne lera plua n6ceiaaire qu'il paie lea 
droita une deuxieroe foia; car tout nayire fran^ais yenant en Chine d'un 
fOyaume Stranger ne devra payer les droita de tonnage qu'une aeule fois. 

Lea emharcations et les petita navires fran^ais de diffS^rentea eap^cea, pont^ 
et non pont^a, employ6s au tranaport des paaaagera, dea bagagea, dea Icttrcs, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

t22 French and Chinese G&mmercial Treaty, Jan: 

fi ^ A ^ ft ^ « )8& I w /h ^ ^ 

dcB comeBt'ibles ou de toute marchandise non sujette k payer des droits, seront 
g6.n6ralemcnl exempts dc payer les droits de tonnage. Si ces petits navires 
transportaient des marchandises, ils paieraient un dixi6me de taGl par tonueau, 
snivant le classement des, navires qai jaugent moins de 150 tonneaux. Si des 
n6.gocians fran^aient des navires ou des embarcations chinoises, its n'auraient 
aucan droit h. payer. 

AaT. XVI. Toutes les fois que des n^.gocians fran^ais auront des marchan- 
dises a debarquer ou a embarquer, iis devront auparavant remettre une note 
detaill6e de ces marchandises au consul, qui enverra imm6diatement un lin- 
guiste en pr6venir le chef de la douane; et celui-ci accordera de suite le per- 
mis de debarquer ou d'embarquer. Alors on verifiers les marchandises de la 
mant^re la plus convenable, afin que des deux c6t6s on n*6prouve aucune perte. 

Le negotiant fran^ais qui ne voudra pas assister luim^me & la v6rification 
des droits, appellera une personne exp6riment6e pour aller k sa place v^>rifi(*r 
les droits A payer, suivant son bon plaisr. Si aprds il y avait quelque reclama- 
tion, on n'en ticndrait plus aucun compte. 

Quant aux marchandises dont les droits sont fix^s ad valorem^ si les nrgocians 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fVnuh and Chinese ComfntrtnU Trmhf 


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no ptMivcnl pas tnmber d'accord avec Ics Chinoifi, on appollora de part et d'aa- 
(re deux on trois n^gocians, et apres un examon attenlif dos marchandiaes, on 
dot'*rmincra commc valcur lo prix lo plus clcvc qu'on en offrira. 

Toua les droits de douanc scront prrlcvf s sur Ice marchandises netles : oii 
dt>vra, pAr consequent, d6duirc les emballages et le^ contenans des inarchandisen 
Si lo ncgociant fran9ais ne peut pas tomber d'accord avec le chef de la dovanc 
sur le poida de Temballage de chaque article, on prendra qnelques uns de» colis 
en litige, on les p^sera d'abord brutn, ct on rctiend^a le chiffre obtenu ; on leu 
privera ensuite de leur enveloppe, /**» les pesera de nouvean et on prendra pour 
r«^glc la moyenne de ces p^.semens divers. 

Si lors de la v6rlfication on ne pouvait pas tomber d'accord, lea n6gocians 
fran«;.ii8 prieraient aussiiot le consul d'intervenir; le consul en donnerait avis 
inim^'diatoment au chef de la douane, el sc pla^ant au milieu des parties, iln 
sVlForceraient tous deux d'arrangcr la chose k Tamiable. Mais il faut que la 
reclamation ait lieu dans t'espace d*un jour, autrement on n'accordera pWs 
uucune intervention. 

Avant que la ronieslaliou nc soit tcnnincc par un arret, Ic chef de ladouauo 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


French and Chinese Gmmercial Treaijf- 


K^^IA 1 tttftHJPteSI^P 

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ne potirra porter ittr lea registres aucun des. dei chtffrei en liiige, de peur 
qu*apr^B ce ne soil Afficile de reioudre la chose avec mfir examen. 

&i\ arrivait que dfea ontrehandiset import^es eussent 6prouy6 dea ayariefl,on 
devra diminiKr leifdtb'ita proportiomiellement & la valeur dea marchandiies, et 
regie/ cela ayec juaticte et 6qtiiie comme ei-denus. 

Anr. XVII. Toift navire fran^ais entr6 dans un dea cinq porta, qui n*y 
d^barq^cra qu crne partie de sea marchandiaea, ne paiera lea droita que aur la 
quantity de maretroifdiaea d^barqu^s. Le reatant de aa cargaiaon, qu'il voud- 
rait pbfter dana un autre port pour Vy ven^te, ne paierait lea droita que dans 
ce dernier port. 

Dana le caa oxi dea Frsncaia, aprt^a avoir aicquUt6 lea droita des marchandiaea 
dana un port, d^aireraient lea transporter dana un autre et lea y vendre, its en 
avertiraient clairement le conaul, qoi en informertiit le chef de la douane, 
ct aprea qu'un examen attenlif dea marchandiaea aurait conataf qu*elles aont 
encore dana leur enveloppe originate, aana avoir 6te remu6ea, il aerait d^livrc 
one declaration atteatant clairement que cea marchandiaea ont d6j& pay 6 des 
4roita dana tel port. 

A l'*;poquc ou ile entreroni dana un autre port, lea ndgocians pruaenteront 

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French tutd Ounese Cvmmereial Trtaty. 


« ifr » ft It ir « A 5^ i M i# 




cette dftcUrttion an oonsol, qoi la soamettra an chef de la douane, et eeloi-ei 
paiera rezemption de droiti d^liyrera auMitftt an permts de d6barqtter lea mar- 
ehandiiet tans aoouna autrei fVais. Mait si, en T^rifiant les eolis, ou d^eouvrait 
de la fhiode on de la eontrebande» cet marchondisee aeraieot aatuea et coniitt- 
<|tt6ea au profit da ^oayeroemexit chinoie. 

Art. .XVIII. II est ^tabli de commtin accord qne les capitaines oa n^gocians 
fran^is paieront les droits d'importation an fur et k mesure qa'un dcbarquera 
les marehaodises, et ceox d'ezportation qu on les embarquera. 

Lorsqoe les droits de tonnage et de douane que doit pajer an navire fran^ais 
anront et6 entiirement aoqait&s, le chef de la doaane d6livrera an reQU gi^n6ra), 
sur la presentation et la Tirification duquel le consul rendra les papiers de bord 
et permettra de mettre A la voile. 

Le chef de la doaane d6tprintnera une on plusieurs maisons de change, qnt 
pourront leceyoir au nom du gouvf^rnement chinois I'argent que les Frnncaia 
anront k payer pour les droits ; et les ric^pissi^s que ces maisons de ohanga 
d^ltvreront, seront census d^livrf s par Ic goovernenient chinois. On pourra 
pajer les droits, soit en lingots, soitcn monnaies 6trangdr«s. Le chef de la 

VOL. XV. wo. 1. 4 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^0 tVenck and Chinat Cmnmercial TSrtaiy. Jau. 





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i^§«S^*t^#^5«i* ft 

douane, dc concert avec Te consul, ezaminera le change de la place et toutei 
les autrea circonstances-, et d^termiDera quelle est la yaleur relative de la mon- 
naie au 1 ingot. 

Art. XIX. Dana chaciin des cin^ port», le chef de la douane aura de- 
balances, des poids, la toise et le pied legauzdont il devra remettre deaemblas 
L>Ic8 au consulat pour y §tre conserves en d6pdt. Ces poids et ces mesures 
seront on tout conforroes k ceils de la douane de Canton, et chacun sera oiuni 
d'uni estampilie de cette mdme douane constatant Tidentit^. 

Tons les paieinens de droits'et autiBS enTera le gouTemement ehinois seront 
faits d'apres ces poids. S'il survenait des contestations sur Ic poids ou la me- 
sure des marchandises^ on prendraitces 6talona pour hase et pour servir d la 

Art XX. Aucun transbordement de noar^handises ne pourra dtre efTectu^, 
4 iiiuins qu'il n'ait 6t6 sp6cialement permis par I'autorite, ou s'il n'est absolu- 
ineiit indisp(>nsable. Dans le cas ovi il serait imposssible de retarder nn transbor- 
dement, It s nr.vocians devout en r^fl^rer claireinent au consul, et celui-ci don* 
nera un cerliticat sur le vu duquel le chef dc la douane perinettra le transbor- 
denuMit. Le cbef de la douane pourra toujours designer un de ses employes 
pour y a»sistcr. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


French and Ckitute Comrnercial Trtafi/. 



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8'i] 8*effisctiMut des tranibordemeu sans ftutorintion, Muf le cas oh des dan- 
flera imprevtts ne permetiraient paa de temporiter, let marehandiaet ainsi trans- 
bord^i seraient toutes oonfiiqu^es aa profit da gouTeraemeiii chinoii. 

Art. XXI. Tom capitaines ou n^goeiane frangaia |K>urroni, ■uiyant leur 
bon plaisir, louer touter espice d'allftfei et d'enbarcationfl, pour transporter 
des marcbandises ou des pasiagers. Le priz A ptJT^r P^"'' c^" embarcatioiis 
sera r6gU de concert par les parties, sans que rautorit6 coinoise ait d intervenlr, 

En cas de fraude on de disparition de oes alleges, I'autorit^ locale n'en sera 
pas responsable. 

Le nombre de ces embareations ue sera pas limits, et on ne pourra pas non 
plus en accorder le monopole ik qui que ce sott. On ne pourra pas non plus 
accorder k certains portefaix le priTiKge du transport des marcbandises a em- 
barqaer ou k d^barquer. 

Art. XXII. Tous les Fran^ais qui, suivant Tarticle 2, arrivcront dans un 
des cinq ports pour y habiter, n'importe quel que soit le nombre dos personner 
on la dur^e de leur stijour, pourront louer des raaisons et des magasins pour y 
d(poter des marcbandises, ou bien ils pourront affermer des terrains ct butir 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

39 French and. Chinese Commercial Treaty. Jaw 

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etA I SbBEtlAffifittt^Sl 

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Cttz-m^mes des maisons et des magasins. Lea Fran^ais pourront ^galement 
eonstruire de« ^glisea, des hdpitaaz, dea hospicea, dea 6oolea et dea cimeti^rcs. 
Lea aatorit68 locales, de concert ayec le consul, d^termincront lea quartiera 
lea plua conyenablea pour la liaidence des Franvata, et lea ondroita dana leaqnela 
povrront avoir lieu lea conatructiona. 

Le fcrmage dea terraina et le loyer dea maisona aeront r6gl6a de part et d'autrp 
entre lea partiea int^reaacea, et devront Atre r6gl6a conform^ment aux priz 

Lea aotorit^a chinoiaea emp^cheront lea gena du paya d'exiger dea prix trop 
#Iev6a, et Ic conaal fran^aia veillera auaai k ce quo aea nationauz n'uaent point 
de violence pour forcer lea loyera ou lea priz. Le nombre et r6tendue des 
maiaona ou dea terraina afTcct^a auz Fran^ais dana lea cinq porta ne aeront 
point reatreinta (^ de eortatnea limitea, maia bien auivajit lea nonvenancca et 
Irs beaoins des Fran^aia. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fVmeh and Chines* Commercial Treaty. 


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8i des Chinois yiolaient ou ddtraisaient des ^glises ou des cimeti^res fran^ais, 
les autorit^ locales lea puniraient B6T6rement suivant les lois. 

Art. XXIil. Tons lea Fran^aia r6eidena ou de paaaage dana an dea cinq 
porta pourront librement etrculer dana leur voiainagc imm^dtal, ct y raquer k 
leura occupationa journali^rea comme lee gena du paya. Maia ita ne pourront 
point, aoua pr6tezte de ae livrer h dea op6raiiona commercialea, d6paa8er lea 
limitea que le conaul et lea autorit^a chinoiaea auront fiz^ea do commun accord. 

Lea 6qatpagea ou autrea peraonnea appartenant nuz navirea mouill^a dana 
chacun dea porta ne pourront pas non plua d6pa88er cea limitea. Loraque lea 
matelota deacendront A terre, ila sernnt tenua de auivre hea reglcmona f tablia. 
Cea regiemena aeront arrdt^s par I'autorit^ consulaire, qui lea communiquera 
Auz autorit^a localea, afin d'obvier A ce que lea marina aient dea qucrrllca avec 
lea gena du paya. Si un Fran<:fti«, quel qu'il (Tit, controvrnait A crl article en 
d^paasant lea limitrs ou en p^n^trant au loin dnna I'intf rieur du paya, il iiorait 
loiaible A I'autoriae dt* rarrotofi maiu ellc dcvmit Ic livrer au consul fran^aia 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

30 FVench and Chinese Commercial TVtafjf. Jan. 

S ^ « t X 1^ 1^ |5c f'^ I T^ 

du port le port le plus yoiein qui le recevniit. Ni les aotorit^B ni le people 
chinois ne pourront frapper, blesser ou faire subir un mauvaifl traitement quel- 
conque auz Fran^ais ainsi arrftt^s, de pear de troubler la bonne harmonie qui 
doit ezisler entre lea deuz Empires. 

Art. XXIV. Les Fran9ai8 pourront, sutvant leur bon plaisir, engager dans 
lea cinq porta dea majordomea, dea linguiatea, dea 6crivaina, dea ouvriera, dea 
bateliers et dea domeatiquea. Ila pourront igalement engager dea lettr68 pour 
a'en foire enaeigner la langue ou tout autre dialecte chinoia, ainai que lea car- 
,ct^rea uaitds dana I'empire. Ila pourront 6galement ae faire aider pour dea 
travauz acientifiquea et litt6rairea de toute nature. 

Lea giLgea de eea dif^Srentea peraonnea aeront on fizca de commun accord 
par lea parties, ou d6termin^ ofBcieuaement k leur place par le conanl. Lea 
Fran^aia pourront dc mAme enaeigner auz Chinoia qui le deaireraiont la langue 
de leur pays ou dea paya ^trangera. Ila pourront auaai vendrt* toute eafx'ce do 
livrea fran^aia et acheter tontea aortea dp liyrca chinoia. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


French and Chinett Commercial Treaty. 


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XXV .Tout Fran^ais qui aura des plaintes ou des reclamatiens k faire eontre 
un Chinoi«, devra d'abord lea exposer clairement au consul, qui examinera at-* 
tentivement I'affaire, el fera see efforti pour I'arrangfir it Tamiable. Si un Chi- 
nois avail des plaintes k faire eontre un Fran9ais, le consul examinerait aussi la 
chose avec intferdt, et ticherail de Tarranger k I'amiable. Mais dans le cas oil 
il surviendrait des contesUlions que le consul ne pourrait pas arranger amiable- 
roent, celui-ci en donnerait communication- A Fautorit^ cbinoise, et ile r^unirai- 
ent leurs efforts pour arranger In chose suivant la justice et I'feqnitfe, aprds en 
avoir fait un mOr examen. 

Art. XXVI. Si k I'avenir des Fran^ais, dans les cinq ports, 6ptouvaient 
des dommages, des insultes ou-des vexations de la part des Clnnois, rautorit6 
locale prendra de suite des mesures rdpressivcs, et avisera aux moyens de 
prot6ger les Fran^ais. A plus forte raison, si des malfaiteurs ou une partie 
6garee de la population tentaient de piller, de d^truire ou d'incendier les 
maisons, les magasins, ou tout autre ^tablissement forme par des Fran^ais, 
Tautocit^ chinoise, soil au premier bruit qui lui en parviendrait, soil apr^s en. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

33 tVench and Ckimeie Omimerciai Treaig. J&ft. 


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avoir 6t6 avertie par le cousul, enverrait aoaaitdt la force arm^e pour diiaiper 
Tem^ute, ae saiair dea coapables et puntr •6v6rement lear crime suiyant lea 
loia ; libre ensuite 4 qui de droit de pourauivre le d6dommagement dea pertea 

Art. XXVII. Toutea lea foia qu^entre dea FraiiQaia et dea Chinols il 
a*^16vera dea rizea et dee qaerellea, et dana le caa oA au milieu de cea rizea, un 
ou pluaicura indi vidua aeraient bleaa^ ou tu6a, aoit par dea armea 4 feu, aott 
par d'autrea armea, lea Chinoia aeront arr^tea par I'autorit^ chinoiae qui lea 
ezaminera clairement et punira le crime auivant lea loia de Tempire. Quant 
aux Fran^aia, le conaul aviaera auz moyena de lea faire arrftter, a'emprcaaera 
d 'examiner clairement la choae, et fera en aorte que le criminel aoit puni auivant 
lea loia frnn^aisea. 

Quant au mode dont lea Crimea devront Stre punia, ce aera au gouvern- 
cmcni fran^aia A le determiner dans un tempa i venir. 

S'il y avait quelqu'autre circonatance non comprise dana le pr6acnt article 
on se guiderait d'apres cea m^mea principea, car il est 6tabli en loi que lea 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


l^rench and Chinese Commercial 'Prtaly. 





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Fran^a'iB qui coinmettront un crime on an dclitd&ns lea cinq ports, seront con- 
stammeiit r^g^ifi d'apr^s lea loia frati^aises; 

Art. XXVIII. Lea Frangaia demeurant dans lea cinq porta qui aurairnt dos 
difficultea ou dea conteataliona entre eux, reasortiront de I'autorit^ fraiivaise 
qui en jugera. Dans le caa ou des Fran^aia auraient dea contestations avec dea 
gena de pays etrangrers, Tautorito chinoise n'aura a a'en nieler en aucune fa^on. 

Quant aux navires qui se Irouveront dans lea cinq ports, I'autorit^ chinoise 
naura non plus aucune autoriic k exercer sur eux ; ce sera entierement k 
I'autorit^ fran^aiae et aux capitaines de ces navires qu'il appartrendra dc ii'gler 
les affaires qui Ics concernent. 

Art. XXIX. Dans le caa on des navires de commerce rran9ais aeratent 
attaques ou pilI6s par des pirates dans dos parages d^^pendant de la Chiue 
/'autorilp civile et lailitniro dn lion h plus voisin, d^s le moment quelle en aura 
conuaisaance, entrcprendni des poursuiLes diligentes pour operer 1 'arreatation 
dew coupabloa, ct loa puiiir suivanl Irs lois Les niarchandises voI6e«, n'importe 
d:iub qui'l lieu i'lk-» ui.«nt (le dcpoisn-s ou duns quclque 6tat quN-llea ae trouvent, 
.croiit tMituTeinciit ruiniieb uu co;ibuI, qui let* realituera d leura maltres Si. 

voj., XV NO. I 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

7W French tind ChitUst Cummefciol Treaty. 3aH. 

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dans la poursuile dos individus on ne peut pas d6couvirir fes coupables. ou que 
Ton nc pniR«.» rclronver lou8 les objets vol^a, les autoritfcs chinoises subiront 
la peine m"** ^'^ lo« 1^'"^ infligc, mais on ne poorra paa les pendre pccuniaireraenl 

Art. XXX. Tont nayire frati^ais faisHnf croisi^re poor la protection dos 
navires ninrcliands, sera re^u et trait6 en ami dans tons les porU de la Chine 
ou il so prrseutera. 

Cea naviros dc guerre an ront la faculty d'aclieter tons les objets de consom- 
mation journalicrc. S'ils avaient fait des avhries, ils pbwrraicnt acheter les 
inalcriaux nccessaires pour faire leuni r^'paratioi», sans qwom put y apporU-r 
aucun obstacle. Si par suite d'avaries, ou pour toute autre cause, des navins 
franrais de comuierce 6taient obliges de cherclier refu^^re dans quelque port que 
ce soit, ils seraient, (galeinent rfecus et traites en amis. 

Si lui navire franrais venait a' se perdre sur les c&t»^8 de Cliiisov I'aulorite 
locale, d( 8 quVlle en aurait connaissance, apporterait de suite dcs secours, 
founiimitanx besoinsjournaliersdfspersonnes, prendrait les meffun-s ncces- 
saircs pour sauvrr les dcbns du navire et preserver les uiarcbandises, et avert- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


French ami Chinese Commercial Treaty. 



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irait ensuite ofliciellemcnt ]e consul ou agent eonsulaire du port Ic plus voisin, 
lequel, de concert avec les autorit^s locales, avisera aux moycns dc rapatricr 
rCqiiipago et dc sauvcr les d6bris du navire et de la cargaison. 

Art. XXXI. Lorsque des matelots ou autres individus d6s<.Tteront des 
navin*H de guerre ou de commerce fran^ais, le consul ou Icca)Htaino du naviro 
on fora part d Tautorit^ locale, laquoUe fera ses efforts pour arrotcr les doserteurs, 
et les livrera ontre les mains du consul ou du eapitainc. 

Si des Chinois d6serteurs ou accuses de crimes se refugiaicnt dans des mais- 
ons fran^aises ou a bord de nairires marchands pour s'v cachcr, Tantorit^ locale 
en fera part au consul, lequel, apros que la culpability aura OU* clairvmeiit 
domontrce, prendra inim6diatement les mesures necessaires pour que cos indi- 
vidus soient remis entre les mains de Tautoritc chinoise. De part et d'autre il 
ne pourra y avoir le moindre recet ou connivence. 

Art. XXXII. Si A Tavenir la Chine venait i^ enlrer en guerre avec un 
royaume etranger, co ne sera pas uii obstacle pour la France d'y cominercer 
librentent ainsi qu'avec le royaume ennemi, sauflo caa on lo royaiime rnnenii 
uurail publiquement declare la cloture des ports, de inauiere a ce qu'on ne pdt 

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3S F^muh and Ckimest Commercial TVeaiy. Jan. 


^ m 'f' W 


ikit^MA I ^. I ^mm^ut 

p^mzmmi ^Y [ mm 


nti^nm^ [ -k \^t 





i^ia >i 


i*P 1 

M IR'P-mM^^^ K 

*l0r I 

^ [ ^^^m^mm^^ 

^t I 

^ I m tl^4»«fe^n3 


AA^M '^^ fflK^^ 

gP ^ 

m y entrer ni en sortir. Tout navire franfrais pourra aller ct venir des porta 
de Chine auz porta du royanme cnnemi, y importer pt en exporter touter sortrs 
de marchandises non prohibf^cs, sans rencontrer aucun obstacle ni difierence 
•ucHne du commerce ordinaire. 

^RT. XXX HI. Ot'iormais les autoritos et les fonctionnaires dcs deux em- 
pires traiteroQt, dans leurs cnrrespondances officielles, sur ]e pied d'une parfaite 
(•galit^, eu o^ard a rrl6vatioo de leur ran^ respeclif. 

Lra hauts functionnaires fraiK^-ais^ dans leOr corrcftpondance officielle avec 
les hauts fonctionnaires chinois de la capitals oai de dehors la capitale, se servir- 
ont de la formHlc : Dfpcche. Les autoritos franttaises dc second rang, dans lours 
d^.pdches oflTiciellos aux hautes autoritos chinoises des provinces, se serviront 
de la formule : JCxposf ; et les hautes autoriti'S chinoises, de la formule : Declara- 

I^es oflficiers en sous-ordre des deux empires cummuniqueront sur le pied do 
la plus pnrfait4» {»galite. 

Los ni'gooians ct toutps los porsonnos non revet ues d'nn caractrro officiol se 
■erviront de part et d'antre de la Jorniulo Rr^'trfspfitatio7i^ dans loulos Irs pieces 
oui seront rcci^rncjuenient adresst'CH 

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fVenck and Chinesr. Commercial IVeaty. 


n I 

Mi ( 

* P2lP 

^ :^ Q ^ 


* ^ & i'j 1^ « 

I s^ust 




t ^SiS 


^ &P JS ^^ 













Toutes les fois qu'un Fran^ais aura 4 recourir 4 raatorit6 locale, aa repr^ae- 
ntation deyra d'abord hire aoumiae au consal. Si le consul trouve qu'elle aoit 
fondle en raiaon et convenablement formula*, il la fera parvenir a aa destina- 
tion; dans Ic cas contraire, il la fera changer en mieuz on il la rendre. 

Les Chinois qui auraienl des rcpr^sentatir ..s 4 adresser au consul s'adres- 
•craient de m^me pr6alableroent aui autorit^s locales, lesquelles agiraicnt de 
la m^me mani6re. 

Art. XXXIV. Si 4 I'avenir le grand Empereur des Fran^ais avait des lettres 
da gouvernement A envoyer k la cuur de P6kin, I'autorit^ consulairc qui r6sid- 
era dans les ports devra transmettre cette d6p6che de gouvernement au sur- 
intcndant des cinq ports charge de la direction des relations ext{>rieures, ou A 
•on d6faut au vice-Roi de la province qui sera charg6 do le fairc parveiiir. Les 
d^p^ches qu'il y aura en r^ponse seront transmiMes de la rnoine man i 6 re. 

Art. XXXV. Si par la suite le grand £ni|iereur des Fran';ais jugeait con- 
venable d'apportor des modifications auz articles du pr6scnt traits, il pourra 
entamor de nouvelles n^gociations avec la Chine apr6s que douze ans se seront 
(•coul^s, ji partir du jour de Techange des ratifications de cc trait6. I^s trait/*:; 
ou r^glemens arr6t6s aves des nations 6trang6res, lesquels ne sc trouvcnt point 

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38 I^'ench and Chinese Catnmerctal IVeaty. Jan. 


^ 1 Jgl ^ n « 

I J5rf a n ^ 

mmm^ \ 

jtfc^ B ^^ 

zm ^ K \ 

=3^ ? It ± ^ 

I # @ ;7^ 1 

M ^- 1 1 ^ 

\ fi^m^'^j^m-^m 

\ ^ * 1^ * (* IE M -^r f t 

t-w ^n^ wl \ M^"^ 

H S'J ^ ^ t 

^ I il + + 

incluB dans le present traits, nc pourront point dtre rendus obligatoires pour 
les consuls ou agens consulaires fran^ais, non plus que pour leurs nationaux, 
tandis que tous les droits, privil6ges, immdnit6s et garanties dont les autres 
rojaumes jouissent ou pourront jouir, seront 6galementapplicableflaux Fran^ais. 

KoU. The Ckinege Jhr UuifoUotoing not being in our possession is omitted. 

Le pr6sent trait6 d'amiti^ de commerce et de navigation, tel qu'il aura 
6t6 arrets, sera rev6tu du sceau et de la signature des pl6nipotentiaires, 
lesquels le prcscnteront k leur £mpcreur rospectif, pour 6trc aussi revAtu 
du sceau et de la signature y et k dater de ce jour (le grand Empcreur du 
grand empire de France et le grand Empercur de grand empire de Chine, 
ayant tu et approuv6) se fera, dans Tintervalle d'un an, ou plus t6t, si c'est 
possible, Tibchange des ratifications k conserver. 

En foi de qpoi les hauts commissaires imp6riauz des deux empires ont appos6 
leurs sceux et leurs signatures au pr6sent trait6. 

Sign6 k Huan-Pu, k bord du nnvire k vapeur fran^ais de I'Etat VJirchimHe^ 
le I3e jour de la J)e lune de la 24e ann^c de Tao-Kuan, c'est-A-dire le 24e jour 
du mois d'octobre de I'annee 1844 apros la naissancc de J6sus-CIirist. 

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1845. (JfUhotie Religion in China. 39 

Art. III. Notices of ike Catholic religion in China, in a letter 
from the Rt. Rev. Joseph Rizzolati, vicar apostolic of Uu» 

[The followinj^ letter is dated Nov. 25di, 184% and w addressed *<to the 
very reverend father Joseph D*Alexandrie; ^ncral of the Franciscan." And 
liaving^ been read at a meetiirof off the Swcieiy for the Propapition of the 
Faith, held in St Patrick's charch, Sydney, was afterward ptlblished.] 

•* Very Revkrrno Father. It was with ine^rplicabl'e pleasure I 
received your kind letter of the 22d November, 184r How much we 
are encouraged in our labors in seeing all the intereist yoo bear our 
missions in China, in learning tliat new religions, anin>nted with 
your spirit, will soon come to share witli us* the weight and the con- 
solations of the apostolic ministry! 

" The field open to their zeal is vast indeed. Although my vica- 
riate is not so large as many others, it reckons more than evg'Meen 
thousand neophytes, scattered in' a hundred different congrcgatibns,- 
over a surface more extensive than Italy. Thus your Revek-ence 
could scarcely imagine what a load of etfibarr nssments is attached to' 
the exercise of my functions. If I dared to keep a priest with me, 
to divide with him a part of the affairs, I coirid breathe a* little under 
the burden that overwhelms me; but it would be taking him from tiie 
wants of the mission, and my conscience would reproach me for any 
alleviation in my toil which would be purchased to the detriment of 
souls. My priests, besides, are so few, and separated by such great* 
distances, that I see them but once or twice a year, wFien T assemble 
them to unite altogether in the exercises of a commbn retreat. 

"In the midst of such multiplied occupations how could 1 corres- 
pond with the desire expressed by your Reverence, of writing a worl 
on the state of our missions and the religious systems of Chine 
Several months* study and leisure would scarcely be sufficient for it. 
I shall, however, obey you. as a son his father; I shall ck> according 
to the measure of my time aiwl* strength, reserving myself to return 
Jit a future time, with more ample development,- to the imperfect out- 
line I am going to sketch. 

" And first, I must say, that this year hos been*A)r me only a series 
of sicknesses, exj)enBts, and pcr^secutionij. Amongst other attacks on' 
my health, have had the cholera-morbus, and I should' have died with- 
in twenty-four hours if it had not been taken in time by a good^ 
physician. The most usuul and easy treatment employed here tuar« 

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4() Catholic Rdigion in China. Jan. 

vest its progress is the following : — it is that which has been practised 
on me — the tongue is covered with punctures from a table-knife or 
blade of glass, iii order to provoke abundant bleeding. Then, whilst 
bome stretch with force the principal nerves, others beat the bre.tit, 
back, thighs, and loins, until there gush from them streams of blood. 
When the crisis is passed the patient remains some days with his 
m^ars, contusions, and his skin as black as any negro's. I wan scarce- 
ly recovered from mine when I had to fly before the satellites of 
government. I was straying like a wanderer from city to city, not 
daring even to knock at the door of the Christians, lest I shoud be 
surprised ; if I stopped an instant, it was less to take a moment's rest 
than to spy in what direction was running the pack in pursuit of me. 
It had nearly overtaken me more than once; and now again the 
offis^ers are directing an active search afler me, because I have 
been personally pointed out to them as a great chief of religion in 
this country. 

''The cause of these vexations is the foundation of a college 
which I had resolved to build at Pei-kien sh&n, formerly a safe village, 
where we could freely preach without having anything to fear from 
the pagJtns. It is not they — it is a false brother who has betrayed 
me. But, by a just chastisement, he has been the first and most 
unfortunate victim of his own denunciation. Imprisoned with five 
other Christians and a catechumen, he alone has been cruelly beaten 
on account of his incoherent answers to the officers. When I 
was accused by this Judas, I had already collected all the materials 
necessary for the projected building. Since the works are suspend- 
ed, without hope of ever being resumed : the first expenses, about 
five hundred Roman crowns, are likewise lost. The furniture, 
clothes, and books of the students have become the sattellites, and 
my poor young lads have been rudely dispersed. Oh ! how much 
dilficulty have I had to find a shelter ! How I still .suffer to see them 
associated to my tribulations ! for wherever I drag my proscribed 
existence, I carry with me my little traveling college. 

"The above is enough, I think, to enable you to appreciate our 
Fituation. It may be summed up in a few words. The wounds of 
the last persecution are not yet healed ; terror is the order of the 
day amongst our Christians; in place of liberty of conscience, which 
we hoped to see stipulated by England, ?is a condition of the treaty 
tif peace, we continue under the weight of ancient eilicts, ami have, 
H.S during the past, no other prospect than exile, tortures, and death. 

"J pass to your second quetition, which concerns^ the Chinnse 

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184G. Cai/wlk Religion in China. 41 

mythology. The religion of the empire is, as every one knows, 
idolatry, quite as gross as that of the ancient world. Its gods are 
almost innumerable. Some are entirely fahulous; otViers, and in a 
number, ha?e really existed in the first ages of the monarchy ; these 
were the inventors of arts, the musters of ancient wisdom, the legis- 
lating or conquering kings; they were also celebrated men and 
women, who raised themselves, by their virtues or vices, their cruel- 
ty or extravagance, to the apotheosis. 

** If I were to give you the complete nomenclature of all these 
gods, with an abridgment of their most curious adventures, I should 
soon fill large columns ; for this wonderful chronicle has no other 
foundation and rules than the delirious imagination of a crowd of 
priests, charlatans, and sorcerers, who pay with the ignorance of the 
people, by making experiments on their credulity. I will cite 
amongst the most known of these divinities Pwwnku, who introduced 
order into chaos, by separating heaven from earth ; Yen-nang, who 
judges the dead and who presides over the transmigration of souls ; 
Yen-wan, sovereign of hell; Tien-kuen, master of heaven; Lui- 
sh in, god of thunder and thunder bolts ; Lau-kiun principal arbiter 
of battles; Confucius, or Kung futsz', king of wisdom; Li^i-shai- 
shin, the regulator of commerce and the disposer of fortunes; Min* 
kiun, the guardian of the fire-side; Chang-hwan, the tutelary 
genius of cities; Ma-wan, in fine, the friend of sheperds, and the 
protector of flocks. 

" Besides the genera! gods, each family, each trade, each coiidi- 
tioR has its particular idols, which, in a more restricted sphere, 
exercise a definite influence, ancl correspond to special interests and 
the necessities of circumstances. For example, in times of drou;^ht, 
the god of waters is addressed, that he mny open the clouds ; niid 
if the rain does not come after several days' invocation and prayers, 
after the burning of a greit deal of incense and superstitious paper, 
recourse is had to ins>ilt; 'thou art a robber,' they will say; 'give 
ux wh it we ask thee, or return whit we offered thee. Thy vanity 
takes pleasure in our homige; it is for that thou wilt have us pray 
thee 80 much. But, dost thou see, the suppliants have now a stick 

in their hands; niike it rain or else .' And thereupon the 

divinity is remorselessly cudgelled. 

"As for the domestic gi)ds, the thing is still more curious. When 
the affairs go wrong, or a misfortune happens to the family, the ugly 
fellow bears the penalty; his ca'He is soon decided ; he is deposed 
trom his pedestal —he is declared to have lout his honors— he is. 

V'JL. XV. .NO. i. G 

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i^X Vaihoiir Reltgiun in China. JaK. 

lK\ni^llo^l \\\ !»iMnr Irmplc n» to a depository of idle, worthless gods; 
i\nii \\ i<t <*i:r<*il^^*^ ^^^ ^*^'*^ nearly in these terms, that the divorce is 
\MMnpl«M»><l . -' \Vr h«vo heen adoring thee for so m«iny years; we 
\\\\y^ hninni( iM'lorti thy niter so many pounds of incense; we have 
ih'uKHo thot^ dally nuch a numher of prostrations ; the expense we 
\\\\\' )Mi|t«Mod upon ourselves to please thee is enormous, and, never- 
tlu Ir^i, \\\y worsihip has not rendered to us a cash. Know, then, 
\\\\\ wo \\\^ longer oxpect anythintr from thee, and that we lience- 
Imlh roiuMMicc thy favors. Find, if though canst, such devoted 
ndnriM'H; nN for us wc are going to seek for more generous divinities. 
lloWDVor, to (piit as good friends, we offer thee a final homage.' At 
lh()Ht) words all the family prostrate their heads to the ground, and 
iliiiH lornnunto the farewell. 

*• 1 should here make the important remark, that in spite of their 
potythoism, the Chinese have the custom of exchanging in great 
perils, • Lau Tien LI! which si^rnifies, () great Lord, help us ! or 
•*I.Me, () ancient heaven help us! an expression which we have for- 
bidden our Christians to make use of, because it is ambiguous, hut 
which does not the less prove that the idea of a Supreme Being is 
vni;ravcd on the heart of the pagans, and that the voice of their 
con.scieucc, that cry of a naturally Christian soul, protests, in spite 
uf them, atriiu^t the plurality of their useless idols. 

" In all pn»viiifos throus^h which [ have hitherto traversed, the 
gentiles admit uH'tenipsychosis, or the transmigration of souls. From 
this ht'lirf several otht^r sects are chirived, which rival each other in 
ahsurdilies. S uni* c<mvinced that the soul cf their ancestors has 
p:is>od into the hoily of soiiie aninvds. interdict to themselves meat, 
fi-ih, and cvv-irythiiiir that has life, fir fear of impressing on their pro- 
genitors a |)<irricid.\l tooth; olh?r>, in Iln-kwang in particular, 
i n'i:rine each individual has three souls, of which one reposes 
in the depth of the tomb, another receives the sacrifices offered for 
the liviniT, and the third pursues the course of its migrations. This 
slnn^je opinion is so spread, that I hivo had to combat it in my 
catechism for the use of the Christians of this vicariate. 

"The piiT.iiis of the eighteen provinces, of which this immense 
t»;npire is coinp^vsod, all, without excoplion, adore their deceased 
|i.iretits coaformaUly to the prescriptions of the Uw, and the uiiaiii- 
Hii>us teachinir of the SM^es, It is there that lies the prejudice which 
l..i> the deep. SI roots in the minels of the Chinese, because it is in- 
I iilealed on them from infancy — because in their chs^ic Wwks they 
IhmI this iK)Clrine ^anelioiiod by the uulhurily of the gravuNi au- 

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1846. VathoHc Religion m China. 4'\ 


thors; and, aiiless they are willing to pass for unnatural children, 
they are bound to believe that their deceased parents are metJimor- 
phosed into so many gods. Hence this multitude of daily sacrifices, 
those prostrations, the incense, the superstitious paper, which they 
offer at the domestic hearth; hence those wonderful legends and 
absurd fables which they emulously invent, for the greater glory of 
those whom they have lost. In several districts of Shan-si and Shen- 
si, towards the confines of the great wall, as also in some villages of 
the province of Peking, there are certain personages known under 
the strange title of I-hwuh-fu, or incarnate gods, which arc adored 
even during their life. These species of Lama — which species 
should rather be called devils incarnate, so much have they the 
genius and power of evil — free themselves with impunity from the 
most sacred duties, under the pretext tliat their apotheosis legalises 
their monstrous excesses ; and they do not the less exercise over the 
multitude, fascinated by their delusions, a sway quite as absolute 
as it is blind. 

" There are also other sects which decree worship to the firma- 
ment, the sun, the moon, planets, polar star, and even to certain 
demons. Dispense with my following them through the thousand 
ways of error into which the human mind plunges from darkness to 
darkness, when it is not guided by the supernatural light of faith. 
Such is, moreover, the confusion that re.^ult from all these supersti- 
tions endlessly multiplied, diversified according to the nature of the 
climates, the usages of the provinces, the interests of the professions, 
and the caprice of individuals, that, in speaking of the Chinese ido- 
latry, I dare affirm nothing universal; I return from pointing out 
any general characters. What is absolutely beyond doubt is that 
here the religious systems, taken together, are only a heap of con- 
tradictions, extravagances, and fables, more deserving of the pity 
than the study of a Christian. 

•* Besides the native religions, the Jewisli and Mussulman worship 
has been planted here. The followers of Mahommed are known under 
the name Ilwui-hwui kiau, or else Ki^u-mun. They are numerous, 
and reside principally in the provinces of Sh^in-si, Slien-si, Ilo-niin, 
and Hu-pih. As for the Jews, they form a less considerable popu- 
lation. They are called Ilwui-hwui Ku-ki'iu. Their rabbis are 
named "Aronniste or Aanouon." Here, as everywhere else, those 
strangers are the object of an instinctive and universal hatred. It 
is, no doubt, to escape public animadversion by dtminishinir tlien:- 
sclves, that they live as much as possible dispersed; for, in the pro- 

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44 Catk§G€ Rehgtm in Ournm. Jaw. 

vifices I hiTe above stated, joa would not fiod a ain^e Tillage 
entire! J co m poacd of Oebrewiw 

** The Chinese calendar ought always to be ehed when we speak 
of the religion of the empire, since it is ia some meaanire the con- 
pletioB of it It is regalaled bj the phases of the moon. Each daj 
of the jear b inscribed with its prognostic, which determines belbre- 
hand the lucky and unlucky days. On thooe that are marked with 
an unlucky sign, no pagan would dare to bury his dead, conclude a 
marriage, give a marriage feast, or undertake an affair of any impor* 
tance. I>i> not think that each one is free to interpret the future 
according to his pleasure, and to assign a good augury to the day of 
his choice. So, this kind of prophecy constitutes a monopoly here. 
All the calendars circulated in the provinces must agree, particular- 
ly on this capital point, with the imperial calendar of the court, the 
patent and sole regulator of the good and bad time. Woe to him 
who would infringe this law ! he would be punished in an exem- 
plary manner. It is only the priests of the sect of Lamas, called by 
the emperor to fullfii the functions of soothsayers, who have this 
singular privilege, in virtue of the prescience and gift of wisdom 
that they boast of having received from the gods. These priests are 
at present the favorites of the emperor, who consults them in all the 
affairs of state. 

" I shall terminate this long letter with a rapid glance at the man- 
ners and customs of China. They have for the most part their 
origin in the teaching of ancieut philosophers, at the head of which 
opinion has justly placed Confucius. The writiugs of this sage, as 
well as those of his principal disciples, are the mo8t accredited in 
the empire, and are looked upon by all his countrymen as so many 
oracles, come down from heaven to teach the road to happiness. But 
this way to felicity, what is it? All the Chinese doctors speak of it, 
and not one of them has known how to define it To know and 
interpret the works oi the philosophers, is an indispensable condi- 
tion to possess credit and enjoy estimation amongst the high classes ; 
but il is also to what is reduced the wisdom of a learned man. I 
have at this moment in my possession these books, so famous. I have 
read them again some few days back, and I have found them only a 
formless mass of assertions, without proofs; moral precepts, without 
connexion and without unity, of which the emptiness is concealed 
under rounded periods and a pompous style. It is incontestable for 
whoever j;;ives them an attentive reading that their authors have had 
a glimpse of the unity of God; but have spoken of it in so confused 

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1840. CathoKe Religion in China. 45 

a manner, and to many commentators have labored to obscure the 
sense of it, under the pretext of making it clear ; so many silly and 
strange reveries hare disfigured the primitive text that now their 
thought is not to be recognised even by the eye of a wise Chinese. 

** Ah the worship of traditions constitutes all the wisdom of letters — 
as immobility is the great policy of the state, gravity is the dominant 
character of the individuals. All their intercourse, even mercantile, 
b regulated by a minute ceremonial, which has determined even the 
form and color of the clothes. Three sorts of clothes are distinguish* 
ed : the ordinary dress, which is common to the rich and poor, and 
which differs only in the quality of the material, which is finer with 
the superior ranks; the dress of ceremony, reserved for solemn occa- 
sions, such as the renewing of the year, a marriage banquet, the birth 
of a son, 6lc., unless one be a mandarin, or a public officer of the 
tribunal, for then etiquette requires that he should lie always in full 
dress. In fine, the mourning dress, used at funerals, and the anni* 
versaries of deaths. It is of a white color. — It is worn for a longer 
or shorter period, according as the wearer is more or less near to the 
deceased. If it be full mourning, all the clothes ought to be made 
of, or covered with, white cloth, not even excepting the hat and shoes. 

"The military uniform is distinguished from the civil costume by 
a different shade, and a plate, with two letters impressed on it is worn 
on the breast and back, which designate to what branch the soldier 
belongs. Every mandarin, as well military as civil, wears equally 
before and behind, a dragon painted on his tunic, with a border of 
flowers, greater or smaller, more or less beautified, according to the 
dignity or personage. 

** I will pass by all the salutations, bows genuflexions, and prostra- 
tions, which are a vital affair for a Chinese, and conclude with a very 
afflicting thought for a Christian, above all for the heart of a bishop. 
In a country where all the demons have tlieir altars, all the dead a 
worship, all superstitions blind partizans, where each day new divini- 
ties are inaugurated by an imperial diploma, where the government 
praises everything, approves everything, the truth alone is captive, 
the innocent neophyte alone suffers persecution, the sovereign Lord 
and Father of this great family is alone a stranger, and proscribed 
amongst hht numerous children !" 

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46 Riot in Canton, Jan, 

Art. IV. Riot in Canton; proclamation allowing foreigners, to 

enter the city ; counter proclamations by the gentry and peo- 

pie; placard before the prefect's gate; demolition and burning 

of his office by the populace ; further proclamations from the 

high aut/iorities to quiet the people. 

While we write these lines the gentry and common people of this 

great metropolis are setting at naught all authority and threatening 

vengeance against their rulers in case they allow foreigners to enter 

the walls of the city. As yet there has been no bloodshed, but the 

prefect's offices and all things appertaining to them are in ashes. 

The principal occurrences of the two days, Thursday and Friday, 

the 15th and 16th inst., we will here give with the proclamations 

that have appeared. The following (No. 1,) which was issued on 

the 13th, will serve as a preface to the sequel. 

No. 1. 
** KiYiNo of the imperial house, governor-general of Kw^ngtung and 
Kwdngsi, a director of the Board of War, vice high chancellor and 
guardian of the heir apparent, minister and commissioner extraordin- 
ary, &c., and Hwang Ngantuno, a vice director of the Board of 
War, a member of the Censorate, governor of the province of 
Kwingtung, dLC, d6C.. give these instructive commands to the gen- 
try and people, in order that they, personating the imperial benevo- 
lence, may show forth tender affection (towards those who have 
come from afar). 

^'Canton is a general mart for the free traders of all foreign nations. 
During a period of more than two centuries, under the reign of our 
dynasty, foreigners have never entered the city. Hence of late 
years, when the English commissioners have repeatedly wished to 
deliberate on this subject, we have always directed the local officers 
to counsel and command the gentry and the people. But public 
sentiment, not according with this plan, it was stopped mid way. 

"Afterwards when the English commissioner referred to the former 
deliberations, we again consulted together on the subject, and issued 
our commands to the gentry and scholars, that the same might be 
by them communicated to the resident people. Directly aAerwards 
the gentry and scholars presented a memorial, numerously signed, 
statin;; that *' the resident people, both within and without the city, 

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Iw4(>- Riot in Canton. 47 

wore all alike iiinvilliiijr that foreigners sliuuld enter tlie walls,'* (&c., 
there were moreover, in every place, persons who posted up their 
plac.irds, couched in angry and exciting terms. 

** All these particulars, wc the governor-general and the governor 
took up and minutely and carefully laid before the English commis- 
sioner, whose communication in reply is before us, stating that at 
the free ports of Fuchaii, dtc, the foreigners are allowed to enter 
the walls of the cities, and that the same reasonable conduct ought 
to be allowed at Canton. 

*' Gentry and people ! You ought to consider that the two naticm^ 
are now on friendly terms, and that the august emperor, with ccpial 
benevolence, views as one the people of both the foreign and the 
inncr4lands, making ncj^d inference between them. 

** Moreover at all the five free ports, — except at Amoy, where 
there are no walls, namely, at Fuchau, Ningpo, and Shiinghiii, — the 
Kndish are permitted to enter the cities, and no troubles have 
ensued. It is hard that Canton aloue should offer obstructions and 

** F(?aring that the gentry and people, not understanding the his- 
tory of this case, may not be unanimous in their opinions, or that 
perhaps some of the good may make this affair a pretext for excit- 
ing angry strife, it behooves us to issue our instructive commandei. 
Accordingly they are transmitted to all the gentry and people withir^ 
and without the city, for their full information. Let distinctions be 
put away by every one; let all lay aside their suspicions, and nevei 
again, as before, raise opposition. Thus they will maintain peace 
and friendly relations. We the governor-general and governor ought 
to manage and pursue that course of policy discretely which now for 
a long time has been intimated in our intercourse with the English 
commissioners. Let each one perform his duty, and yield implicit 
obedience. Let no one oppose. A special edict." 

Copies of the foregoing proclamation were posted in various parts 
of the city, «me at the head of Hoglane, and another on Mingqua'a 
iactory, under the windows of nnmis occupied by British merchants. 
This later appeared early in the evening. Parties were schmi out 
with lanterns taking copies of it; but by 10 o'clock it had been so 
burnt and torn that it was illegible, and at day light scarcely a 
phred of it remuined. On the moining of the l''th in nearly the 
iidinc place, but somewhat 'more elevated, was the following placarij^. 

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48 Riot in Canton. Jan. 

No. 2. 

'' We the literati and righteous people throughout the whole pro- 
Tioce of Canton, upon the land and upon the water both within and 
without the city, publish abroad these iustructife commands, that the 
barbarian merchants of all nations, may distinctly understand (our 

" The injuries, the deceits, the cruel deeds, the e?il and wicked acts 
of the English resident barbarians are like the hairs of the head in- 
numerable. Again they meditate schemes of usurpation, and strife 
to coerce our high authorities. Often they ha?e wished to enter the 
city ; and our superior authorities, in the depths of their virtue and 
in the greatness of their benevolence, from leniency have become 
weak. They have now issued a proclamation granting permission 
to enter the city, not considering that the English barbarians, born 
and bred in noxious regions beyond the bounds of civilization, hav- 
ing the hearts of wolves, brutal faces, the visage of tigers, and the 
cunning of foxes, meditate the possession of our province, and only 
desire to enter the walls, that they may spy out the land. Now 
hiving received a proclamation allowing their entrance, they will 
not only exercise violence and usurpation, but will insult and injure 
the people to a degree that words cannot express. 

" Therefore we the literati and the people of Canton, however 
small our strength, having prepared ourselves for the contest, de- 
clare that sooner than obey the proclamation, and receive the injury 
and poison of these wild barbarians, we will act in opposition and 
adhere to the old regulations of our government. It has now been 
determined in public asse.nbly, to await the day for their entering 
the city, then first to decapitate and exterminate the odious race and 
then burn and destroy their habitations. With united hearts and 
strength, we will cut up root and branch, in order to display celes- 
tial vengeance and manifest public indignation. 

*' But considering that at the thirteen factories barbarian merchants 
of ail nations are assembled together for commerce, the good and 
tlie bad not being distinguished ; if when the standard of righteous- 
ness is raised, the precious and the vile should be consumed toge- 
ther, it might be said that they were cut off without being first 
warned : therefore we give these special and early commands for 
your full instruction. 

'* All the good barbarians who will remain in their places 
quietly, and do not meditate and prepare to enter the city, but early 

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1846. Riot at Canton. 49 

hasten their escape, shall receive no damage in their persons. . As 
it regards all the people who live in the vicinity of the factories, if 
they wish to guard themselves and their establishments, let them 
not go out of doors to protect or save the barbarians. Otherwise 
calamity will overtake them, iind they will repent only when it is too 
late. Say not there have been no timely warnings. Tremble. Be on 
your guard. These are special commands. 

" These commands are placarded on the front of the thirteen fac- 
tories, this the 18th day of the 12th moon of the 25th year of T^u- 
kwing of our Great Pure dynasty. 

The following manifesto appeared within the city, placarded on 
the walls about the same time, emanating from the gentry and people. 

No. 3 

"When the English barbarians commenced a quarrel, on account 
of opium, our august sovereign comforting and protecting the people 
of the seas, and not willing they should suffer the horrors of war, 
gave his special permission to the free trade (at the five ports), and 
thereby manifested the highest degree of tender regard. Each of 
our high provincial authorities have also in every way possible ma- 
nifested their soothing mercies. Btit the barbarian passions are un- 
fathomable, and their repeated wanton deeds are already sufficient 
to make men's hair stand erect. Often of late they have, under the 
pretext of entering the city to take exercise and relaxation, hoped 
to get secret opportunities for spying out and usurping the laud. 
Nothing can exceed their violent insults. 

" Consider now the wide difference in the circumstances of the 
case. In our metropolis, at Canton, the commercial transactions 
are all conducted without the walls of the city, while the opposite is 
the fact at Fuchau and Ningpo. Therefore in desiring without any 
proper reason to enter the city to take exercise and relaxation, the 
opposition of the foreigners to the old regulations is made conspi- 
cuous and is already sufficiently apparent. Moreover the city is an 
important site. Here are not only the offices of government, the 
granaries and prisons, but also the family residences of all the peo- 
ple. If a perverse line of action is allowed to begin, violent opposi- 
tion to authority and insult will erelong follow, which will lead on 
to shameless usurpation and eventually to mutual slaughter. War 
will again commence. 

"For the protection of our families and the preservation of their 

VOL. XV. NO. I. 7 r^ 1 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

50 Hiol ui Canloff. Jan: 

lives we will lumly niaiutniii the oaths we have lakoii, and never 
swerve from or alter our deterniiiiatioti. If they truly keep their 
purpose, to enter the city, every house and every family will prepare 
heaps of stones, brickbats, &c., at their doors, and when the faithful 
signal the sounding of the gong is given, every street and lane shall 
be closed to prevent the escape [of the intruder]. Tf the barbarian 
multitude presume on force, and attack tho gates, the people of 
every street will shower down their bricks and stones, and, shoutinij 
to each other from every (piarter, will advance, slaughter the whole 
multitude, and then d>?:iiolish their factories and burn up their shi|)s, 
not allowing one to escape. 

"Already notice his been given to the people and colleges in 
every direction, to assemble and train their righteous and valiant 
hosts, and to place guards at the important and dangerous pass(\s, 
ready for all emergencies. 

'* We the inhal)itants of the whole city ongiit and must, with one 
heart and united strength, defend this the domain of our fathers and 
mothers. Him who dares to give out another purpose, may both the 
gods and men dash in pieces ! 

"This manifesto is from the united gentry and people of the 
whole province of Canton." 

On the same morning, that of Thursday the 15th, near the gate 
of the prefect's offi'ie the following pjiper was placarded. 

No 4. 
**I)<*tli water eqnilibrinm seek, 
•♦ Nor from itai bomifls presume to break ; 
"So nations undisturbed remain 
" Wlien justice rules, and no'ei complain. 
** During two centuries our Great Pure- dynasty has enjoyed lh« 
happiness of universal peace; and the barbarians, residing quietly 
at Canton, have never thought of entering the city. Shall rebels 
then do this? Yet our shameless and avaricious officers have pre- 
sumed to issue their vile proclamations allowing them to enter! But 
these officials are the literary offscouring of other provinces, sordid 
, and miserly. Let the rebel barbarians enter the city, and create 
disturbances, and the officials will keep on good terms with them, 
provided only they themselves are not involved in troubles. Even 
if wars are kindled on our frontiers, little will they care for the con- 
s.^qne!i'*,es. But here are the families and the graves of our fathers. 
If the rebel barbarians enter the city, we, with united heart and 

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1846. Riot at Omton, SI 

strength, setting at naught official dignity, will grasp and decapitate 
them; we will rise and act the part of a righteous people/'* 

Here we must interrupt the series of public documents, and give 
some details. The prefect, or Kwnngchau fu as he is more com- 
monly called, is a native of Hukwung. His surname and name are 
Liu Tsin. He possesses good abilities, is well educated, and for 
many years has been employed as an officer in the imperial govern- 
ment. He accompanied Kiying on his late visit to Hongkong, and 
was with him at the recent interviaw with commodore Biddle, when 
the ratified copie? of the treaty of W^nghi^ were exchanged. He 
has been generally respected by his fellow officers, but universally 
disliked by the gentry and the common people. He is a very pas- 
sionate man, and excessively fond of strong drink. On the loth, in 
the afternoon, he had been indulging his appetite and had gone out 
in state to take an airing. While en route, one of his retinue, a 
flag-bearer, coming in contact with a poor man who was carrying a 
a jar of oil, filched from him a towel that was hanging over his 
shoulder. The poor man, in endeavoring to recover what he had 
lost, excited the ire of the 6ag-bearer and his compeers, and they 
straightway hauled him up before his honor the prefect, and accused 
him of disrespect in refusing to clear the way as his honor and train 
were passing. This, and the truth of it could not be there questioned, 
was a grievous crime, to be instantly atoned by 120 strokes of the 
rattan and 40 of the bamboo. The cries of the sufferer caused 
no small stir, the people believing and declaring him to be innocent. 
It was near sunset, when the prefect ordered his attendants 
to take the offender away to his office, there to await his honor's 
return. The excitement and tumult now spread rapidly. Affairs 
socm wore a serious aspect. liOud shoutings were heard in every 
quarter. Brickbats and stones filled the air. The heavy doors and 
the strong guards there, offered but a feeble resistance to the multi- 
tude that rushed on afler the prefect as he returned to his office. 
Law and order ceased. Doors, windows, floors, ceilings, tablets, 
wardrobes, chairs, beds, in short ail things on which hands could be 
]aid, were torn and dashed in pieces. To complete the ruin, fires' 
were kindled, and on them were piled planks and tables, gems and 
pearls and all manner of precious things. The flames burst through 
I he r(K)f;4, and the alarm spread through the whole city and suburbs. 
£ngines came to the spot ; but the fire n<it extending beyond the 

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r>3 Riot in Canton, Jan, 

prefect's estHlHishinent, no efforts were made to extinguish it. In- 
flividuals, who attempted to plunder, were compelled to bring back 
their booty and consign it to the flames. 

Such, so far as we can Jearn, was the state of affairs at midnight. 
Li6 Tsin and his attendants made their escape through a private 
door, but not without much difficulty and some slight injuries, receiv- 
ed, from the mob. The Kw^ngchau hie and the N4nh^i hien, who 
came to the spot, were both attacked and compelled to flee, the 
populace being in the ascendant 

The scene of these troubles lay near the centre of the old city, 
not far from the office of the pUching sz\ or commissioner of fi- 
nance. There the high provincial authorities assembled, with such 
military forces as were at command, feeling doubtless solicitous 
on account of the large amount of money that was then in the pro- 
vincial treasury, it being generally known that tlie $2,000,000 of 
indemnity, due to the English government, were there deposited. 

At about one o'clock on the morning of Friday the f6th, the fol- 
lowing proclamation was made public, being dated on the 15th. 

No. 5 

** Fu commissioner of finance, and Wei commissioner of justice, 
^c, 6lc., issue these their commands. 

** You the inhabitants of Canton all know that since we came to 
the province, our love to you the people has never for a moment 
been wanting. The prefect of the city having chastised an indivi- 
dual, for obstructing his way, you the people, being displeased there- 
at, have made it a cause for exciting trouble. 

'* Though the said prefect has departed from his proper duty, still 
you ought to know the distinctive duties of officers and people. 
Having made one sally (to give vent to your indignation), will you 
not now return to your duty? Listen respectfully to our words, 
quickly disperse, aud your trouble will be turned into good fortune! 

** If you persist in banding together and do not disperse, will you 
not render of none effect all our affection? You all have con- 
sciences, and we expect you to act at we require. Oppose not." 

During the night the following appeared from the same authori- 
ties Fu and Wei. 

No. 6. 

"Again we issue these our commands to the people of Canton. 
We the aforesaid commissioners, now fully understand that it is not 
your wish that foreigners sh«uld enter the city. When formerly 

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1840. Riot in Canton, 63 

their excellencies [Keying and Hwdng] commanded the prefect and 
magistrates to issue the proclamation [of the 13th] it was with a 
desire to ascertain the feelings of the people. It was not [intended] 
at once to allow the foreigners an entrance into the city. 

" Now the prefect having chastised an individual for obstructing his 
way, and it has so much excited public indignation, that the heart of 
the people is thereby made sufficiently apparent. The entrance of the 
barbarians into the city, can never be allowed so long as we the said 
commissioners remain in office. So long as we do remain in office, 
we can never alienate the people of this city. You ought attentively 
to consider the griefs of our heart. Each ought carefully to ponder.'' 

The first of the two following documents appeared on the morning 
of the same day as the last preceding one, referring to the same affairs. 

No. 7. 

'* Kiting and Hwang, governor-general and governor of Canton, 
d^c, d^c, proclaim these their instructive commands. 

** It is the first duty of magistrates to possess the hearu of the 
people, and they must lose their offices if they fail in this. We have 
just heard that the prefect has alienated the hearts of the people, in 
consequence of having chastised an individual. 

''At first a tumultuous throng assembled in his office, crowded 
every avenue, and afterwards demolished and burned up every thing 
that belong to the establishment. This was in the highest degree 

'* That a magistrate, in the infliction of punishment, should ex- 
ceed his proper bounds, and escape merited censure, is hardly pos- 
sible. But when multitudes assemble aud create disturbances, they 
too certainly trifle with the laws. 

''As it behooves us, we the governor-general and governor issue 
this proclamation for the instruction of the people of all classes. 
Disperse at once and wait until we, the governor-general and gover- 
nor, shall have made such investigation as public justice requires. 

" You the people are our children, and we can nerer cease to 
protect and guard you. How then can we allow you to band toge- 
ther? Let each one remain in his own place, and attend to his 
appropriate business. You must not fear (that foreigners will harm 
you). For these purposes we make this proclamation." | 

No. 8. 

" KiYiNG and Hwang, governor-general and governor of C«inton, 
d2.c., d6C., publish these very important instructive commands, in 
order to remove the suspicions of the multitude. 

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54 Riot in Canton, Jan. 

** Several years have elapsed since we, the governor-general and 
governor, came to govern the province of Canton ; and we are ashamed 
our virtues are so small and our abilities so slender that we cannot 
benefit the country ; but heaven and our ancestors know that we have 
been sincere in our love to the people and in the discharge of our 
public duties. 

*' Of late years we have exerted our whole mind and strength in 
forming treaties with foreign nations, with no other design than to 
give repose to the people. Does it stand to reason, then, that we 
have treated foreigners with generosity and our own people with 
severity ? We have repeatedly stopped and prevented the entrance 
of the English into the city because it was not in accordance with 
the popular mind. 

" Now the English having set forth that they are allowed to enter 
the cities of Fuchau, &c., and firmly persisting in their request 
[that they may do so here], we, the governor-general and governor, 
therefore issued our instructive commands, intending, after having 
done this, and ascertained the feelings of the people, again to deli- 
berate and take further action, and not at once to allow the entrance 
of the English into the city. No sooner was the proclamation 
issued, however, than there appeared placards, written in angry and 
contumacious terms. 

** We, the governor-general and governor, are ashamed and covered 
with perspiration while we think of our inhability, on the one hand, 
to make the foreigners yield, and on the other, to secure the confi- 
dence of oUr Chinese. It is utterly impossible for us to exhibit to 
you, the people, all the toils and troubles connected with pending 
affairs. That we have a mind to treat foreigners generously and our 
own people harshly is to us utterly incredible. Would we could t\i\ 
out our hearts and show them to you ! 

** Now again we isue our instructive commands to you, the 
gentry and people, for your full information. You ought to know 
that when we before issued the proclamation regarding the entrance 
of the English into the city, it was our wish to cause all to understand 
what was proposed, that we might be the better prepared to deliberate. 
It was not intended they should enter the city as soon as the procla- 
mation was issued, and there is proof of this in the fact that two days 
ago three Englishmen were stopped when wishing to enter the great 

western gate. 

" Aj the people are unwilling the English should enter the city, 
how can we, the governor-general and governor, consent to entirely 

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1846. Jonnial of Occurriticcs. SB 

iliwarl llieir feelings, and improperly comply with the wishes of fo- 
reigners? Do not cherish suspicion and disaffection that shall cause 
us, the governor-general and governor, distress of mind such as we 
cannot disclose to our gentry and people. A special proclamation." 

Art. V. Journal of Occurrences: popuhtr dtsturbanres hushed: 
payment of the. twenty-one miliions cmtiplctr.d ; new prefect ; ships 
of war at Wkampoa; dfficult questions; Lin TschsU made 
govemor^general ; Northern ports , Shanghai, Ningpo, Fuchau^ 
Amoy, Hongkong; Chinese neto^year ; protest ant missions; 
Morrison fund. 

Tns popnlar disturbances, detailed in the foregoing article have been hushed, 
but the elements remain, and the slightest provocation may raise another 
storm. Under existing circumstances the safety of foreigners must depend, 
under God, on their extreme circumspection. 

The last of the last instalment, ($i2,()00,()00) completing the $21,000,000— 
wan paid on Thursday the U2d instant. ** The money payinerUs and the arran- 
gements for opening the ports to British merchants 6e(ing now) compUted^'' 
the evacuation of Chusan, we sup|)Ose, will immediaiy follow, — for so the 
letter of the treaty, if we rightly understand it in Chinese and English, re- 
quires. (See Repository vol. XIII. p. 445.) The non-opening of this city, we 
think, should not affecl the grand stipulati ms of the treaty. The right of 
entrance havinz been acknowledged by the imperial commissioner, he will 
doubtless see Uiat it is enjoyed. The proniplness of the Chinese in making 
tlie money payments and in opening the five ports is a rare specimen of good 
faith, and has, we are told, excited the admiration of the British governniet. 

N. B. In saying, in our last, that **the two millions will not be paid on the 
31st of December 1845, and consequently that Cbusan will not (for the pre- 
sent) be given back," we did not mean to intimate that there was any unwill- 
ingness on the part of the Chinese to pay the money, for we knew and had 
elsewhere stated that they were anxious to pay it ; we wished only to 
state the fact of the nonfultillment of the two particulars at the time refered to. 
By turning to the Chinese version, we see that the payment has been made 
within the time specified therein, namely the I2th montli of the Soth year ol' 
Tttukw«ng (Jan. sa6th ld4G). 

3. Jji6 Tsin, the late prefect, was succeeded in office by Li 6 Kfaiyih, on the 
I6th, a man who has been several years in Canton and is tolerably well liked. 

4. H. B. M. ships Vestal, Disdalusand Hazard, and the U. S. A. Vincennes, 
were at Whnmpoa on the ^d ; and H. C. steamer Pluto off the factories. The 
latter and the Vestal with the treasure on board ($2,000,000,0 have moved 
down the river. 

5. Why are the gentry and people of Canton so stronvlj opposed to the en- 
trance of foreigners into the provincial city } And in wnat way, and by what 
means, ought this opposition to be removed .' Tliese questions are oflen asked, 
and we shall feel much obliged to any of our readers who will give us satis- 
factory answers. 

6. From the Peking Gazette it appears that Lin TsehsO has been restored to 
rank, and temporarily made governor-general of Shensi and Ki^nsuh. 

5. Our dates from Shringhai are to the 13th instant. All was quet, and the 
weather very cold. Mr. Tkmplk Hillvard Layton, of Ningpo, is, we hear,, 
tu take the consulship at Amoy, vacated by the decease of Mr. Lay. 

S. Some mudificatioufl in tlie government of Hongkong are expected aoo 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

50 Journal of Occurrences. 

to be mftde. Wo shall take an earljr opportunity to lay before our readehi the 
list of houses, die. in the colony, recently published in ** the Mail.'* 

9. The Chinese of Canton are making ttieir usual preparations for the ap- 
proaching new-year, and the expected festivities are drawing their attention 
from the topics connected with the late riot. 

10. A variety of notices, regarding protestant missions, intended for this 
number, we are obliged to postpone for want of space. 

11. Canton Jan. SSth. This sheet goes to press to-day, and we have only 
room and time to add the following from tlie Hongkong papers, bearing on the 
interests of the Morrison Kducation Societv. 

*' At a meeting this day of the subscribers to the fund raised to mark, bv 
some public testimonial to his memorsr, the respect and esteem in which 
the late hon. J. R. Morrison was held — it was unanimously resolved, — 

*' That a bust of the late hon. J. R. Morrison be immediately commissioned 
from England, to be placed in the public rooms of the institution of the 
Morrison Education Society ; that a copy of Chinnery*s painting of his father 
(the late Rev. Dr. Morrison) engaged in the translation of the Bible into 
Chinese, be obtained for the same purpose ; tliat the sum of $1,000 be ap- 
propriated to meet the cost, and the expense of placing these memorials m 
China ; and that George T. Braine, esq., in conjunction with Robert Mor- 
rison jr., esq., be requested to carry into effect the above resolution. 

"And it was farther unanimously resolved, that the whole of the remainder 
of the sum in the hands of the treasurer, amounting to about tl3|000, be 
invested as a permanent fund for the benefit of the institution of the Mor- 
rison Education Society, the interest to be paid over annually to the trustees, 
to be by them appropriated to its gejieral support ; and that Messrs. Dent Sl 
Co., be requested to continue to act as treasurer, and to allow interest at the 
rate of 7 per cent per annam on the amount of money in their hands, for at 
least three years. 

" In thus disposing of the funds, the subscribers have considered the plac- 
ing upon a permanent basis an Institution bearing the name of Morrison, and 
which has oeen so eminently useful and successful in giving to Chinese 
youUis an enlightened and Christian education, the most appropriate memo- 
rial to him who was one of its founders, and so deeply interested in its wel- 
fare ; and having in mind that it is an institution belonging wholly to the 
foreign community in China, supported and managed by themselves ; as well 
as that its sphere of usefulness will be more extended, while the call upon 
the community to meet its current expenses will be diminished, they trust 
that the liberality hitherto displayed will be continued to support one so 
well calculated to do honor to any community, and to commemorate the 
devoted men whose name it bears. 

** Mr. Matheson and Mr. Braine, as the Remaining members of the commit- 
tee of the Canton Chamber of Commerce, having ascertained from Messrs. 
Lindsay & Co. that a balance of $890 remained m their hands as treasurer 
to the latter institution, have with the concurrence of the members of the 
mercantile coramntiity present at the meeting, authorised it to be paid over 
to the treasurers of the Morrison fund, to be added to that permanently ap- 
propriated to the support uf the institution of the Morrison Education 

'* Mr. Matheson in behalf of himself and the Rev. Dr. Bridgman, remaining 
members of the committee appointed to appropriate the balance — amounting 
to about $1,300 — left in the* hands of Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co. 
treasurer to the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, intimated 
that it had been decided to pay that money also to the treasurer of the Mor- 
rison fund, to be appropriated permanently to the support of the Morrison 

" Victoria, Hongkong, Oeorob T. Braine, ChairmiLn^ 

*' January lOth, 1846. Alkx. Amberboh, Secretary. 

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Vol. XV.— FEBRUAiir, 1846.— No. 2. 

Art. T. Description of the city of Canton : number and character 
of its inhabitants ; its cotnmerce ; walks around the walls and into 
the adjacmt country ; ingress to the city ; note to the governor 
from Sir John Francis Davis ; trip to Fuhshdn ; effects of the 
late war ; different dialects ; a missionary station, 
WiiETiiBR we consider its extent, the number of its inhabitants, or 
its wealth, the metropolis of Kw^ngtung is no mean city. Its whole 
area, including the suburbs, extends perhaps six English miles from 
east to west, and three from north to south, having a population of 
at least one million. Besides these — living permanently here, there 
are many strangers, merchants and visitors from all the provinces of 
the empire and from the principal states of Christendom. Canton is 
one of the largest cities in the world, and the greatest commercial 
mart in China. It is a little empire^>r rather a democracy , in itself. 
The character of this mass — we know not how to characterize it — is 
exceedingly diversified. All qualities of society, in the extremes of 
good and bad, with an interminable variety of interaiediate shades, 
are to be found here : here you may see the learned and unlearned, 
the polished and unpolished, the civilized and savage, the wealthy 
and the beggarly, crailsmen of all kinds and merchants trafficking in 
commodities of every description. Perhaps this latter, the mercan* 
tile, is the most prominent feature in the character of the people of 
this city. There are seen and bartered here, the products of all 
nations and of every clime. T'le city is proverbial for its luxuries. 
Amidst these, however, there is great poverty, and many annually 

VOL. XV. NO. II. 8 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

'">»? Dfscr,'j)lwii of the City of Ckniion, Feb. 

die of \v«iiit and starvation. V^icc and vvickcdness abound, and 
hundreds every ycnr snflTcr cjijjifal pnnif»hnicnt, by the sword of the 
public executioner, ** on the potter'8 fiold." 

Recent occurrences and the prcse!it attitude of the government 
and people seciv. 1 lively to dr:uv public attention to this city. For a 
somewhat detailed dc-?.ription of Canton, we refer our readers to the 
second volume of the Rej)o«itory ; the same account was revised and 
republished in pamphlet form in l.S'>;), We need not repeal what is 
contained in those paijes, but conlont oui selves with giving now, 
and from time to time, such additional inform.Uiou as we are able to 
collect regarding men and tilings here. A complete description of 
Canton would be a good minature picture of the whole empire. 

What has been said of the people of the province, is true when 
restricted to the inhabitants of the city : *' they are rude and violent 
in their manners.'' Late placards, such as were given in our'last 
number, are faithful and true witnesses, and exhibit some of the worst 
qualities of human character. "The people of Canton," says a 
native writer, " are fond of fighting, even about small affairs; and if 
otficers come to stop them, both parties will turn and beat those 
officers. Fathers will fight with their children, and elder with 
younger brothers ; and when any are killed in these quarrels no one 
dares to weep and mourn for them." Chinese historians describe 
the ancient inhu!)itants as " fond of what belongs to demons." Mo- 
dern writers s:iy the same of the present age ; and every dfiy's observa- 
tion alfords evidence that their testimony is true. We remember 
having h,?ard, some years ago, a northern gentleman reprove and 
blame the people of C;inton for being so much afraid of their rulers; 
he remarked tli.vt at the north, men would not submit and bow to the 
officers as tlioy do h(^re. f'ut recent action, in the case of the late 
prefect, exhibits a different state of feeling. Such feeling and such 
conduct are repugnant to all laws both human and divine, and befit- 
ting only the sons of the wicked one. 

Regarding the character of the Chinese generally, and of the in- 
habitants of Canton in particular, we wish to speak with reserve and 
hohl ourselves subject to correction. Though we have lived among 
them for sixteen years, yet new phenomena, new shades and quali- 
ties of character, are every day coming up to view. Much we have 
seen would do honor to any nntio i or kindred of men. On the 
other litu.l, thore is nolliin^ st» base and so wicked as to be beyond 
what we are prepared to witness in the Chinese. This, the character 
kS the nation, ib an inleresting topic, and we shall pursue, it as wo> 
liuve opporlunilv, 

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1846. Description of the City of Ctmton 59 

Foreign commerce seems likely to continue undiminished here, 
and will probably increase, provided good security for life and pro- 
perty can be enjoyed. The opening of the northern ports, it is be- 
lived by competent judges, wilt not diminish the foreign commerce 
of Canton. There are in the south of China many millions of in- 
habitants depending upon this mart for their support ; and as the 
intercourse here increases, new pro<lucts and demands will no doubt 
be found, and the trade increase in years to come as in years that 
are passed. In the year 1751, almost a century ago, the number 
of ships at Whampoa was only eighteen: 1 Danish; 2 Swedish; 2 
French ; 4 Dutch ; and 9 English. The nnmber of vessels last year 
was more than 390. The details of the trade for the year 1845 will 
be given in another number. 

With the domestic trade of Canton foreigners have very limited 
and imperfect acquaintance. A full account of this trade— Klescrib- 
ing the articles and the manner in which they are produced and 
bartered, would form a curious, and, we think tiK), a very instructive 
chapter in the commerce of the world. The differences in the scale 
of weights and in the rates of payment are remarkable. For exam- 
ple, sixteen ounces (or Ixdng) are the standard for a catty ; but in 
the domestic trade the actual number varies, in different places and 
by different parties, from 8 to 10, according to " old custom," — 
which by the by is not always very old. We invite attention to 
this " home trade," and request any of our readers, who may have 
it in their power, to furnish our pages with information regarding it. 

Walks around the city walls and into the adjacent country, as of 
old, are sure to expose one to more or less of insult ; and a large share 
of patience or of daring — to endure or to repel all this — is necessary 
to secure the adventurer from harm. Foreigners have been and 
are still much restricted in their excursions except on the river. 
We have probably taken as much liberty as any others, in pedestrian 
exercise — have repeatedly walked around the city wall?.; on the cast, 
we have passed beyond the parade ground into the fiehls a mile from 
the walls; we have been about the same distance to the north; to the 
northwest, three miles; to the west, as far as F/ihtt : and on the south, 
in Honnn, v/e have walked six or seven miles. Others have traveled 
over the same ground ; but we know of no one instnnce where a fo- 
reigner has ventured a whole, or evjcn a half dny's journey into the 
country. In their limited walks, they are seldom or never acromp:\- 
nied by native gentlemen. Few if any respectable Chinese nre will- 
ing to be seen abroad in comp my with Europeans; nor is this strange, 

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60 Deseriptim of the City of Canton, Fbb. 

when we bear in mind the fact that, wherever the foreigner goes he 
is sure to be aaaailed with oflfensiye language — ^not to say sticks, 
stones, brickbats, and so forth. 

It is not so at the north ; but here, no matter who the foreigner may 
be, or where he may go, if he but appears in European costume and 
goes among the common people, he is sure to have vol lies of vile 
epithets heaped on him. By some, by most, these are overlooked 
or unheeded. This is the cheapest and the wisest policy. By others^ 
they are frowned at ; and by now and then one they are recompensed, 
vi et armis. The use of these terms does not give unequivocal evi- 
dence of malice prepense or of a malicious heart ; but they always grate 
harshly on the ear, and ought not to be allowed. F&n kwei, fdn 
kwei pOf fan kwei tsai, and others too vile to be repeated, are the 
offiqpring of none other than base feelings, and as such they cannot 
be too strongly reprobated. 

These base, these malignant feelings have of late been very fully 
developed by the gentry and people of Canton in their opposition to 
government and to the entrance of foreigners into the city. Those 
who are so unfortunate as to be born out of China, or as they have 
it, " beyond the regions of civilization," are stigmatised and held up 
before the rabble as savage beasts and cruel demons, worthy of being 
stoned, trampled on, spit upon, cut to pieces, exterminated. Here, in 
the gentry, is the root of the evil. Formerly it was with the " man- 
darins." They, as the fathers and mothers of the people, taught their 
children to look on those from afar as '* barbarians." And now these 
gentry, their elder sons, have in their turn become schoolmasters, 
and are reiterating and inculcating their old lessons. A war was 
necessary to correct the '* mandarins;" we hope the gentry may be 
more easily corrected. We have too high an opinion of the com- 
mon sense of the gentry of Canton to believe that, if properly instructed 
by their fathers and mothers, (the " mandarins,") they will long persist 
in opposing the ingress of foreigners into the city. 

Regarding the opening of the city gates, and the treatment of fo- 
reigners in Canton, we will here introduce some papers publish- 
ed in the China Mail. '' The position taken by his excellency " (sir 
John Francis Davis,) says the editor of the Mnil, the official Organ 
of all government notifications, " is one which may yet lead to import 
tant cmisequences, but at present," he prudently adds, '' we must con- 
tent ourselves with simply referring our readers to the official docu- 
ments on the subject." These we subjoin. 

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1840. Description of iht City of Canton, 61 


*^ His Excellency Her Majesty's Plentipotentiary, &c., Slc.^ deems it ne- 
cessary to make pablicly known, tJiat during the progress of the negotiations 
in which he is engaged with the Chinese minister, for placing the privileges 
of British subjects at Canton on the same footing as at the four other ports 
of trade, it will be highly requisite to abstain from any attempts at forcing a 
way into the city. Such attempts on the part of individuals will not only be 
attended with the worst effects in postponing the settlement of the question, 
bat expose those individuals to all the consequences of their rashness without 
a remedy. His Excellency only expresses the spirit of his instructions, in 
declaring that Her Majesty's Government will not be responsible for either 
the protection or indemnification of parties, who by their own misconduct, or 
by their culpable negligence in omitting to restrain those whom it is their duty 
to control, shall wilfully exiiose tliemselves to injury or loss. 
«« Victoria, Hongkong, 2d Jan. 1846. By Order, Adam W. Elmslii." 

**Hi8 Excellency Her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary, &c., &«., is 
pleased to publish the annexed translation of a proclamation issued by the 
Chinese minister at Canton, for the first time thus publicly recognizing the 
equal rights of British subjects at that city and the other four ports, according 
to the Treaty, and to the pledge which he gave in July, 1843. It is hardly 
necessary to observe that the greatest prudence and moderation will for the 
present be necessary on the part of British subjects at Canton. 
*' Victoria, Hongkong, 19th Jan. 1846. By Order, Auau W. Elmslie." 

^*Kiying, High Imperial Commissioner and Governor-general of the two 
Kwang, A.C., Ac, dus., and Hwang, Lieutenant-governor of Kwontung, 
^b«., d&c., &e., hereby proclaim to the entire body of gentry and common 
people, the manifestation of the imperial goodness. 

'* Whereas, Canton is the general resort of merchants from every country 
beyond the seas yet since tlie accession of the present dynasty, for upwards 
of two centuries, foreigners have never entered the city; on which account 
the British envoys having year ader year repeatedly intimated the desire for 
admission to the city, we the Governor-general and Lieutenant-governor, 
have each time directed the local authorities to urge it upon the gentry and 
common people ; but the popular feeling has proved averse to the measure, so 
as to cause its execution to be deferred. 

'<Now the English envoy having reverted to this subject of the former 
negotiations, we, the Governor-general and Lieutenant-governor, addressed 
our joint admonitions to the gentry, through them to be transmitted to the 
inhabitants. From the statement under the signature of the said gentry, it 
appeared that the inhabitants of the city and suburbs displayed equal un- 
willingness to foreigners entering the city. And there were moreover 
inflammatory placards stuck up in all places. 

" Whereupon we, the Governor-general and Lieutenant-governor, in our 
reply to the envoy, minutely detailed the state of aftairs. 'J'he British envoy, 

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62 Description of tho City of Canton. Peb. 

ill his dispatch to us, insists that as at the commercial emporium of Fnchan 
and at all the others, free entrance is permitted into the cities, the same should 
be allowed at Canton, &c. 

** Te gentry and people must consider that since amicable relations are 
established between the two countries, the emperor extends his kind regards 
equally towards foreigners and natives. Moreover at the other ports where 
trade is carried on, such as Fuchau, Ningpo, aud Shunghdi, (with the single 
exception of Amoy, which has neither walled city nor suburbs,) the English 
are admitted within the walls without having given rise to any disturbance. 
Only at Canton do there exist difficulties, and (the proposal) is objected to. 

" We can but suppose that you the gentry and people are not conveniant 
with the facts and difficulties of the case, and hence a great variety of public 
opinions has arisen. But it is likely that there be men fond of disturbance who 
make this a pretext for exciting commotions. Wherefore, we now issue this 
proclamation to the gentry and people, within and without the city for their 
information. You must each and all break down the barriers of separation, 
and set aside jealousies and animosities, no longer as hitherto offisring vexatious 
opposition. For the due preservation of harmony, we the Governor-general 
and Lieutenant-governor, in connection with the English envoy will place 
affiiirs on a sure, good, and permanent footing. Let all reverently ^obcy, aud 
not oppose this special proclamation. January 13lh, 1846. 

'* True translation, (Signed) C. Gvtzlayf, Chinese Secretary." 

N. £. A translation of the preceding proclamation was given in our last 


"His Excellency, Her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary, &c., &c., 
deems it right to publish the annexed Official Note to the Chinese Minister, 
recapitulating the points which have been repeatedly urged, in conformity 
not only with the Treaty of Nanking, but a solemn engagement made as long 
ago as July 1843. The question is by no means confined to mere exclusion 
from the city of Canton ; as foreigners, and Her Majesty's Vice-consul 
himself among the rest, have been wantonly maltreated, even on the opposite 
side of the river, without any redress being affi^rded to the representations 
of Mr. Consul Macgregor. Every proof has been given to the Chinese 
Government that nothing but the necessity for a satisfactory determination of 
this important point, under the direct sanction of the Imperial Government, 
postpones the immediate evacuation of Chusan ; but his Excellency fecJs that. 
under his instructions, and without some final adjustment of the question of 
our treatment at Canton, he must not at once abandon the sole remainin<r 
means of pressing the subject both peaceably andeftectually on the attention 
of the Supreme Government of China, and obtaining, in the least objection- 
able mode, such an arrangement as shall scciire to Her Majesty's Oificers 
and other subjects at Canton that immunity from outrage and insult w hu^h 
they enjoy at all the otlier ports under the Treaty. 

"By Order, A. R. Joiinsto.-v. 

"Vietoria, Honffkong, January, 1840.'' 

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184G. Dtscriptiou of Utc Ciiy of Canton. Ci^ 

*» Victoria, Hongkong, 2*Jd January, 184(i. 
"1 Iiavc had tlio lionor to r<'cci>t' your Excollcnny's note ri'Hpt'crnnf the 
dillicultics attendant on oixMiing; tlir <'ity ol' Caijton to British Merchant«( 
♦« In the Treaty ol' Nunkii'.fj, \\\\* wcond Artw-lo st.itfB that »* British subjcctti 
witli thoir familioH and»!i.dii.j«-nts sii.iU \\o iiUowod to rrsidf, for tlie purpose 
ofrarrvinsr on their morcantik* pur«us!s without molestation <»r restraint, at the 
ciL'ea and towns of Canton, Auioy, Fuchnu fii, Niii'ri»o, and Shi'in«rliui." 

"Now the Treaty has already hern equitably fulfilled at four of these )M)rts^ 
and I'unton reninins llie only exception. Kven al Fuchan fii, wliere diflicnlties 
were last year urged exactly siinihir to llior'c iil!ejj\'d regnrding Canton, your 
Kxeellency's government hns enforeed the provisions of the Treaty. 

'* In the first Article of the Treaty of Naukinq^, i( is slated that tlic subjccU 
of our two Goverujiients respectively " sliuil enjoy lull security and prolectiuu 
for their ]>er8ons and pro|M,*rty within the dominion;} of the other." 

" It is a matter of high sntisfiction to reflect that at four of the ports tJic 
greatest security and tranquillity prevail. Kvoii al Fuchau fu, where 1 had 
last year so much reason lo complain, the |:eopie have been brought, in 
consequence of my representatiouM, and by moansofpro]>er examples, to behave 
with jicrfecl correctness towards foreigners. But, unfortunately, at Canton 
the evil is far from being confmcd to mere exclusion from the city. Your 
Excellency knows that the Vice-consul himself, a public officer, was wantonly 
and outrageously assaulted on the opposite aide of the river, and no redress 
whatever has yet been afforded for that and other sunilar instances reported 
to ine by the Consul. 

**Your Excellency's long experience of public life must convince you tiiH. 
such a state of things canuot continue. At Canton was the origin of those 
troubles which were happily terminated by the peace : and it is my wish for 
lUc continuance of our present friendly relations that makes me desirous to 
urge in the least unpleasant manner, and before it is too late, the completion 
of Treaty eugugemcnts at Canton. 

"In the twelfth article of the Treaty of NUnking it is expressly provided 
that "the islands of KiUangs6aod Chusan will continue to be held by Her 
Majesty's forces, until the money payments, and the arrangemenU far opening" 
ike jports to UritUh Merchants^ be completed." 

" In July, 1S43, your excellency addressed the annexed paper to my predecessor 
distiHCtly admitting the justice of opening the city of Canton in common with 
the otliers and solemnly engaging that it should be done. 1 have myself repeated^ 
Jy pressed this engagement on Your Excellency, and now urge it with the 
authority of my government. KulangsO has already been delivered up; and 
Her Majesty's forces will evacuate Chusan the moment some arrangement has 
Ibeen effected according to the Treaty. Your E.\cellcncy is aware that scarcely 
any buildings whatever have been constructed at Chusan, in anticipation of its 
speedy evacuation. 

" Adverting now to Your Excellency's last note, the tumult in which tlie 
rabble attacked the prefect of Canton's house is publicly and universally 
known to have originated in the undue severity exercised by that officer on an 
individual who impeded liis way, and not in any rumored attempts of foreigners 
to enter the city. 1 have gone to an extreme length in prohibiting British 

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64 Description of ih< City of Canton- Feb. 

Merchants an<i others from the exc^rcise of their just nml admitted rifrhts. But 
even Kuppnsinnr Umt such a tumult arose from n mere rumored attempt of 
forcijrners to exerc'ip^ a rijrht secured b^ Treat}-, this only proves the extent of 
the evil to ho remedied. 

"The control of Chinese subjects belonjjs exclusively to Your Excellency '• 
government. 1 have only to require for Dritiah 8ubjf*cts those privileges and 
that protection which have been so ofien urged, and so long postponed — and 
having now received positive instruct ion^- from my government, 1 cannot do 
otiierwise than be guided by tiiem. 

"I take tliis occr.sion to renew to Your Excellency the assurances of my 
highest consideration. J F. D.\vis. 

(True Copy,) Ai».\m W. Elm^ilib. 

Extract of a communtratwn from H. E. Kiymg to Her Majesty's 
PlcnipotetUianjj d/itcd July ld43. 

** As to the free entry into Canton, the two nations are now at peace, 
without the slightest ground for jar or altercation; what difference therefore 
can there be between the inside and the outside of the city .' When, too, 
Ningpo, Fuchau, Shanghdi, &c., may be entered, why should Canton be 
solitary in this respect ? The evil is that the temper of the Canton population 
is so unlike that of tlie Chcki^ng and Ki^ingnan people. The former, since 
they have felt tlie misery and disasters of war, have been filled with 
consternation ; and, unsettled in mind they are easily accessible to doubts and 
suspicions. The High Commissioner, on his first arrival at Canton, issued 
a proclamation earnestly and clearly exhorting them, and at that time hoped 
that the popular mind was becoming by degrees quieter. But, when returning 
from Hongkong with a mind fully decided on inviting the Plenipotentiary to 
conference there, that he might in some measure exhibit his feelings towards 
him, he was to his astonishment saluted with representations from one Ho 
Yushu, who, with more than 80 other of the gentry, joined in presenting ad- 
dresses against his doing so, at the offices of himself, the High Commissioner, 
and of all the principal oHicers. Though the High Commissioner admonished 
them face to face, and refused to receive their addresses, yet, observing day by 
day the actual disposition of the people, he finds their suspicions and surmises 
still unremoved. The High Commissioner has now in conjunction with 
the Governor-general and Governor commanded all local magistrates and 
other officers to adopt measures for inculcating a better spirit; and he only 
waits till the port is opened, and commerce in progress, when all parties 
settling into a state of quiet, they shall meet together to consult within the 
city, whenever business may call tliom thither. If there be the slightest 
falsehood in this, may the highest regard It. 

"A true Translation, (Signed) G. TaAnrscANT Lay. 

" True Extract, Adam W. Elmslie.'* 

A single trip has recently been made to Fuhshan — ** the Hills of 
Biidha," by some one who has reported the same in the Hongkong 
Register. Fuhshiui, (»r Fatsh^in as it is commonly pronounced here, 
io perbaps one (quarter or one third the size of Cuntou, and lies about 

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1S46. Description of the City of Cant&ii. 85 

twenty or twenty-five miles southwest fVom this city, and is chiefly 
remarkable for its manufactures and extensive warehouses. It belongs 
to the district of N&nhii, and is under the jurisdiction of a magistrate 
subordinate to the Ninh^i. The communication between Canton and 
Fuhshi^n, carried on by boats, is easy and constant. The gentleman, 
above alluded to, is so far as we know the only foreigner who has 
visited the place in modern times, and he, we believe, went in a native 
costume and remained there but a single night, or a day and a night. 

The effects of the late war have been favorable in most respects, 
not in all : we speak now of the immediate effects, those touching the 
character of the people and the facilities of intercourse at Canton. 
The abolition of the cohong- much desired by many -has brought into 
direct contact with foreignern a larger class of persons than formerly ; 
but while new facilities are now opened to the many in the West, 
yet to the few, who in olden times enjoyed the " China trade," its 
once sure and ample returns are becoming less abundant and in some 
cases less sure. Oh the whole, the benefits of the foreign trade are 
greatly augmented and extended. But the palmy days, with their 
princely establishments and princely fortunes, are gone, and men here 
must now work hard for their fortunes, nay even for their living. 
Moreover more economy and a new style of living must be introduced. 
In its operations, the late war implanted the most bitter hatred in the 
breasts of a few, who, as is usually the case in such times, suffered 
innocently. The war was carried just far enough, to excite deadly 
hatred, but was checked ere it had ^rlven those salutary lessons, for the 
want of which there is now, in the high places of the city, so much 
riotous insubordination. Whether that was good policy or not which 
stayed sir Hugh Gi>ugh, when he was about to enter the city, we leave 
for others to decide. But since he was not allowed to carry out his 
plans and open the gates, it is to be regretted that sir Henry Pottinger, 
on his return from the north, did not immediately take stringent 
measures to secure the same liberty, the same immunities, and the 
same respect here, that were enjoyed at the north, hi the cities of 
Shanghai and Ningpo, sir Henry Pottinijer and other British officers 
appeared as conquerors. After the Chinese h-id sued for peace, his 
excellency and the two commanders-in-chief rode in state through 
that ancient metropolis of the empire. But in this city the plenipo- 
tentiary never deemed it! his duly, or at least never thought it expe- 
dient, to appear. 

To ha ire gained a public entrance into the ** city of rams," might 
and probably would have been an unpleasant task ; but once properl7 

VOL. XV. NO. n. 9 r^ 1 

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00 Description of the City of Canton, FbK. 

efTected it would have paved a more easy way for improvementtf 
in friendly relations and intercourse than that now opened. So 
clear-headed a man as sir Henry Poltinger would not have neglected 
or delayed this matter except for strong reasons, — reasons which 
operating then may operate now. Had he intended that Chusau 
should not be evacuated until after the gates of Canton were opened, 
we think he would have had it so expressed in writing both Chinese 
and English. We believe he did expect the city would be opened; but 
we do not think his excellency ever intended the grand stipulations 
of the treaty of Nanking should hinge on the gates of Canton. That 
the spirit of all the treaties requires the city to be opened, and that 
Kiying and the other officers fully admit this, seems now plain. But 
if it was not so written in the bond, right and reason may allow of 
some delay here now, as well as when sir Henry Pottinger was at 
the helm. He did not insist on it that Canton should at once be opened. 
We do not see that any definite time was fixed for this. The evacua- 
tion of Chusan, however, was most clearly provided for, and made to 
depend on two things — viz. the completion of *' the money payments," 
and '* the arrangements for opening the ports to British merchants." 
The money payments were completed on the22d of January — which 
was the 25th of the 12th moon of the 2oth year of Taukwang, four 
days previous to the end of the period stipulated for, as defined in the 
Chinese version of the treaty. Have the other arrangements been 
completed ? We leave this point for diplomatists and statesmen, and 
would much prefer that the gates should be locked up for years rather 
than that angry collision should come again, destroying commerce 
and breaking up the present friendly relations. Rather than have 
another war civil or foreign, let this point be made, if worthy of being 
made, a subject of direct negotiation with the court. Sooner or later, 
and we think that not long hence, the gates will come open. 

From those who have been at Sh^nghli, we have been told thit 
many of the foreign residents there are acquiring the loccd dialect. 
It would be greatly for their advantage, if all foreign residents i.i 
China would do this ; and it can be done as easily here as at the other 
ports ; local dialects can be acquired in China as well as in other 
countries, and with something like the same facility and ease, if they 
are taken up in the right way. The court language or dialect, often 
and very improperly called the '* mnadarin dialect," is the purest 
form of the Chinese tongue; and, so far as our observation goes, it 
is more easily acquired than any of the provincial dialects— which 
fatter seem to be more or i6ss dilficult of acfjui^iition just in the pro- 

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1840. Description of the Cihj of Canton. 67 

portion that they are found to diflfer from the general language of the 
empire, the court dialect. No Chinese can make any pretentions to 
learning unless he is master of the court dialect, that form of the 
language whic[]| is in common and universal use among all the officers 
and all the literati in all parts of the empire. The dialect of Canton 
is understood by all the native inhabitants of the city, and generally 
by the people in the adjacent villages and towns. And so much does 
this dialect resemble the court, that one who is master of the former 
will be able to understand those who speak the latter, though he him- 
self may he unable to speak it. Very many of the words he will find 
to be the same in both dialects, and many more differing but slightly. 
We speak now of the Canton dialect properly so called, which is 
generally understood here. But there are to be found in Canton 
almost innumerable deviations from this. These, in many instances, 
amount to distinct dialects. Thus you may find persons in different 
parts of the city and in different streets quite unable to understand 
each other, when each employs his own mothor tongue. This is 
explained in the following manner. A family arrives in Canton from 
Sz'chuen, or from some other remote part of the empire. It is a 
numerous family, a little clan ; its members take up their residence 
here, and speak their Sz'chuen dialect except in their conversation 
with the people of the city. The family increases; intercourse is 
kept up with their native province, and their original colloquial dialect 
is continued for scores of years, or even for a century. We chance 
to know a case exactly like what we have here decribed. And similar 
cases must be very numerous, including families or clans not only 
from other provinces but from many of the remote departments and 
districts of this province. We should like very much to see a full 
collection of all these, and to make such an one would be a profitable 
exercise for any one who is acquiring a knowledge of the Canton 

Canton, like every other city where Christianity is to be propagat- 
ed, has its own peculiar advantages and disadvantages, as a missiona- 
ry station. Previously to the late war, it was the only field open to pro- 
testants. Morrison arrived here in 1807; and here he died in 1834. 
At his solicitation, and others with him, he was joined by missiona- 
ries from the churches in the U. S. A. in Feb. 1830. But at present 
there are no missionaries in Canton from the English churches, and 
only six from those on the opposite side of the Atlantic. Most of the 
missionaries who have arrive»l in China during tho last three years 
have preferred ihe northern ports, and with good reason, this hoin*' 

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M Description of ike CUy of Canton. Feb. 

already occupied. But as the case now stands, taking into account all 
the advantages and disadvantages of the five open ports, no one has, 
in our opinion, any very decided advantages over the others. In no 
way, in no degree do we concur in that opinion which would make 
Canton the most undesirable of missionary stations, and China the 
most unpromising of missionary fields. There are no good reasons 
for such an opinion. On the contrary— ^ where is there a people or a 
nation having such strong claims on the Christian charity, the Chris- 
tian love, the Christian sympathy of the churches as the Chinese t 
The Roman Catholics have attempted much, and have made great 
achievements. Year after year for centuries they have sent into China 
in great numbers their ablest men. Imperial prohibitions did not hin- 
der their attempts, nor very much retard their progress. They have 
numerous converts in all the provinces. Once protest ant churches 
could plead, for their neglect, that they could not gain access 
to the people in a lawful manner. Not so now. China has been 
opened ; and the prohibitions removed. And for their labors, there 
is no field so vast, so inviting, promising such large rewards as this. 
True there are difficulties,, in the nature of the language, in the char- 
acter of the people, and in the structure and action of the government. 
These, however, will not be diminished by delay, nor ought they nor 
can they sanction longer delay. It is time, high time, the last com- 
mission of the great Redeemer of mankind was carried into full effect 
and his gospel published to the three hundred and sixty millions 
inhabitants of this empire. 

As it regards Canton we will not, for the present, say much in ad- 
dition to what we have already stated above. To say less, would be 
a dereliction of duty, — or at least, it would be to withhold our most 
candid opinion. To give all the reasons and arguments that can be 
adduced for that opinion, would be of little interest to most of our 
readers. Besides, we hope erelong to have opportunity to become 
better acquainted with the northern ports; then we may be induced 
to change our views of Canton, and concur in the opinion that would 
make it secondary to either of the northern cities, as a missionary 
station. We know there is much wickedness in this great city, and 
that there are here strong prejudices. Was it not so in Jerusalem? 
And yet when our divine Lord was about to lea^ve this world and as- 
cend up on high, and bis disciples were to go forth and preach his 
gospel to all nations, where were they to begin ' 

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1646. Noiius of J. A. Ganfohes, 69 

A«T. 11. Notice Biographique sur U pere J. A. Oomfohes^ com^ 
prising an aeeonni of kis lift with notices of his varioiiu 
sinotogical productions. By J. H. Callkrt. 
Trerb are some men whom fortune places before the world in soch 
advantageous circumstances, that with qualifications and talents 
frequently the most ordinary they attract the attention and excite 
the admiration of all. There are others whom nature enriches with 
her gids, but who are placed in a sphere more limited, born, educated 
and passing their existence in ignorance of the rest of the world, like 
those thrifty vegetable productions, which springing up in the shades 
of tropical forests, and covering themselves with luxuriant foliage* 
fall back upon the earth laden with green buds which the rays of the 
sun would have expanded and matured. 

It is in this list of persons little privileged by fortune, that I would 
class Joachim Alphonse Gon^alves, a man endowed with eminent 
qualities, of whom Portugal will have a just title to be proud, if ever 
she shall be disposed to claim it. 

He was born in the year 1780 in a small borough of the province 
of Traz-dos-montes, called Tojal. His parents were poor and 
obtained their subsistence by the toilsome labors of the field ; but 
they were pious people, who in want of riches, bequeathed to their 
children the precious inheritance of faith and Christian self«denial. 
Under the influence of a religious education, though but little in- 
structed in the world, Gon9alves felt at an early period an irresistible 
inclination to become connected with the Church, and as his pro- 
vince was one of those where the Lazarists obtain the greater num- 
ber of their disciples, he entered by chance into their assembly, and 
there made his vows with the generosity of a man who is ignorant of 
the price he is paying. 

At this time Portugal was troubled by parties contending for 
empire, and as the silence of the cloister is but little compatible with 
the presence of warrior camps, Gonial ves resolved to go into some 
country, more tranquil, to taste the sweets of the religious life 
which he had embraced. For this end he requested to have a share 
in the missions to China, which then were to a great extent confided 
to the Portuguese Lazarists ; and combining in himself most of the 
qualities which form a good missionary, he obtained without dif- 
ficulty the consent of the superiors and embarked for China in the 
course of the year 1812 in a ship of state, the Magnanimo, 

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70 Noiices of J, A, Canfolves, Fbb. 

Following the custom of the Portugueae, and in general of all the 
small maritime states whose navigation is limited, the corvet Magna- 
nimoy in quitting Lisbon, received orders to touch upon her route 
at a great number of ports, in such a manner that Gon^alves had to 
pass several months in Brazil, as also in India, and likewise at the 
Philippine Isles, and did not arrive at Macao till the 2dth of June 

The Portuguese missionaries, established in this city partly Por- 
tuguese and partly Chinese, had even then the hope that the storm 
raised against them at the court of Peking would at length pass 
away and that they should be permitted to return to the capital of 
the Celestial empire in the capacity of mathematicians charged with 
the regulation of the calendar. In this hope Gon^alves was chosen 
to be one of the representatives of the European science at Peking, 
which made it necessary that he should apply himself more than 
ever to the study of the mathematics and astronomy for which his 
mind was naturally adapted. But the severe edicts promulgated by 
the emperor Kiaking against the Christian religion, no longer per- 
mitting to doubt that the times of Verbiest and Schaal had passed, 
never to return, Gon9alves gave himself entirely to the study of the 
Chinese for which he may be said to have had a natural passion. 
During the first years he studied the language of the north, which is 
commonly called the mandarin dialect, and he spoke it with a good 
intonation and great freedom. But in order that he might render 
his ministry more useful to the Chinese, among whom he was re- 
quired henceforth to have his residence, he applied himself accord- 
ingly for three years to the study of the Canton dialect, which he 
was able to speak also with sufficient facility, although with reluc- 
tance, because it contains a great number of sounds which are by 
no means agreeable to a musical ear. Thenceforward the Chinese 
became his peculiar province, I might almost say his private domain, 
for at the age of sixty he mentioned to me as a remarkable fact, 
inexplicable to himself, that for 48 hours he had spent no time upon 
the Chinese. And it should be said that during this short interval 
he had been required to attend a council, assembled by the governor 
of Macao, to deliberate upon some public affairs of great importance. 

Those who have less perseverance and of determination than 
Gonial ves brought to his study, are astonished, with reason, that his 
career as a sinologue has been able to furnish so many works, of 
which there are some that might alone suffice to render a man 
immortal. For myself, who have had the advantage of his intimate 

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184G. A'"/*Vc.« of J. A, iioncahes. 7! 

acqmtntance for soven years, the singular aiid very rare phenomen- 
on at wiiich I have been most surprised in regard to him, is that the 
energy of his character was able to endure even to the end the 
enervating influence of the tropical heat, and that his natural vigor 
did not sooner yield to his excess of labor which knew no relaxation. 

The first work which father Gon^alves gave to the public, was a 
small volume in IGnio. intitled, Grammatica Latina ad usum Sinen- 
sium juvennm, a J. A. Gouijalves congregationis missionis presby- 
tero, post longam experientian rcdacta, et Macao in regali collegio 
Suncti Joseph facultate regia lypis mandata. Anno 1828. That 
iH, as is indicated by this long title, which has a taste of the 
middle ages, a Latin-Chinese (it would be more correct to say a 
Chinese-Lntin) grammar, composed expressly for the young Chinese 
preparing for the church, whom he was instructing in Latin. It 
commences with the elements, of the language, the letters and the 
syllables; it contains afterwards the declensions, and the Latin con- 
jugations, several exercises in .syntax, some dialogues, and at last 
some examples of the epistolary style. The principal merit of this 
little work consists, in the desire which the author had in composing 
it, to make it serviceable to his pupils; for as to the Chinese por- 
tion, it has the vulgar idiom in the extreme, and the Latin is too 
much inflated and is frequently obscure. 

In the following year 1826, appeared under the title of Arte China, 
one of the best works which have come from the pen of Father Gon- 
^alves. It is a Portuguese-Chinese grammar made upon the plan of 
the preceding, wherein are found at once, a sort of alphabet, examples 
of declensions, conjugations and of syntax, some dialogues, and 
proverbs, and in the end some models of the epistolary style. To 
understand its merits and its defects we must refer to the several 
parts of which it is composed. 

That which Father Gonial ves calls the Alphahrto China, in the 
beginning of this work, is nothing else than a list of classifiers 
(generos) and of phonetics (differencas), arranged according to the 
order and the number of the strokes of which they are composed. 
Did this list comprise nearly all the characters employed as classifiers 
or as phonetics, and but little else, it would differ only slightly from 
my own Catalogns littrrnrum fundamcntalium scripturae sinicae, 
published in the first volume of the Sy sterna phoneticum. But in the 
first place it gives as generi or dijtrencas a great number of cha- 
racters which indeed arc not such. Afterwards there is found in- 
tercalated in small text, an infmite number of phrasas of severa! 

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72 xWoiicei of J, A. Gfnu^alvts. Fsafc 

syllables, and distinct sentences, which render the study of this 
alphabet so difficult and so disagreeable, that by the confession of 
Gon<^alves himself, no one of his pupils has ever been able to pursue 
it to the end. The author jubtified himself against the charge I 
frequently brought against him on this account, by saying that to 
compose the detached phrases which follow this alphabet, and are 
intended but to initiate tiie students in the style of the Chinese, be- 
fore placing in their hands a dictionary, he had been compelled by 
the sense to introduce some characters and phrases which apart 
from this he would have omitted. Meanwhile the collection of an* 
alogous phrases, which I have published in the end of the volume 
already cited in making use of nothing but the phonetics, is enough 
to prove that the excuse is not altogether admissible. 

Following these phrases, which may be regarded as an appendage 
to the alphabet, there are numerous examples given of grammar and 
of Chinese syntax, which have the merit of being presented in a 
style at once common and yet elevated (sublime), A chapter fol- 
lows consisting of 16 dialogues in the mandarin dialect, of very great 
utility to those who are commencing the study ; next a collection of 
proverbs and diverse extracts in fable and history, adapted to facili- 
tate the reading of Chinese authors ; and finally the work ends with 
some models of the styles peculiar to oratory, poetry, government 
and epistolary writings which of themselves would require an entire 
volume. The principal merit of the Arte China, as we judge from 
a cursory perusal, consists in its being so rich in materials, more 
rich indeed than any work of the kind which has ever yet been 
published. Its main defect is that no explanation is given, and it is 
lefl to the student to divine the principles which are embraced in 
the numerous examples presented to his view. Would it be believed 
that even as it regards the beautiful idea of arranging the characters 
in an alphabetic order according to the number of strokes, it is 
nowhere found announced, although it is constantly applied in the 
first hundred pages of the book. 

Two years after, that is, towards the end of 1831, appeared the 
Diccionario Portuguez-China no cstilo vulgar Mandarim e classico 
gtral, in a thick volume octavo, a work very well adapted to our 
times, the best of its kind which has appeared even to this day, 
and which the author himself regarded with much complacency. 
The Diccionario China-Portugutz which was published in 1833, is 
equally a work of prime merit, and has nothing yet to match it; 
but it is exposed to the attacks of invidious critics in this, th^t it is 

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1846. Noiicei of J. A. Oon^alvd. 73 

arranged according to a system of classifiers which is incomplete 
aud often contrary to the laws of forming the Chinese characters. 

From the time of Horace until our day, authors of the first order 
have rarely been ignorant of the merit of their own productions, and 
with all his modesty, Gon^alves could not feign to believe that the 
works of which we have made mention were not of a character to 
form an era in the history of Chinese literature. But he saw with 
good reason, a great obstacle in the way of their general -apprecia- 
tion, in the language being so little known, in which they were writ- 
ten ; for who knows the Portuguese out of Portugal. He also sought 
to repair a fault which owing to a feeling of patriotism he had know- 
ingly committed, by publishing in Latin the four dictionaries of 
which it remains for us to speak, and which for the reputation of 
their author 1 would willingly pass by in silence, except for the 
evidence they a£ford of the laborious spirit by which he was animat- 
ed even to his last moments. 

The first is a pocket vocabulary, Latin-Chinese, dated 1836, which 
is designed only to assist in recollecting the words most important 
in conversation. 

The second intitled, Lexicon manual Latino Sinicum, is only a 
'^republication of the preceding increased by a great number of odd 
and unusual words, a work of little merit, of which no one yet to my 
knowledge has recognised the advantage which the author had in 
view in its publication. It formed an octavo volume and was printed 
at Macao in 1839. 

The third entitled Lexicon magnum Latino Sinicum, was designed 
to supply the defects which are justly , charged upon the Lexicon 
manuale, and to contain in it besides a great number of phrases and 
sentences which should afford an easy exercise to the Chinese pupils 
in rendering them into Latin. But whether from the bad taste of the 
author or the fault of the Latin-Portugaese diciionary which served 
as a basis, the fact is that this work suffers very much in respect to 
the Latin, from the bombast and obscurity which are censured in the 
Latin grammar, while for the Chinese, it'could hardly be of a more 
trivial character- 
In concluding this account of his works, I may speak of the Chi- 
nese Latin Lexicon which L^'uther Gou^alvcs fini*«hed a few days be- 
fore his deaJh, an J the manuscript of wluch was left in the hands of 
his colleagues at Macao. This work diflers essnentially in its plan 
fi^om all those which the -nith'.>r his publibhed For the' ten thou- 
sand leading characters which it contains, are arranged progrc^sanc^ 

VOL. XV. NO. 11. 10 

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•74 Notius of J. A. Gon^nlvcs. Feb 

]y, according to the number of strokes of which they arc composed, 
without reference to the classifiers to which they properly belong, 
in such a manner that instead of having a class of plants, oftrees, 
of stones, of horses, 6lc., there are some classes of two strokes, six 
strokes, twelve strokes, 6lo. under each of which are found arranged 
classifiers and phonetics of all sorts. 

This sort of classification has a slight advantage in the circum- 
stance that when the number of strokes of which a character is 
formed is once known, it is suilicient to observe with what alphabetic 
stroke it commences, to find immediately its place in the dictionary ; 
but it has the great inconvenience of causing completely to disap- 
pear the wonderful mechanism by which the Chinese characters arc 
formed, and of affording no clue to the memory. Besides, in view of 
the infinite varieties of orthography which prevail, what sinologue 
could tell at first sight, under how many strokes it would be necessary 
to seek any character, even one of the more common ? In a philolo- 
gical aspect this work is far from being the true Diccionario China 
Portugucz, for it presents under each word only the more common 
acceptations, and in no instance does it cite phrases or examples 
suitable for determining clearly their sense. 

I will not speak of a Chinese translation of the New Testament 
which has been attributed to Father Gon^alves, but which was not 
really his, as he himself told me repeatedly, when it was proposed to 
him to commit it to the press. In a word, the works of this inde- 
fatigable writer, like those of almost all authors who have written 
much, exhibit some portions imperfect and even faulty, while at the 
same time the Arte China ^ the Diccionario Portif^ucZ'China and 
the China-Portugucz are sufficient to place Gonial ves in the rank 
of the most eminent sinologues and to secure him the gratitude of 
coming ages. 

Some of his friends have frequently made the remark, that he was 
in too great haste to commit his works to the press; and indeed l.e 
had no sooner written a page then he delivered it to the compositiM.-t 
without reading it again himself. Others have sought to concentrate 
their labors upon the completion of a single work which should leave 
nothing to be desired in future, rather than to publish so great a 
number of imperfect works of which the assemblage itself could 
hardly form a whole ; but unhappily Fiuher Gon^alves always showed 
himsulf regardless of the observations which had reference to his 
works, and if ihey were not of a nature absolutely to indispose hiiii 
lijwiirtis tlioje vvlio uiuJ*.' il-cm, he rLCcivcJ thcni ut ica,jl. with a 

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1840. Notices of J, A, Oongalves, 75 

blunt iiilence, or assumed an air of indifference which engaged them 
to bold their i>eace. It would be wrong, however to suppose that 
in this Father Gon^alves was actuated entirely by the impulse of d 
peculiar passion so common and so pardonable in authors ; it was 
rather the natural repugnance he felt to defending his opinions and 
developing his theories. 

We have already observed that his works, so rich in materials, are 
entirely destitute of theoretic explanations which would serve to 
explain their use. His oral instruction too was chargeable with the 
same fault. He contented himself with making his pupils study 
mechanically his Arte Chinas page by page, without ever entering 
into the least detail upon the great ideas contained in the alphabet, 
just as if he had never entertained them himself. If any serious 
questions were proposed to him in regard to this subject, he replied 
that in pursuing the study of his works, that with reference to which 
he was interrogated was more difficult of comprehension ; and when 
M. Stanislas Julien addressed him from Paris a letter of criticism 
wherein he said he had not comprehended the depth of thought 
concealed in his works, Father Gon^alves charged me with the 
office of replying to him, requesting that I should give a clear 
and succinct account of the system which had been observed in the 
composition of his two principal works, the Arte China and the 
Chinese-Portuguese Dictionary. 

I accepted with pleasure so honorable a task, and endeavored to 
fulfill It as well as I was then able. But if my production omitted 
ought that was desirable, I ought to say in acquittal of Father Gon- 
ial ves, that he did not suggest to me a word of it, though lie ex- 
claimed with great joy, when I presented it to him, that it was the 
same which he would have said. I ought to say, equally to his praise, 
that my writing, dated 1836, was a rough sketch of the Phonetic 
system, of which I confess with gratitude to have found the germ in 
the works of Father Gonial ves, although the silence which he has 
ever maintained in regard to so excellent an idea, seems to indicate 
that he never had a very clear notion of it. For as Boilcau remarks, 
ce que Von congoit bien s,enonce olairement, et Ics mots pons le dire 
arrivement aisemtnt. 

In respect of their typography the works of ihc Father Gon^alves 
are assuredly not to be highly praised. But this should be attributed 
to the circumstances of the place in which he lived rather than to 
any neglect of the author ; for he was at »rrt;.it pains to oversee the 
printing, and he frequently .;^avc his pergonal iussistance in setting up 

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?C Notices of J. A, Confolves, Feb. 

the ChiDese portion. It was only at the cloee of the day, when the 
men had quitted their work, that he indulged himself in a leisure 
walk ; but as the regulations of the college required him to return 
before night arrived, he made up for the want of time by the incress- 
ed vigor of his bodily exercise, sometimes in running with all his 
might in a certain solitary road in the vicinity of Macao, sometimes 
is rolling huge stones along the sea shore, as I have myself seen him 
do in more than one instance. 

This peculiarity has naturally led me to observe that Father Gon- 
ial ves always fulfilled to the letter the precept of the evangelist : 
*' unless ye become as little children ye shall not enter into the king- 
dom of heaven ;" for at the age of sixty he often exhibited a childlike 
disposition, which would have been taken for want of judgment, had 
it not been known with what qualities it was accompanied. It was 
especially in a small conipany of friends or pupils, that the Father 
Gon^alves gave himself up to all the gaiety of his natural disposi- 
tion, in chanting, trilling a few preludes, laughing with great glee or 
relating some pleasant anecdote of his college ; for in the presence 
of strangers, or of persons who were not favored with his intimacy, 
he maintained a serious I might say almost an original demeanor, 
and took very little part in the conversation. 

He made but ope exception to this, and that in favor of the Eng- 
lish, for whom he had that excessive partiality which we denominate 
the Anglomania^ but which to a certain extent may be deemed par- 
donable in him, considering the generous hospitality which he had 
experienced from them in one of the most difficult circumstances of 
his life. For after having fulfilled in 1622 and 1823, the office of 
interpreter to the senate of Macao, and in this station being obliged 
to flee before the arbitrary persecutions of a governor who caused his 
ignorant despotism to fall gpon all those who had taken part in the 
proclamation of the Portuguese Constitution in this city, he was 
received on hoard an English ship stationed at Lintin, engaged in 
the opium trade, and treated gratuitously with all the regard due to 
his character and to his personal merit. 

Twenty years afterwards he delighted to reefer to this episode in his 
life, and frequently spoke of it to me in terms of lively gratitude to 
his hosts, with whom however he found this fault, that he was com- 
pelled ot shave himself and change his linen every day during the 
two years he lived with them. It is indeed to be confessed that a 
neorlience the most classical, was so inherent in his dress, that it was 
to do violence to his nature to wish to correct him of it. TTis cham- 

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1840. Notices of /. A. Gonfatvcs. 77 

ber» his furniture, his garments, his person, all clearly indicated in 
regard to him, that he did not consider neatness a ?trtue, even if 
he did not reckon it among the vices. 

During the many years which Father Gon^alves spent in Macao, 
he was almost continually charged with the education of some young 
Chinese, whom he was preparing for the church. His affection and 
condescension towards his pupils and the Chinese in general was 
very great. I might even say that he carried it too far, as has hap- 
pened to the greater part of the missionaries who have resided a long 
time in China, who in the end have been led to admire nothing more 
than the Chinese. 

During the last years of his life he opened for the young people 
in Macao a gratuitous course of instruction in English, which lan- 
guage he spoke very well, and wrote with sufficient correctness, as 
also the Spanish, and to a less extent the Italian and the French. 

He gave at the same time lessons in music, an art for which he 
had a natural taste, and which he had sufficiently cultivated to be 
able to compose some correct pieces containing various ideas 
which are new and some designs very appropriate to the sacred 
department, to which the author exclusively devoted his muse. On 
the days of the great festivals, the church of St. Joseph rang with the 
music of Gon^alves, performed by his pupils and sustained by the 
strong counter-tenor, for which he was so admirably qualified by 
nature, as also by the o^gan, which he touched with delight. 

It is a remarkable feature in the musical compositions of Father 
Gon^alves, as also in the numerous Chinese productions which came 
from bis pen, that there is nowhere found a note or a word copied 
from any author whatever. So far did his scruples go in this par- 
ticular, that to preclude the possibility of committing an involuntary 
plagiarism, he would not consult any of the works previously pu- 
blished upon the same subject ; and I well remember how one day 
having taken up a volume of Morrison which lay covered with dust 
in the corner of his chamber, he fell into an absolute fit of laughter 
on hearing me read these singular phrases: the nqtpearance of a 
barking dog; the appearance of water running: the appearance 
of clouds and cold, &c., and he assured me that he would never avail 
himself of this work, any more than of the dictionary called de Gni- 
gnes, for fear that he should be accused of having pilfered from 
them, when this trouble would be of so little avail. 

The college of St. Joseph possesses in the inner harbor of Macao 
a small'island called Grceu Island. It was here that the master and 

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78 Notices of J. A Oonfalvcs, Fbh. 

the pupils were wont to repair for recreation during the week-day^ 
It wan here also that Father Gon^alvcs went to spend his vacations, 
if we may use this expression in regard to a man who labored con- 
stantly sixteen or eighteen hours every day. 

It was in September 1844, a season of the year, when, in the 
climate of Macao, the heat is very intense, Father Gon^aJves had 
finished the printing of his Lericon Magnum as well as the manu- 
script of his Chinese-Latin dictionary, and it was his intention to go 
over to Green Island to pass the remainder of the hot season. At 
this time he went to the sea to bathe, but whether from imprudence 
in exposing himself to the sun or to currents of air, or whether it was 
that he had been for a long time predisposed to sickness, it is cer- 
tain that aflcr having taken a bath, he was seized with severe chills 
and general indisposition which led him to take his course back to 
Macao. The next morning he came to see me and said to me that 
he did not feel very well. However as he had never been sick and 
was possessed of a very robust constitution, he neglected to take the 
necessary precautions until the fever having increased he was oblig- 
ed at length to betake himself to hie bed. His malady was nothing 
else in my opinion than a species of typhoid or slow fevec, which 
the physicians of the country usually cure with sufficient ease. 
But unhappily, full as he was of admiration of the English, he desir- 
ed to be attended by a physician of that nation. And this roan, who 
had no experience of the country, made so free of his calomel and 
his chicken broth^ that on the third of October at five o'clock P. M. 
Rosary Sunday, the sick man died afler four days illness. 

The approach of death, anticipated as it was, troubled not the 
calmness and serenity of Father Gonqalves, for he had always led an 
exemplary life, and he knew the recompense which awaits those 
who have sacrificed their all to God. His affections moreover were 
held to nothing of this world, except it were in a measure for his 
literary productions, of which the last which he had proposed to 
himself before his death, waited only to be committed to the press. 

The news of his death was felt as a calamity throughout the whole 
city of Macao; and the next morning, without an invitation being 
given, numerous citizens repaired of their own accord to his funeral, 
and with sadness accompanied his mortal remains to the place of 
their repose. True it is that Father Gon^alves had gained the 
affections of all, and apart from some peculiarities, they could speak 
of him only as a good priest, an excellent citizen, and a sage of 
{Treat modesty. 

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1816. IVotices of J. A. Oon^alvrs. 19 

The Chinese also had a great veneration for him, and considered 
him as well instructed as most of their own literary bachelors, not 
indeed so much for composition in which he did not excel, but for 
his ac<iuaintance with a great number of individual characters. 

The study of Chinese has lost one of its principal supports, and 
Portugal ORe of its brightest lights, and I shall surely be excused 
for adding in my grief, that in him I have lost a teacher and a friend 
so much the more dear, in that far from appearing to be touched by 
the criticisms, of which his works were the subject, in my Sy sterna 
Phaneticum, he at that time redoubled his affection towards me and 
presented me for the Royal Asiatic S;)ciety of which he was an 
honorary member, a very flattering recommendation of my work, 
styling it, a work that may be very useful to Chinese scholars, both 
as an alphabet, to know the Chinese characters, and as a dictionary 
to understand the Chinese language. 

The Father Gon^alves was of a height above middling, with very 
strong limbs which made him appear corpulent, his face oblong, his 
complexion sallow, his beard very thick, his eyebrows bushy, under 
which there appeared a few yellow hairs full of expression. 11 is 
forehead high and open indicated uncommon intelligence, and while 
the organs of benevolence and veneration were strongly developed 
on the top of his bald head, there was remarked an extraordinary 
depression on the side, where the phrenologists place acquisitive- 
ness, destructiveuess and secretiveness. Ilis handwriting was 
coarse and stiff, yet sufficiently legible and not altogether disagreea- 
ble to the eye. But although he wrote a great deal, his autograph 
has become rare, even at Macao, for he was in the habit of destroy- 
ing his manuscripts af\er they had been printed, while his corres- 
pendence also abroad was almost nothing and very laconic. 

Sometime after his death the news arrived that the Academy of 
Lisbon, had placed him in the number of its natumal members ; a 
token of respect, very tardy indeed, to the merits of a man who had 
grown grey in labors so glorious for his country. His pupils and 
his friends, more grateful, united to purchase in perpetuity a reser- 
vation in the cemetery of St. Paul's, and erected there a marble 
upon which is read the following inscription : 

Ilic jacet Rever. D. Joaquimus Alfonsus Gonsalves, Lusitanus, 
presbyter congregQtionis missionis, et in regali Sancti Josephi Macao^ 
iiensi collegio ptolcssor exiniius, regalis societal is asiaticae socius 
exter prosineusibas missiouibus solicitus, pcrutilia opcru uinico lusi- 
tauo latinoquo seiuiuue couipo^uit ct in lucem edidit, moribub suuri^ 

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5*> 3 fission art/ Labors in Siam- Feb. 

siiiiis, (loctrina pracstanti, ititcgra viia, qui pleiius diebiis in Domino 
quievit sexagenario inHior, quiulo nonas octobris, anno m d c c c x m. 
In memoriam tanti viri, ejiis amici litteraturaeque cultores hunc 
lapiiiein consecravcre. 

Repose then, venerable Teacher and Friend, and disdain not the 
feeble expression of remembrance and gratitude, which 1 offer you 
from this place of exile, waiting till 1 shall have the happiness to 
meet you in a better tabernacle. 

JiTote. Our bent tlianks ore due to M. Gallery for the forogoinflr article, 
kindly veni to uh in vlu'etK Ironi the Krencli prrgs. \Vc hoiH* he wilTfuid oiu 
English version correct. It uuppliea a lon^; wiuhed tor article. 

Art. III. Mis^ionarif labors in Siam: ophthalmic hospital in 
Bangkok; decUh of Mrs. BradUy ; schools and present prosj^tt 
of tfie mission. 

iWe have received several communications from missionaries at Bangkok, 
i DOW lay before our readers such extracts as our limits will allow.] 

Dear Sir, — I have a long time thought I might perhaps interest 
and edify your readers, by presenting in your useful paper, a brief 
view of what this mission is doing for the healing of the bodily di- 
seases of this people, and for protecting them against such. The 
sickness and death of my beloved wife prevented me from doing it 
at the time I intended. The accompanying table will show the 
cases that were regularly noted on r-ur case-book during a term of 
one year, beginning with May 7th, 1845. With the exception of 
vaccination, this will serve as a fair view of what we did in the same 
department of mission service for several successive years, previous 
to that date. Our dispeiisary //as first opened August 1835. From 
that time to November 26th, 1837, we entered on our book 5428 
cases. From that time to the datd of this tabular view we did not 
take the trouble to note our cases on a book, and therefore cannot 
report with much accuracy of the work during that period. Com- 
paratively little was done during the years 1838 and 1839, owing to 
the great amount of other duties which then devolved upon the mis- 
sionary physician. It is probably a low estimate to say that all the 
cases that have come under our care, not noted in our case book, is 
not less than 4000. lience the sum total of cases, from the begin- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1S46. Missionary Laban in Sidm, 81 

ning to the 6th of M<iy 1845, incTiiding cases of vaccination, would 
be 12,572. We have a small hospital in connection with our dis- 
pensary. It is a small bamboo building, designed for the lodging and 
victualing of ten or twelve patients who are not able to go to and 
from the dispensary. It was erected early in the year 1843. This 
had on an average about 10 inmates all the time. Our dispensary 
is a floating house a few rods from the mission premises. The hos- 
pital stands on the bank of the river near to it. We devote usually 
one hour daily, and sometimes more, in attendance at both of these 
places, and are assisted by two young men; one an Indo-Portu- 
gnese, and the other a Siamese. We have ^so a Chinese and Malay 
interpreter. The daily applications at the dispensary are probably 
from 40 to 60. The services are opened by reading a portion of the 
word of God and prayer by the physician in attendance. 

Rev. 8. Johnson has the charge of teaching the Chinese hospital 
patients. Nearly all the inmates of the hospital are Chinese. Capital 
operations in surgery are occasionally required, and performed with 
a good degree of success. Many totally blind from cataract have 
left us with very comfortable sight. Indeed very few of all our cata- 
ract cases fail of receiving sight after the 1st or 2d operation. 

It is impossible to report with much definiteness the cures we have 
wrought by the good hand of our God upon us. It probably may with 
safety be stated, that cures or great amendments are the results of at 
least two thirds of all the cases that apply to us for remedial aid. 
Almost all kinds of ulcers yield quickly to our treatment. It may be 
seen that much good has been done by our little establishment. 

As regards the persons vaccinated, there can be no question, that 
it will save them from the terrible hres of the small pox, and probably 
lengthen out many of their lives, so that the blessed gospel may reach 
them before death, and become the power of God unto their salvation 
from eternal misery. Who can estimate the amount of good done 
by one who is the means or instrument of rescuing a single soul from 
hell? But the good effected by our dispensary and hospital, in relax- 
ing the prejudices of this people against the Christian religion and 
thus preparing the way of the Lord, is incalculable and our work 
has no doubt effected much in this way already ; but its greatest 
power remains yet to be developed. 

Our hospital in order to answer well the end we designe 1 by it, 
should be greatly enlarged, and far more thoroughly furnished with 
IfHlging places and nurses. Indeed as it is now we have no suitable 
lodging places; the patients arc all in one roomj and wc Ikivc no 

VOL. \v. NO. II 11 ^ C^r^r\n]r> 

Digitized by VjOOv IC 


Missionary habwrs in Siam. 


nurses, for the want of adequate funds, that we can with propriety 
employ for the purposes of a hospital. 

List of Diseases. 

Abscess - . - 



Apthae - - - 

Asthma - - . 

Bite of a dog 

Boils - - - - 


Bubo - - . - 

Bullae - . - 

Burns - - - • 






Consumption, Pulmonary 

Pemphigus - - - 


Scrofula . - - 

Scald head 


Sprain ... 

Splenitis - . - 


Thorn iu foot 

Tumors - - - 

Ulcers - - - - 

Whitlow - - - 

Wounds; contused - 
do. Incised 
do. Lacerated 
do. Punctured 

Chorea - - - 

Diarrhea - - . 

Diabetes - - - 



Dysentery - - - 


Exostosis - - - 

Elephantiasis - 


Fever Intermittent - 

Fever Ileniitteiil - 


F'istula Lachrymal is - 



Vistula in A no 



fungus Haematodes - 






Jrinary Cuiculi ^ 



[ierpes . . - 


16 i 

flemoptisia . - - 


3 Hydrocele - - - 
14 Hooping Cough 
1 JHernia Inguinal Strangulated 



7 jlnduration of Bowels 


14 (Impetigo . - - 


6, Scabies 


1 jMenses Supressed 


i ; Menses deranged - 


2iMania - . - - 


4 Neuralgia 

1 'Nodes - - . - 


64 Opthalmia - 


12 Paralysis - - - - 


1 jPolypus 


45;Pteryia . - - - 


1 ^Psoriasis . - - 


i (Phlegmon - . - 


1 jPiles . 



Worms - - - 



Leprosy ... 



enlarged - 



Diseases not named 



Sum Total - 


Classes of the Patients - 





Chinese - 



l/aos - - - 



Malay - 









Indo Portuguese - 









Peguans - 



Parsee - - - 



Unkuowu - 



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Missionary Lahors in S!am, 



Could Read - 



Could not Rend - 



Unknown • . - 





427 Successful vaccinations 


253 Unsuccessful do. 



M ales 
Not noted 

Married - 
Not noted 

Along with the preceding notices, we received a printed copy of a 
sermon, "prached at the funeral of Mrs Bradley, an assistant missio- 
nary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions,'' 
which we have perused with much pleasure. She was, in her place, 
*' a bright and shining light." She loved her work; she loved her 
Savior ; she triumphed over death ; and her end was happy. We have, 
in the sermon, the following notices of the deceased. 

** Mn. Emilie Royce Bradley, only daughter of Phinehas and Deborah Royce, 
wan born in Clinton, Oneida Co. N. York, Jaly 12th, 181 1 . She was educated at 
Clinton Female Seminary — became hopefully piotu in the nineteenth year of 
her age, and joined the Congregational Church of Clinton, in May of the same 
year 1831. She early became interested in the cause of missions, and expected 
for a time to spend her life singly, as a teacher, in connection with the Ameri- 
can mission at Bombay : but God ordered otherwise. She was married to Dan 
llcach firadley, m. d., June 5th, 1834 ; embarked for Siam, in Boston July 2d 
of the same year — arrived in Bangkok July 18th of the following year, — and 
died of pulmonary consumption in this city, Aug. 2d, 1845. Mrs. Bradley had 
been the mother of five children, three of whom, still survive." 

Under the care of the mission, to which Mrs. Bradley belonged, are 
several small schools, for Chinese boys. There are also a few Sia- 
mese pupils, and among them " prince Chau-Fa-Yai,one of the head 
priests." The Bible is read by all these. There are likewise '' well 
selected sites for preaching and tract distribution." We have dates 
to the 1st of January 1846. Though the strength of the mission has 
been reduced, yet its prospects are as fair and encouraging as at 
any previous period. Its hope is in God, and in the word of his 
promise. That which he ordains roust stand ; and that which he 
purposeth must prosper. 

Digitized by 


84 Tke Oregon Ttrriiwy. Fbb; 

Art. IV. Oregon, Territory; its topography, cUmatCf ])rmlnci ions ^ 
population, political relations, Sfc. By Rev. Gu«tavu8 Hinks. 
(From the Hongkong Register.) 

To PRF.SKNT to an inquiring public in dotsiil the true condition of tlio Oregon 
l^erritory, us regards its goographical, liistorical, political, civil, and rcligiouB 
cliarjLCtcr, to exhibit the state of the country as rc8i)ects its climate, fertility, 
natural productions, wenlth nnd resources, and to commemorate all the impor- 
tant circumstances, which have attended tlic settlement of this comparatively 
unknown, and much neglected portion of our world, would require volumes, 
instead of the limits of one brief article. It will therefore be my object in 
this account of the Oregon Territory, to render my remarks as compreliensive 
as possible. A residence of nearly six years in the country, connected 
witli the fact that I have made it an object to become informed, from 
personal observation, with every circumstance of importance which has 
t.nn:)pired in connexion with either the civil, political, or religious interests 
of the country, ought to have qualified me to present a correct view of this 
interesting portion of the globe. I am prompted to attempt this from the deep 
interest which is felt, particularly in England and the United Suites in refer- 
ence to Oregon ; an interest which, no way exiiibits itself more fully, than in 
Uie efforts which the two governments are now making to settle the question 
of boundary betwixt their respective claims. From the fact that Oregon is 
exciting so much interest at the present time, it is certainly desirable Uiat all 
concerned become correctly informed in relation to the country ; and informa- 
tion that can be relied upon, so far n» it goes, the writer flatters himself is 
here given. 

The Oregon Territory is that portion of Nortli America west of the Rocky 
Mountains, and bordering on the Pacific Ocean, which is drained by the 
Oregon or Columbia river, and its numerous tributaries, and is embraced 
within the limits of a most natural boundiry. Commencing with the nortli west 
ornor at Cape Flattery, near the 49th dngree of north latitude, consider the 
north line as extending along the Strait of Juan do Fuca eastward, one hun- 
dred and twenty miles, thonce oast northeast along the summit of the mountains 
which divide the waters of FraziePs river, from those which flow into tlie 
(^oUinibia, to that ridge of the Rocky Mountains which separates tho waters, 
whit;h flow into the Pacific Ocean, from those which empty into tluiGulphof 
Mexico, the distance of six hundred miles; thence along said ridgf souLh,the 
d'lStmce of eight hundred miles to the Snowy Mountains on the 42d degree 
of north latitiule, forming its eastern boundary; thence turning west, and 
forming its southern limit'* nlonsr the Snowy Mountains, seven hnndred miles 
to Capc! Mendocino on the Pjiclfic Occin; and thence along the Pacific from 
(•:ipo Mendocino five hundred miles north, to Cape Flattery the place of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846, The Oregon Territory. 85 

Th6M are tlie natural limits of the country, and surround Oregon on three 
sides with stupendous ranges of mountains, and give it on the Strait of Juan 
de Fuca and the Pacific Ocean, more than six hundred miles of coast Within 
these limits are embraced more than 960,000 square miles. 

The face of this country is wonderfully diversified, and presents every 
variety of scenery, from the roost awfully grand and sublime, to the most 
beautiful and picturesque in nature. In the vicinity of Puget's Sound, tlie 
country is level, and exceedingly beautiful, and consists mostly of prairie land, 
with but a small portion of timber ; but, with this exception, all along the 
coast, it is broken and mountainous. On approaching the coast at the mouth 
of the Ck>Iumbia river, ridges of high lands appear on either hand as far as 
the eye can reach, and the more elevated points serve as land marks to guide 
the mariner through the intricate channel across the fearful ''Bar of the 
Columbia." One high mountain called by the Indians " Swalalahoost," from 
an Indian tradition, and from its appearance, is supposed to have once been 
an active volcano. With but little variation, the country from thirty to fifly 
miles back ftom the coast, presents a rough, wild and mountainous aspect, 
and is covered with dense forests of fir, spruce and cedar trees. Passing over 
this broken border of the country, you descend on the north side of the 
Columbia into the valley of the Cowilitz, and on the south, into that of the 
Wallamette river. These valleys extend eastward to that range of mountains 
which, crossing the Columbia river, forms the Cascades, and is therefore called 
the " Cascade Mountains." Comprised in the valleys are many extensive 
prairies, beautiful woodlands, numberless hillocks, rising grounds, and majes- 
tic hills, from the top of some of which, scenery, as enchanting as was ever 
presented to the eye, delights and charms the lover of nature, who takes time 
to visit their conical summits. That part of Oregon extending from the 
Cascade Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, is called the '^ Lower Country," and 
is about one hundred and thirty miles wide. 

The Cascade Mountains extend tn one continuous range, parallel with the 
coast, quite to California, and have therefore sometimes been called the 
''Califomian Range." Those whose mountain observations have not been 
very extensive, can form no jast conception of the grandeur and magnificence 
of Uiis stupendous range. Ttic higheiit peaks are covered with eternal snows, 
and presenting their rounded tops to the heavens, appear like so many magni- 
ficent domes to adorn ihe great temple of nature. Some of them are more 
tlian fifteen tliousand feet above the level of the sea. From one elevation 
netir the Wallamette river, and from sixty to one hundred and fifty miles 
distant, tJie writer has counted eight of these snow capped mountains without 
moving from his traclts. Surely no sight can be more enchanting. One of 
these mountains, viz: St Helen, requires a more particular account from a 
phenomenon which it presented three years ago. In the month of October, 
1842, this mountain was discovered all at once, to be covered with a dense 
rloufl of H!nokc, wiiich continued to enlarge and move off in dense masses to 
tiK' eastward, and filling the heavens in that direction, presented an appear- 
unco like tliat of a tiemcndous conflagration viewed at a vast distance. When 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

8<> The Oregon Territory. Feb. 

the smoke had passed away, it could be distinctly seen from various parts of 
the country, that an eruption had taken place on the north side of St Helen; 
and from the smoke that continued to issue from the chasm or crater, it was 
pronounced to be a volcano in active operation. When the explosion took 
place, vast quantities of dust or ashes, were thrown from the chasm, and fell 
in showers for many miles distant This mountain is the most regular in its 
form, and most beautiful in its appearance, of all the snow clad mountains of 
Oregon, and though on the north side of the Columbia it belongs to the 
Cascade Range. Mount Hood, on the south side of the Columbia, is more 
elevated than St Helen, and presents a magnificent object on which the eye 
can gaze without weariness, from innumerable points more than one hundred 
and fifly miles from its base. But any description of these gigantic piles of 
basalt and snow, must fall far below the reality ; and it is only necessary to 
gaze for one moment upon these majestic glaciers, to be impressed with the 
insignificance of the works of art, when compared with works of nature. 

Passing over the Cascade Range to the eastward, you come into another 
extensive valley, which reaches to the foot of another range, which from its 
azure like appearance, is called the *'Blue Mountains." This valley is about 
two hundred miles broad, and is called the ^ middle country." A number of 
beautiful rivers flow through this valley, and it is also intersected by broken 
ridges, which divide the numerous streams by which it is watered. This part 
of the country, abounds in extensive plains and '^ Prairie Hills;" but timber 
is so very scarce, that the eye of the traveler is seldom delighted with the 
appearance of a tree. ^ The Blue Mountains " arc steep, rocky and volcanic, 
and some of them are covered with perpetual snow. 

They run nearly parallel with the Cascade Range, though, far to the south, 
branches of them intersect with the latter range. They are about midway 
betwixt the Pacific Ocean, and the Rocky Mountains. The country east of 
the Blue Mountains, is the third, or upper region, and extends to the eastern 
boundary of the Territory of Oregon. The face of it is more varied if possible, 
than it is in that part of the country, lying west of the Blue Mountains, the 
southern part being distinguished by its steep and rugged mountains, deep 
and dismal valleys, called *^ Holes" by tlie mountaineers, and wide gravelly 

The northern part is less objectionable in its features ; the plains being 
more extensive, the mountains less precipitous, and the valleys not so gloomy. 
Many portions of this upper region are volcanic, and some of the volcanoes 
are in constant action. Many of the plains of this region, are covered with 
carbonate of «oda, which, in some places, may be gathered in vast quantities, 
and renders the soil generally unproductive. On the eastern limits of this 
region, ri^e in awful grandeur tlie towering summits of the Rocky Mountains, 
which have been very properly called the "back bone" of North America. 
The highest land in North America is in this range, and is near the ^ik 
parallel of north latitude. It is called "Brown's Mountain." Near this, and 
in a tremendous gorge of the mountains, one of the principal branches of tho 
roji;inbia lakes its rise. In this ro<»;iou the country presents the wildest ami 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

184<i. The Orcgm TirrUorif. 87 

most terrific appearance. Stii|)on(1ou0 glaciers and cliaotic masses of rocks 
ice and snow present themselves on every side, and defy the power of 
languagre fully to describe them. So far as the face of this entire country is 
concerned, perhaps no otlier in tlie world, presents a more varied or a more 
interesting appearance. 

The climate of Oregon varies materially as you proceed from the coast 
into tlie interior. To a proper understanding of the climate, it is necessary 
to consider tlie winter and Kummer separately. The winds which prevail in 
the winter are from ihe south and east, sometimes veering to tlie southwest 
They usually commence about the first of November, and continue till the 
first of May. Sometimes they come on gradually, but at some seasons, they 
burut upon the country at once, and with the violence of a thunder storm. 
Thoy are always attended with continued falls of rain, and the period of their 
continuance is tlierefore called the rainy season. During the rainy season 
there are intervals of wann pleasant weather, which are generally followed 
by cold chilly rains from the south and west In the latter part of winter there 
are generally light falls of snow throughout the country, though in the valleys, 
and particularly in the Wallamette valley, it seldom falls more than two or 
tlirec inches deep. However, in th/ winter of 1841 and 1842 the snow fell in 
this valley twelve inches deep, but eight days afterwards it had all disap- 

Though the winters are disagreeable on account of the chilliness of the 
southeast winds, and the extreme humidity of the atmosphere, yet the cold 
is very moderate, the thennometer seldom falling below freezing point As a 
matter of course the ground is seldom frozen, and therefore ploughing may 
be done a great portion of the winter. Occasionally however, there is an 
exception to this. A few days before the great fall of snow already mentioned, 
the mercury fell in some parts of the country, to fifteen degrees below zero ; 
and it continued excessively cold for several days. The lakes were all frozen^ 
so that cattle and horses could pass over them on tlie ice, and the Columbia 
river as far down as the mouth of the Wallamette, was bridged with ice foi* 
the period of fiflccu days. A similar circumstance occurred in the winter of 

In the middle region the rains are not so abundant as in the lower country ; 
the weather is colder, and there is consequently more snow. In that por- 
tion of Oregon east of the Blue Mountains called the upper region, it seldom 
rains except in the spring, and then the rains are not protracted. Vast 
quantities of snow faL in this region, particularly in the mountains. This part 
of the territory is distinguished for the extreme dryness of its atmosphere, 
which, witli the vast difference in the temperature betwixt the day and night, 
forms its most peculiar trait, so far as climate is concerned. From sunrise 
till noon, the mercury frequently rises from forty to sixty degrees. It should 
be ob3er\'ed that none of tlie winters of Oregon are either so stormy or so 
cold but tliat cattle, horses, sheep, &c., find ample supplies of provender on 
the wide spread prairies, whiilier tJicy are driven, to roam at large. If the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

88 The Oregon Tcrritonf. Fun. 

winters of Orogon arc rather stoniiy and implcaBant, tlic summers arc 
sufllciently dcli^^lilful, to counterbalance all tliat is dinagrccable in tli« 

In the month of March, the weather becomes sufficiontly warm to start 
vcoretation, so riiat tlius early, the pmiries become beautifully green and many 
of Flora's choicest g^Hs appear, to honild the approach of summer. Tlie 
summer winds are frointho west and nortli, and there is seldom any pleasant 
woatlier, except when tliese prevail. After a long rainy winter, the people of 
tliis country look for the healtliy and exliilarating breeze from the bosom of 
the Paciiic, with great solicitude. At length tiie wished for change takes 
place. The howl of the storm, and tlie roar of the souUiern winds, arc hushed 
to silence, the hills and valleys are gently fanned by the western Zephyr, 
and the sun, pouring his floods of light and heat from a cloudless sky, causes 
nature as by enchantment to enrobe herself in all the glories of summer. The 
delightful weather thus ushei-ed in, continues through the entire summer, 
with but little deviation, and the temperature of tlie atmosphere, particularly 
in the Wallamette valley is agreeably warm and uniform. At noon in tlic 
warmest weather the tliermometer ranges at about 82 ** in the shade, but tlie 
evenings are considerably cooler. The coolness of the evenings doubtless 
goes far to neutralize the eflfects of the malaria that is exhaled tlirongh tlio 
influence of the sun, from the swamps and marshy places, which are found 
in some parts of the country. From personal experience, and extensive obser- 
vation in reference to this particular, the writer is prepared to express tlic 
opinion, that the climate of Oregon is decidedly favorable to health. And 
why should it not be ? The temperature, particularly in the lower country, is 
remarkably uniform. The country is not therefore subject to the evil resulting 
from sudden changes from extreme heat to extreme cold. The exhilarating 
ocean breeze, which sets in almost every d&y during the summer, contributes 
greatly to purify the atmosphere. These circumstances connected with tlie 
fact, that there is but little decaying vegetable matter in tlie country, and 
but few dead swamps and marshes to send forth tlieir poisonous miasma, to 
infect the surrounding regions, are sufHcient to show that Oregon must be 
tlie abode of health, and that human life is as likely to be protracted, and 
men to die of old age in this country, as in any other portion of the world. 
Indeed, such is the healthiness of the climate of this country, that but veiy 
few white persons have here sickened and died, since its first occupancy by 
such, more than 30 years ago. Yet, with these facts before them, there arc 
persons who are ready to publish far and near that the climate of Oregon, 
and particularly ot tlie lower country is " decidedly unhealthy. That tlie 
most malignant and fatal fevers prevail,*' than which no representation could 
be more erroneous. 

True tlio ague and fever in a very modified form, sometimes prevails in 
the lower country ; but it is easily controlled by proper remedies, and finally 
Itnives tlie person with a vigorous and an unimpaired constitution, and sel- 
dom returns tlic second season. Those presons who have lived longest in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. The Oregon Territory. 89 

the country, are ^ncrally the most healtliy and vigorous ; which of itself ia 
n autficient proof of tlie fricndlince? of the climate to the promotion of healUi. 
If there is any difference between the different portions of Oregon in regard 
to the healthiness of its clunate, the middle region, and that iroroediotely 
along tlie coast, are the most salubrious. The climate of the valleys of the 
Walloinette, Cowilitz, Umpqua, and Clameth rivers is well calculated for 
wheat, barley, oats, peas, apples^ peaches, turnips, and all other vegetables 
U!<ually cultivated in the temperate latitudes, while horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, 
&c., flourish and multiply beyond all parallel ; but in the middle and some 
parts of the upper region, the climate is well adapted to all the pursuits of a 
pastoral life. 

With a uniform, salubrious, and delightful climate, as well adapted to 
purposes of agriculture as any within the same degrees of latitude in any 
part of tiie world, Oregon loses much of its importance, if the feriUitif of the 
wil doe? not correspond with the nuture of the climate. The soil of Oregon 
has been variously represented by persons who have visited the country. 
Some ha\'e viewed it in altogether too favorable a light, while others have 
greatly underrated it Some have placed it among tlie first in the world, 
while others have considered Oregon as a boundless desert, fit only to be the 
habitation of wild beasts and savage men. These conflictinqf representa- 
tions doubtless have arisen from a superficial acquaintance with the country 
by the authors of them. They have either not stayed in the country a sufiici- 
ent length of time to become at^qnainted with its real productiveness, or they 
have relied upon that information which has been artfully designed to prevent 
the country iiom being known. The bottom laods, on each bank of the 
Columbia river, are subject to an annual inundation, which is occasioned by 
the melting of the vast quantities of snow which fall on its upper branches, 
among the mountains. Tnis Hood continues tiirough the month of June and 
into July, so that whatever may be the richness of the land thus overfiowii, 
but small portions of it will ever be brought to contribute fo tlje support of 
man. There are however some portions which lie above high water mark, 
and are remarkably fertile, and produce in abundance all tiio grains and 
vegetables common to the best parts of the country. Fort Vpnrouver is situat- 
ed on oue of these higher parts of the Columbia valley, and here a farm of 
two thou'iand acres is cultivated, and produces annurJly several thousand 
bu.;he!» of grain. Here also apples, pears, and pearlies are cultivated suc- 
cessfully, and grapes are brought to a degree of porlection. 

Thou'j'] but few attennpts have as y«?t been mjiue to cultivate tlie upKinds, 
or timbered lands, yet sufli^iout has b-^on done to prove that the soil of these 
portions mnat He of a superior quality. hn\ inlee.l this i^ attested by tlio 
immense growth of the timber itself. No interior soil could send fnrtii tliose 
enormous trunks, which in their up-vai'l pro;yress spread their mar^nificeut 
branches to die skies, and often reur their heads to tho amazing height of 
three hundred feet 

Clatsop Plains, on the aouth sir^c of the Colunibi.i river, near it3 mouth, 
embracing an area of abou I tfiAiy cii|uarc rnileii, are a:iiai:ii«3ly rorlile, beiiijf 

VOL XV. M» 11. I* nr^r^n\o 

Digitized by VjOOv IC 

90 The Oregon Territory. Pi>«. 

composed of a rich alluvial deposit, and producing all kinds of vegetables in 
the greatest abundance. The country around Puget's Sound on the north 
side of the river, is altogether of a different of character. The prairies are 
extensive and beautiful, the scenery most delightful, but strictly speaking, 
there is no soil to the country. The prairies are covered with shiugie, or 
small stones, with scarcely any mixture of earth. Indeed there arc but few 
places on this somewhat extensive tract, where any tiling can bo raised. 
Attempts have been made to redeem it from its native barrenness, but as yet, 
all have failed. The Hudson's Bay Company transported some of tlicir sur- 
plus population at Red river, to this region, but in consequence of Uio 
sterility of the country, tliey soon became discouraged, and, though con- 
trary to the wishes of the Company, they have abandoned the place and have 
settled elsewhere. And yet this region has been represented as distinguished 
alike for the salubrity of its climate, and the fertility of its soil. The climate 
is indeed delightful, but the soil is exceedingly forbidding, and can never 
perhaps be recovered from its extreme barrenness. 

Of all the different parts of Oregon, tho^e watered by the Cowilitz and 
Chehalish rivers on the north side of the Columbia, and those on the south, 
through which the Wallamette with its numerous tributaries and the Ump- 
qua and Clameth rivers flow, are unquestionably the most fertile. The valley 
of the Wallamette, which embraces an area of 25,000 square miles, is un- 
doubtedly entitled to the appellation of the garden of Oregon. The close 
observer in traveling tlirough this valley will discover several kinds of soil. 
On the lower bottoms in some places is a sandy soil, in others a kind of 
black marie or loam. There is but little difference in the productiveness 
of the two kinds. They are both the alluvial deposits of the Wallamette 
river. On the second boUo.ns or liigh prairies as they arc called, tlie soil 
is a dark loamy clay, and is as strong and fertile as the lower grounds. 
Some yellow gravelly sand is found high up tlie river, but this embraces but 
a small proportion of tlie valley. T)ie ability of tlie soil to produce is best 
ascertained by considering the crops which are annually taken from the land. 
Under tlie present system of cultivation the average amount of wheat taken 
from the English acre, is from twenty-five to thirty bushels. The amount 
of labors required to accomplish this, is comparatively trifling. The writer 
has formerly resided in the great wheat growing country of Genesee, in 
the stite of Now York, and understands the amount of labor necessary to 
raise a tliou.?uiul hnshels of wheat in that country, and from observation in 
Ore;r^n, he hits been brought to the conclusion, that it requires much less 
labors to raise a thonsan 1 btisliels in the latter country, than it does in any 
part of Gejiesco Fhit The prairies of the Wallamette and other valleys 
are unlike any thing tlmt can be found in any otlier country. They are 
naturally very incllow, an I appear as one is passing over them, as though it 
had been but a year or two since tliey were cultivated. They are n.)t 
swarded over with a tiii=^.k stronjr tm-f, as in the western states, but they can 
be easily ploughed with oir? good piir of horses, and with once- ploughing 
are ready to receive Uu: cccd, aiiducidom fail cveu with the first crop, bouii- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. The Oregon Terftiarj/. 01 

tlfully to reward the husbandman. The first crop however is never so good 
as tho succeeding ones. It is not an uncommon thing for farmers, without 
. using any extraordinary means, to take from fifty to sixty-five bushels of 
wheat from an acre, and this has been the average through entire fields. 

Doubtless, if farmers would take more pains in cultivating the land, they 
would realize much more from the acre than they now do; but, if they loee 
any thing in this respect, they gain an equivalent in the immense number of 
acres which they cultivate. The amount of English grain raised by tlie 
dififerent farmers in the country varies from 50 to 300 acres each. As wheat 
never sufiers from blight, and as there are no insects to trouble it, a good crop 
is as sure to reward the labor of the husbandman who sows his seed, as day 
and night to continue until harvest time. This certainty of a good crop is 
owing as much to the nature of the climate, as to the quality of tlie soil. 
Some other crops are not so certain. Potatoes frequently suffer from drought, 
as also Indian com. But the soil and climate are well adapted to raising 
melons, cucumbers, beets, cabbages, and all kinds of garden vegotablen. 
Apples, peaches, and all kinds of fruits which abound in New ITork, flourish 
flo far as they have been cultivated, and will soon become abundant 

The soil of the middle region differs materially from that of the low country. 
It bears ene general character, and consists of a yellow sandy clay. It pro- 
duces in great abundance a kind of bimch grass, as also a variety of small 
shrubbery, and the prickly pear. It is on the almost boundless plains of this 
region, that the Indians raise their immense herds of horses. It is no uncom- 
mon thing for one Indian to own fifleen hundred of these animals. Large por- 
tions of this country will admit of being cultivated, particularly on the river 
** De Chutes," the Uritilla and the Walla- Walla, while the whole of its vast 
extent, is most admirably adapted to purposes of grazing. The soil as a 
whole though not of the first quality, may be pronounced tolerably good. 

The upper region of Oregon is less fertile than the middle, though there 
are many thousands of acres in various parts of it, of good arable land. What 
has oflen been said of Oregon as a whole, may be said in truth of a large 
portion of the upper country, viz.: that ** it is an extensive barren waste 
capable of supporting but a very small number of inhabitants." 

But this remark will only apply to the upper region of this vast territory. 
To apply it to that part of Oregon extending from the Blue Mountains to 
the Pacific Ocean, would be doing the country great injustice. For instead 
of this being the case, it is the opinion of those who have been longest in 
the country, and who consequently know best what the resources of the 
country are, that this portion of Oregon is capable of sustaining as large a 
population as ofi of the New England states In fact, the natural resources 
of this country are great, and it is only necessary for them to be known, to 
be duly appreciated. 

It is only necessary to prebert one single circumstance, to show what the 
country would be capable of doing, provided it was filled with an industrious 
population. It will be borne in mind that in the fall of 1843, an emigration 
arrived in the country numbering from eight to ten hundred persons. But 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

93 J^ Oregon Territory. Feb. 

few of these raised any tbin^ by fanniiig, towards their support the first year, 
la the fall of 1844, another emigration, eqaal to the former, arrived, and all 
tboee persons nambering at least 1,800, with the former population, which 
was aboat equal to the two emigrations, depended upon the products of 1844 
for subsistence until the harvest of 1845. Probably not more than one fourth 
of the entire population cultivated the land in 1844, yet they were all sup- 
ported from the granaries of the country; fifteen thousand budhela of wheat 
were shipped to the Russian sett! erne n!ii ; rue thousand barrels of flour were 
exported to the Sandwich Islands ; and rhoiisanda of bushels yet remained 
on hand, before the abundant harvest of 1845 was gathered in. With these 
facts in view, it does not require much foresight tc see that Oregon can and 
will compete with any other portion of the world, in supplying the islands 
of the Pacific, the Russian settlements, and every other flour market conti- 
guous, with bread stuff at as low a rate as can reasonably be desired. In 
connection with this it may be remarked that pork and beef, of an excellent 
quality, can be raised in this country, with greater ease and facility even than 
wheat And the climate being favorable for curing them, the time is not 
far distant, when these articles will also be exported in abundance. 

Already there are many settlers in the country who have from two hun- 
dred to five hundred head of cattle, and it is not an uncommon thing for a 
man to be the owner of one hundred hogs. At present, however, from the 
great influx of population, these kinds of property bear a high price in the 
country, but the time may be anticipated when the home market will not be 
80 extensive, and the vast supplies from this quarter must find an outlet. 

As in many portions of the country spruce fir and pine timber abound, and 
as there are many waterfalls, which afford excellent hydraulic privileges, tlie 
facilities for procuring timber in the country are abundant Already, consi- 
derable quantities of lumber are exported annually. It should also be observ- 
ed that salmon in any quantities, and of the very best quality, may be yearly 
barrelled, which, with the products of dairiea, that the country offers the 
greatest facilities for conducting, in addition to what has already hetm said 
concerning the products of the country, is sufiicient to show tuat the exports 
of Oregon, in proportion to the number of its inhabitants may equai those of 
most other countries. 

There are few countries in which a poor man can place himself above 
want, with greater facility than in this. This is the testimony of every one 
that settles in the country. But every country has its defects, and this cer- 
tainly is not free fi-Oiii them. It is not tiie garden Edcu, nor is it a barren 
desert It does not *' flow with honey ** like the land of Canaan, but in some 
places, it literally abounds in milk. And tliough it is not '*a land of wine** 
yet in the more necessary ivrticles of "corn and ojI," it greatly abounds. 
Though ot)ld and silver are not yet found in the rich veins of tlie earth, nor 
in great abundance in many coffers, yet a compel oncy of whatever is neces- 
sary, is always awarded to industry and econotny. •' 

That it is a laml of mfjiuitains :ind valley.i, of rivers and streams, cf mighty 
forests and extended piairirn, of n salDbrioris rlhr^ate, and a rich an*) fertile 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Tki Oregon Territory. 03 

soil, the foregoing remarks will sufficiently show. And in sununing up tho 
character of the country, it may be said to be not the best country in the 
world, but it is well entitled to be called a good country. 

A minute histoiy oi Oregon, embracing an account of its original as well 
as present inhabitants, would be an interesting work, but it will be impossi- 
ble in this article, to /^ive more than a very few of the outlines, commencing 
first with the native population. The time ban been when the Indians of 
Oregon were numerous and powerRil. This in the current testimony of the 
early explorers of the countiy, and the aged chiefs of tlie different tribe^i, 
now in the country. But at present, thi^ is far t^-om being the case. Indeed, 
the Indians of Oregon are fast |)r;rishln^ from among men. This doubtless 
is the result of the inti'oduction amofio- them, of vicious, di^^ascd and un- 
principled white men. To this causn the Indians themselves atiribute their 
astonishing decrease of numbers. The few that still remain, particularly in 
the lower country, are a broken, dispirited and wretched race of men. No 
motive can be presented to them, that will have the least tendency to induce 
them to engage in any enterprise, from which they are not fully satisfied 
they shall reap present benefits. Exhort tlicni to build houses, cultivate 
land, &c., and tliey meet you witJi tlie reply. " It will do no good. We are 
all dying very fast But a little time ago, our people were numerous as the 
leaves of the forest, and they were powerful. The elk and the deer were 
plenty, we had enough to eat, and the cold sick was not amosg iia. We 
were rich and we were happy. But the Boston and the king George people 
came among us, and brought the cold sick with tiiem. Since that we have 
been dying very fast, and it will not be long before we shall all be dead." 
And indeed there is no life nor spirit nor energy aninng Uiem. They are a 
stupid, a melancholy, and a doomed raoe of men. And if they go on decreas- 
ing in the ^nine ratio in the future, that ihey hive duHog the last twenty 
years the tune is uot far distant when there will he but here and there a 
solitary una to be found, to mourn over the graves of hi« lathers, and to tell 
the melancholy tale, that "through the avarice and ciuelty of white men, 
our council fires are extinguished, our warriors are laid in the dust, our 
wostien and children have gone to the great spirit and our land is possessed 
by our destroyers." 

The whole number of Ind'ons now in the lovrer country doos not amount 
to more than 3,000 souls; and these are the broken fmgments of tribes 
speaking distinct languages, which cannot be understood by each other ; but 
since white men came among them, a jargon has been introduced which is 
generally understood. 

For numberless a^es the ancestors of this down-trodden people, dwelt 
securely in their numerous vellcys, roamed unmolested over tiieir towering 
mountains, chased the wild buffalo, elk an! di\or over their wide spread 
plains, " and there were none to molest iliem, or iiinko tijeri afraid." But 
whore in the wide world has not tlie white mm be^*!! led bv his avari(to and 
cupidity ? There is no land so remote that b*"' will \v}t visit it ; no orean Morm 
BO violent thai ho will iiol brave its fury ; no climutc do burning lior no frigid 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

94 The Oregon Territory. Feb. 

that he will not exopee himself to its inflaence, and no savage tribes so hostile 
that he will not seek them, in order to satisfy his cariosity, his thirst for fame, 
on his love of gold. All these motives have operated for thirty years past, to 
induce men from almost every civilized nation under the sun to seek the 
inhospitable shores of Oregon. 

To a proper understanding of tlie cliaracter of the present population of 
this country, it will be necessary to consider the source whence it has sprung. 
Perhaps a more heterogeneous mass of human kind cannot be found in any 
land than have sought an asylum in the wilds of Oregon. Here are found 
the Indian, who is the legitimate proprietor of the soil, Americans, Englishmen! 
Frenchmen, Scotchmen, Irishmen, Danes, Germans, Prussians, Canadians, 
Italians, Spaniards, Hawaiians, and Africans. From continued inter-marriages 
with one another, and particularly with the natives of the country, an 
amalgamated population has been produced, presenting every variety of color 
disposition and character, of which the human species are capable. The 
English, Scotch, French, and some others, have principally been introduced 
into the country through the Hudson's Bay Company. Many of these still 
belong to the Company, and occupy various stations, from those of servants, 
and clerks, up through the various grades of office, to chief factors and 
superintendents. Others, who were . formerly the servants of the Company, 
becoming in some cases superannuated, in others unprofitable, have been 
dismissed, and the Company chose rather to settle them in the countiy, and 
continue to exercise a controlling influence over them, than to return them 
to the lands whence they came. 

The numbers which have befen supplied the country from this source wfll 
amount to nearly S2,000 souls. Many persons have found their way here from 
vessels which have touched at various points along this extended coast 
Scarcely a ship has visited the Columbia river for years from which two or 
more have not made their escape, and secreting themselves until the vessel 
has left, they have come forth to mingle with the inhabitants, as citizens of 
Oregon. Some have left their ships on the coast of California, and have 
fought their way to this land, through the hostile tribes that roam among the 
Clanieth, and Umpqna mountains. Some of these adventurous seamen are 
among the most industrious, temperate, and wholesome of the settlers of 

Another somewhat fruitful source for the supply of settlers to the Walla- 
mette valley has bcon found, singular as it may appear, in the vast range of 
the Rocky Mountains. I do not refer to emigrants directly from the United 
States, but to those whitemen, who in connection with Companies formed for 
purposes of trafRc amonor the Blackfeet, Sioux, and other Indians, have been 
collecting for the last forty years among the snow-clad mountains, which 
send their waters botli to the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Afler having 
spent many years in ranging the mountains, experiencing the most surprising 
adventures among tho Indians, enduring every variety of hardehips, tlicy 
have at last found a peaceful and quiet retreat, where most of them will 
doubtless close tlieir earthly career. It has been with the most thrilling 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

184C. Thii On^on TarHmy 05 

iiitorerft tliat I have heard rjonic of thorn relate their muuiitaiii advoiitJires, and 
** iiair breiulth escapes." The hintory cf them will ilouhtlcss form the s^ubjcrt 
of many a future icgeiid replete with intCMi-at. Thon<;h, while they doo moil 
themselves to a precariuu.4 subsistence amon^ the hoaiilo chins of the 
mountains tliey contracted the mobt roving, barh;irous, and d(*praved habite, 
yet on settling down iimidst the inciensiuirly inter<*sting society of Oregon, 
inoiit of thcui become sU^ady, |)carofid, iind inilii;strion.s citiiscns. 

It was intlie years IrfO.l and lK)»'»that l>2\vis and (IJhirk pruiotratcul throu^'h 
the present Territory of Oregon to the l^uutic Ocran, and as there are 
persons now in Oregon who acc*oni))auiod them, thoy may be regarded as tlu? 
first to introduce settlers into the country. There are also a niimhor of 
persons who were the companions and fellow travelers of Wilfon Prim 
Hunt, one of the partners of John Jacob Astor, who er^tiblished a tradimr 
port at tlie mouth of the Cohnnbia in IHIO, who HJiared with that intre])id 
traveler in all the perils, and disasters, of one of the most remarkable 
expeditions of tlie kind, tliat was ever carried to succcKsful isime, and whicli 
has been inimitably described in Frving^s popular ** Astoria.^ From tliesc 
Compames, and also from those of Boneville, VVyatli, Smith, and otiiers, tlie 
country has been supplied with many of its inhabitants. 

The most fruitful source at prcsant of the supply of settlers in this country, 
are the United States of America. Emigrations have arrived direct from 
Missouri every fall since 1831). In 1810 and 1841, the parties were compara- 
tively small, but in 1842, tlie emigration numbered 1 1 1 ])er8ons in all. In 
1843, it increased to 800 persons wJio came principally in ox waggons, ant} 
drove before them 1,500 head of cattle. In 1844, tlie number was about tlie 
same as the preceding year. In 1845, that is, the present year, the number is 
doubtless much larger. Papers from the United Sutes inform us tliat more 
than 5,000, early in the month of Irlay, had already passed Independence in 
Missouri, and Council Bluffs, on their way to Oregon. These immigrations 
are composed mostly of persons from the weatorn sUtes, but in them might be 
found persons from ahaost every state in tlie Union, even the most eastern. 
Maine herself has sent more than one emigrant to tliese distant shores. Many 
belonging to these emigrations are persons who have been pushing on in 
search of ** a better country not an heavenly," until tliey have passed tlio 
utmost borders of civilization, and penetrating entirely though the deep 
ntcesses of savage life, they had finally emerged from the defiles of tlie 
Cascade mountains into the lovely valley of the Wallamette, and here most 
of them come to the conclusion to put up their tabernacles for life. The whole 
number now in the country, embracing those connected with the Hudson 
Bay Company, allowing that the last emigration mentioned has arrived, 
amount to about 10,000 souls. These are settled principally in the Walla, 
mette and Cowilitz valleys, on the Clatsop Plains, and at the various posts 
of tlie Hudson^s Bay Company. 

With this view of the population of Oregon, I will now briefly consider the 
poUtica) condition of the country. I do not mean by this the political relation 
of Oregon to any otlier country, but simply tlie internal politics of tlie country. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

5X5 The ihcgon Tirrilory. Pen. 

For iftraiijro an it may npfx^r wc have politics in Orejrolu altogether apart 
from ntir rrhjtt'in with o(hor countrirs ; niiH those have sprung up aiiiou)^ U8 
from llir iipfo^sity of the ra«r. Dp to Ir*10 the miiaber of pcrFOiw in tlio 
country ims so Hinnll, the hii?inosii tranFariion eo limited, nnd ihe ditiicalties 
BO few, that necessity of orfrnniziriir the coinnuinity into a bwly politic dia not 
appcnr very <rreat, thonfjh persons had been chosen to ofliciate as jud^fcs and 
nia^ista-ates. In the sumnicr of 1841 a gentleman died in the settlement! 
leaving a large estate, without having made any provision for its administra- 
tion. On the very day of tlie burial of this man, who Imd not a single relative 
to follow him to the tomb, measures were taken to call a public meeting to 
appoint officers for the government of the country, and, particularly, to provide 
for the proper disposition of the estate of Ewing Young. The meeting took 
place, and resulted in the appointment of a judge with probate powers, a few 
jiisticos ard inf«»nor officers. The exigencies of the case being met, nothing 
more was done in reference to organizing a government, until the subject was 
called up in consequence of some Indian disturbances. At some of the mis- 
sion Htatioiis in tlie interior, as also at tiie WaJ lunette falls, the Indians com- 
mitted some outrages upon the whites, and some few individuals of a party 
of emi^prants were robbed of their effects on tJieir way down the Columbia. 
The Indians also of the upper count /, had threatened nmch of making war 
upon the Wallamette seitiemont. In consequence of these things, tJie people 
became acrain aroused lo the subject of instituting a government for their 
mutual protection. Accordingly, at a meeting duly called for Uie purpose, a 
committee of nine was appointed to drafl a code of laws, and to report to a 
public meeting, to be held on the fiflh day of July 1843; at which the people 
of Oregon were or;!ranized into a body politic, and laws adoptod, which, with 
a few alterations, have remained in force up to the present time. These or- 
ganic laws provided for the election of a governor, supreme judge, a legislative 
coin:;jiitce, a treasunir, collector, and all the inferior officers, necessary to 
execute the laws. Provision is also made for raising a military force ; iunl 
indeed every thing necessary to constitute a regular republican government, 
is provided for in the r^rticles of compact, even an outline of which, it will 
not be proper to subjoin. 

To show the disposition of tlio |)eople of Oregon to preserve good order in 
the country. I will present one single item from the laws which were enacted 
by the Inist Legislative Committee. Previously however, I would observe, 
that thnre is no country in the world- where the unrestrained use of intoxicat- 
ing liquors, would be atlonded with more unhappy consequences, than Oregon. 
Tliis bus been kept in view in all the civil and political transactions of the 
country. A few rockles*^ p(?rBoris had attempted to estsblish distilleries, and 
considerable evil had ;;lro;uly re.suUed from what ought to be considered an 
indelible disirrnrie to Kntflish and American enterprise, namely, the introduc- 
tion of alcoliol intij this Ciun^ry, for purposes of traffic. To prevent the 
country from bcini; overrun wjt!i the evils of dnmkenne&'s, in addition to the 
usual temperance ineflsures, a law was passed prohibiting the manufacture, 
the introduction, the bclling or giving away, oitlicr in. larg»* quantities uf email, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. The Oregon Territory. Vt 

any kind of intoxicating drinksy with a penalty of 900 dollars fine for every 

The people of Oregon, though differing as much in their education, their 
degrees of civilisation and refinement, and their constitutional habits, as th^ 
do in the color of their skin, have, in their intercourse with one another, form- 
ed a peaceable and quiet community. It will not be understood by this that 
we have had no irregularities in Oregon, but simply, that in our civil regula- 
tions, and daily intercourse in matters of business, as also in our efforts to 
promote the general welfare of the country, our community has been one of 
order gentleness and unanimity. As a proof of this, the laws which have 
been adapted, have been universally acknowledged, and when the collector 
made his first tour in the community to gather funds to support the govern- 
ment, nearly every man came immediately forward and paid down his taxes. 

Another thing which speaks well for the civil order of the country, is, 
that crimes are exceedingly few, there seldom having been a quarel in the 
country, that has amounted to blows. There was but one case of assault 
brought before the supreme judge during his last circuit through the differ- 
ent countries, and the circumstances of this were so extenuating, that the 
defendant was fined only $25. The highest charge that has ever come be- 
fore the justices of judges for the last five years, was against a man who had 
challenged another to fight a duel, and was fined the moderate sum of $500 
and disfranchised for life. 

But a short time ago the peace of the community was greatly disturbed, by 
a circumstance which took place in the upper part of the settlement A man 
of a reckless and sanguinary character, in resisting the law, when an attempt 
was made to take him into custody for trespassing upon the rights of another, 
was unfortunately shot through the head, and immediately expired. The 
case was of such nature as in the estimation of the Hupreme judge, to de- 
mand an investigation by the prand jury. Accordinofly the officer who com- 
mitted the deed was brought before the jury, and after the case was tho- 
roughly examined, it was pronounced to be a clear case of justifiable homi- 

These are tlic most serious cases of violation of order with which the 
country has been afflicted for a number of years, except in some instances 
when Indians have been the aggressors. Perhaps wc owe much of our peace 
and quietness to the fact, that many of the more restless spirits that come to 
Oregon, not finding sufficient scope for the exercise of their ambition in so 
limited a sphere, either turn to the lefl to seek a more congenial theatre in 
California, or pass over seas. How long this state of tilings will continue it 
is impossible to tell ; but it is hoped that the community will gatiier moral 
strength in proportion to its increase of numbers. If so, the prediction that 
Oregon is destined to be another Texas in point of morals, will certainly 
prove false. Be this as it may, the present internal condition of Oregon is 
such as to demand the serious attention of every person who is interijsted in 
(he welfare of this new and rising country. 

Though much might be said concerning the religious aspect of the country, 

VOL. XV. NO. 11. I ^ r^ T 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

dd Navigation of the Chinese Seas. FcB. 

yet the subject will here occupy but a very few words. So far as the native 
population of Oregon is concerned, for any thing that has resulted from the 
missionary labor which has been employed for Uieir benefit, it still remains 
a problem whether a tribe of North American Indians, can either be Christia- 
Tiissed, or raised to a state of prosperous civilization. Individuals have doubt- 
less been benefitted and saved, through the labors of missionaries, but it ia 
to be feared that no tribe of Oregon will ever become an established Christian 

But while this afflictive state of things exists among the Indians of the 
country, the Christian religion appears prominent among the thousands who 
are settling its wide spread plains. Christian churches are established iit 
Various parts of the country, where the church going bell is heard from Sab- 
bath, and the ordinances and institutions of Christianity are duly regarded. 
The more prominent Christian churciies are the Methodist Episcopal, the 
Presbyterian and the Baptist The Romanists are quite numerous in the 
country, and are greatly facilitated in their operations by Dr. John McLau- 
ghlin, superintendent of the affairs of the Hudson Bay Company west of the 
Rocky mountains, who himself is a member of the Roman church. 

For tiie promotion of science, schools have been established ; and one 
which is called *^The Oregon Institute," may be considered the morning 
star of the country. The institution stands upon an elevated portion of a beauti- 
ful plain in the Wallamette valley, and commands a most delightful pros- 
pect And if prosperity attends it, it will doubtless grew into a college tliat 
will be a luminary in the moral heavens of Oregon, to shed abroad the lights 
of science and knowledge, to dispel the surrounding darkness, long after its 
founders shall have ceased to live. Besides this, a library has been establish- 
ed, and a printing press has been ordered, which is probably now in opera- 
tion. In fine, Oregon is daily rising in importance. The original inhabitants 
are vanishing like the dew of the morning, and far and near may be seen 
the marks of civilization. Villages are rushing into being, and '^ Onward," 
is the motto of all ; and unless the matter of claim is settled before many 
years, it will be difficult to overturn the government which itself haa 

Art. V. Namgation of the Chinese seas : mouth of the Ydngtsz' 

kiang; Wiisung river and port of Shanghai; light-house to 

the me'nory of Ilorsburgh proposed to be erected on Romatiia 

Outer Island. 

Considering the grent amount of life and property annually afloat 

on the Chinese seas, we hold it to be our duty to lay before* our rea- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1S40. Namgaiion rf the Chinese Seas. 90 

ders— to place on the pages of the Repository-^every item of intel- 
ligence which may contribute to the security of that life and that 
property. We copy from the Hongkong papers the rear-admirars 
letter and memorandum, and doubt not his proposal will be carried 
into effect. 


His Excellency Her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiaiy, Ac, Ac., has 
much satisfaction in giving publicity to the annexed letter and memorandum 
from his excellency the naval commander-in-chief, having reference to pro- 
posed aids to theV'navigation of the river at Shtngh&i, a port which now affords 
every prospect of becoming the principal seat of European trade. 

By order Adam W. Elmslic. 

'* Victoria, Hongkong, 19th January, 1846." 

" Vixen, at Chusan, 2d January, 1846. 

*^ Sir, — Having on my recent visit to Shdnghfii learned with much interest 
the rapid increase of British trade at that port, and being aware horn experi- 
ence of the difficulties and inconveniences attending the approach of ships to 
it, I feel desirous of removing them as far as circumstances will admit. And, 
although from the port and country belonging to another state, and accessible 
to all nations independent of our control, it will be impossible at present to 
render the approach to Shdngh4i so perfectly safe as it is susceptible of being 
made ; yet a great deal may now be done at a very moderate expense, worthy 
of the consideration of the British trade already resorting there ; and I take 
the liberty of inclosing to your excellency, for the information of the mercan- 
tile community at Hongkong, a memorandum framed afler consultation with 
captain Collinson, touching upon the material points most deserving early 
attention, which I request your excellency will do me the favor to cause to b€ 
communicated to that body, accompanied by my assurance that upon the pre- 
sent, as upon every other occasion, I shall have great pleasure in availing 
myself of any opportunity of rendering my services useful in promoting the 
success and prosperity of their commercial enterprises. 

** I have, the honor to be, your excellency's most obedient servant, 

*• Thos. Cochrane, Rear admiral. 

"To his excellency sir J. F. Davis, bart., &c., &c." 


"The difficulties attending the navigation of the Yangtsz* kiing from its 
entrance to the W6sung river, commence after passing Gutzlaff*s Island and 
losing sight of it, which frequently is the case in foggy weather, whnn not 
above eight or ten miles from it, although of a clear day the island is visible 
at the distance of 27 miles. 

"On losing sight of the beforementioned island, there is nothing to guide 
the eye until you have advanced far up the river even in clear woalhor, and 
as the land on the southern bank is very low, yon must go considerably fur- 
ther in hazy weather to obtain an object to do so ; in the meantime the lead is 
the only guide, but which, from the velocity and irregularity of the tides or 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

100 Navigaiim of the Ckiiust Seas. Fbb. 

•vrrent, will not iadioftte how fkr a vesiel hu aicended the river, nor ean one 
be verj sure always as to the side of it on which he may be ; and the northern 
bank is dangerous to approach in consequence of deep water running close up 
to the sand. 

** Under these circumstances it is moat desirable that vessels entering this 
river should have marks leading from one to another until so for advanced in 
it as to be able to carry four fathoms water within two or three miles of the 
southern shore. For which purpose, as well as to conduct a ship in safety 
into the Wiisung river, and from thence to the port of Sh4ngh6i, it is recom- 
mended that the following arrangements should be made : — 

** 1st. On the starboard hand going in, a rude stone beacon to be erected 
on the Amherst Rocks, elevating them twenty feet higher than they are at 

" 2d. A Chinese boat with a beacon pole raised upon her fifly feet high, 
surmounted by a suitable top, to be anchored within the Horse-shoe of the 
sand called ** Tungshfi," as suggested by capt. Collinson. N. B. Hereafter a 
light boat may bo substituted for her. 

**3d. One beacon fifly feet high on the right bank of the river, placed, if 
possible, so as to be taken up on losing sight of GutzlafT's Island in hazy 
weather. S. B. Capt. Collinson has been directed to find out such a position. 

**4th. One beacon forty feet high on a point already chosen by capt. Col- 
linson, and which will bear from the beacon boat S. S. W. | W. by compass, 
seven miles. 

"5th. One pole with a suitable top placed near the angle of the fort of 
Pdushin, which, coming on with a whitewashed mark already placed, to be a 
leading mark to the entrance of the W6sung river. 

" 6th. Three high poles, painted in different colors, to replace three trees 
n'>>w existing, as marks for advancing in the river ; and one painted board, six 
feet aquare elevated forty feet, to be placed under these poles where a tem^ 
porary board now exists. 

** 7th. One transporting buoy properly moored on the Port-hand entrance to 
the river. 

**8th. Three other similar buoys, to be placed as marked by capt. Collinson, 
to indicate the narrowest pass of the river to ShSnghi^i ; and to answer at the 
same time as warping buoys through the said narrows. 

(*9th. Capt. Balfour having suggested the propriety of having moorings laid 
down opposite the consulate ground at Sh4ngh4i, for the purpose of securing 
ships arriving there, and preventing the accidents that will probably arise as 
the trade increases from vessels fouling each other, as well as to obviate the 
confusion that must ensue where vessels are anchored without any plan or 
arrangement ; and capt. Balfour having met the ditficulty that occurred to me 
which might arise from the impossibility of securing obedience to any arrange- 
niont, however salutary, from vessels of othor thap our own nation, by in- 
forming me that the Chinese government had assigned a certain extent of 
frontago, in fjice of the ground now Hecured to the British merchants, with 
ptrrmlssion to advance a certain distance into the river ; 1 recommend • — 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1840. Aacigaiion of the Chinese Seas. 101 

" That one small stone pillar may be placed on shore at each extremity of 
this grant, and two large buoys, to correspond with the same, in the river, the 
said buoys to be sufficiently large for warping buoys ; and that old broken 
anchors be obtained with chain moorings to be placed in two parallel linos 
within the said boundaries, and that proper but simple regulations be establis- 
hed for the use of them ; and of which foreign vessels could be permitted to 
avail themselves, on promising to conform to regulations, and to pay the usual 
fees for that accommodation. 

**Tlie following is a rough estimate of the probable expense of the arrange- 
ments more immediately required for tlic advantage of the trade resorting to 
Shdnghdi :<- 

No. 1. — Junk, complete for the service required, - $1500 
hire per annum of a suitable crew, 

No. 3.— Quo beacon 50 feet high, - - . - ^, 300 
No. 4.— Do. 40 do. - - - „ 200 

No. o.—One pole at Pdushan, I . . . 150 

No. 6. — Three do., and putting up, > " " ' « 

One square mark under the before mentioned poles, 40 

*<The transporting or warping buoys, with their moorings can easily be 
estimated for at Hongkong, and should be prepared there. 

**The Chinese authorities will, I understand, guarantee the protection from 
injury of the different marks, when once they are erected. 

**Tuo8. CocHR4NB, Rear admiral, 

•• Vixen, at Chusan, 2d January, 1846. 

An obituary of the late capt. James Horsburgh appeared in our 
fifth volume, December 1836. A committee— consisting of Messrs. 
W. Jardine, L. Dent, J. Hine, W. S. Wetmore, J. H. Astel, M. J. 
S. Van Basel, T. Fox, Framjee Pestonjee, and W. Haylett, had then 
been appointed and more than (4000 collected in Canton to aid in 
erecting light-houses in the Straits of Singapore. In January 1838, 
a letter was addressed to a committee in London, which our headers 
will find in the Chinese Repository volume VI. page 545. That 
letter was signed by William Jardine, John Hine, William Blenkin, 
Lancelot Dent, E. C. Bridgman, Dadabhoy Rustorojee, and Joseph 
Archer. We have before us a note addressed to one of the members 
of that committee, dated *' Consulate of the United States, Singa- 
pore, 8th December, 1845." That note, and a circular which ac- 
companied it we subjoin. 

" Sir, — Having noticed your name among others who were ap- 
pointed on a committee, some years since, in Canton to raise funds 
for the purpose of erecting a monument to Horsburgh the hydrogra- 
pher, and the Chamber of Commerce of Singapore having requested 
me to epter iq communication with the parties in the United States 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

lOt) Navigation of ike Chinese Seas. Feb. 

who have obtained funds for that purpose, and request them " to 
make the funds subscribed avail.ible for the erection of a light-house 
as a memorial to the late hydrographer," I beg leave to address 
myself to you for any information you may possess of the names and 
place of residence of the persons in the United States, who were 
charged with that commission by the Canton committee, or any 
other information relating thereto, which may facilitate the duty 
imposed on me by the Chamber of Commerce. 

**I beg to subjoin a printed copy of the proceedings of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce on the Ist inst. and remain. 

With great respect, sir, your obedient servant, 
J. Balestikr, u. s. c. 

At a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce of Singapore held on Monday 
the iRt of December, 1845, it waa — 

Resolved. — That the East India and China Association in London, the Cal- 
cutta and Bombay Chambers of Commerce, captain Baden of Madras, the 
subscribers in America (though J. Balestier, esq., U. S. consul) and the subscri- 
bers in France (though the French consul), be addressed with a copy of the 
Report read this day, — and be requested to make the funds subscribed available 
for the erection of a Light-house as a memorial to the late hydrographer, James 
liorsburgh. T. O. Ckank, Secretary. 


"On 20th November, a deputation from the committee of the Chamber of 
Commerce, waited on his honor the governor, to seek information as to what 
is being done, or likely to be done, in erecting a light-house on, or adjacent to 
Pedra Branca to serve as a monument to the late eminent hydrographer, James 
Horsburgh, and to facilitate navigation. 

"The governor expressed satisfaction with the course adopted, and readily 
afforded the information sought. It appears that a proposition by a former 
governor involving a large establishment and the stationing a detachments of 
troops on a small island, hid caused the scheme to be temporarily laid aside. 
The present governor, shortly afler his arrival at the Straits, had given his 
attention to the matter, and exactly twelve months ago communicated with 
the Indian government on the subject. This communication with inclosures, 
with the favorable recommendation of the supreme government, was forward- 
ed eight months ago, to the court of directors, in whose hands the matter at 
present rests. It appears that funds subscribed in China to the Horsburgh 
testimonial, amounting to $5,513 are forthcoming, and will be paid into the 
hands of government, whenever a pledge is given to construct a light-house 
in the vicinity of Pedra Branca. The governor most judiciously availed him. 
self of the presence of H. M. S. Samarang, to obtain a report from the distin- 
guished scientific officer Capt. Sir £dward Belcher, c. b., who cheerfully gave 
his services to promote the erection of a testimonial to the hydrographer, Uor- 
Bburgh . 

" Sir Edward is firmly of opinion that it would tend more to the general in' 
tjercsia of navigation, if such testimonial stood upon a position where its benefit 

Digitized by 


1S40. Navigation of the Chinese Seas, 103 

would br grpnorally usoful to the navi^tion of the China SeaSy m wpII as to the 
Strails. For the latter object, he considers the Romania Outer Island the most 
eligible site, as afFordinj the means of distinctly avoiding night dangers, and 
enabling vessels to sail to and from Singapore with confidence and security. 
A line drawn from the centre of Outer Romania Island to tbo tall of Johore 
Bank, would nearly eclipse the proposed light by the intervention of the nearer 
land. Vessels should not be near this line, but, (as frequently practised in 
modern British light-houses) it would be easy to screen the light to the safe 
line, so as to warn vessels in time to shape a safe course, — the rule being, in 
entering or quitting the Straits to " keep the light in sight." The navigation 
immediately past the light on the cardinal points, within a short distance is 
secure : — but the vicinity of danger is easily made known by the lower panes 
of the lantherns b ing formed of red glass at the angle of depression ; which 
would warn in time to haul off; or the rail of the lanthern might be adopted to 
the same end by slightly obscuring the light by a wire gauze. It this be placed 
to meet the danger of the '* Rock awash,*' and ^* Stork Reef* which was disco- 
vered subsequent to Sir Edward Belcher's report, the reappearance of the light 
After passing this danger, would reassure the navigator. Sir Edward reports 
that the island affords good superficial extent for the construction of a light- 
house, which he is of opinion should be based as a Martello tower, and any 
chance of surprise from pirates be obviated by clean scarping to low water 
work ; this lower tower to be furnished with a small gun either for signals or 
defence; the tower of the light-house springing from its centre. — This would 
prevent the necessity of any force beyond the lightkeepers; and it is probable 
that the knowledge of a gun being there mounted would hinder pirates using 
the channels in the vicinity. The light-house might be further rendered usvful 
as a signal station from the China sea. 

"The Malayan authorities of Johore, in whose territory the Romania island 
is situated, not only offer the island for a light-house, but express satisfaction at 
the prospect of its erection. The governor mentioned to the deputation of the 
Chamber that he had visited the proposed site in the H. C. steamer Diana, hav- 
ing with him the superintending engineer of public works in the Struts,- 
whom he had instructed to make an estimate of the cost of tlic p'-oposed erec- 
tion. — This officer considered that about one, to one and a half, lacs of rupees 
would be necessary to complete the work of masonry. This being beyond the 
sum likely to be available, the governor instructed Mr. Thomson, the government 
surveyor, to submit an estimate ; which had been done by that gentleman with 
great care and detail, and which was accompanied by an offer from a Chinese 
contractor to erect a granite base of 16 feet for $2667, and further, if requir- 
ed, a brick tower (exclusive of lanthern and lamps) for $4,333 additional, or 
in all $7,000. The governor seemed to think that an iron tower on the 
granite base, would be preferable to brick, and had suggested the sending of 
one from England, similar to one erected at Bermuda, at a cost of iC 1,500. Mr. 
Thomson describes the proposed site as being three quarters of a mile east of 
large Romania island, 1.^ mile from Point Romania, and 32 miles east by north 
from Singapore town. The rock is barren, in height about 30 feet above high 
water spring tides, with a length of 160 feet measured due east and west, and 
a breadth of 130 feet measured north and south; but extending 240 feet if 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

104 Natij^^ation of the Chinese Sean. Feb- 

lueaiturcd norihoast and iioulhvrc5;t. The rock is hard gr^y graniio, vtry 
vuitablc for building; not liable to br washed by the waves in bad woatlier. 
Mr. Thomson proposes the entrance to the light-house to be by a moveable 
ladder or basket and crnnc from the top of the granite basement, thereby obviat- 
ing the neceasity of scarping the rock to ^nard against surprise by pirates. 

" His honor, the governor, did not seem to be aware that money ha<l been 
subscribed in London towards the ereotion of a Horsburgh testimonial, which 
money it is believed is still Uf\apprupriated. It is supposed also that money wan 
subscribed at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, in America, and on the Continent of 
Europe with the same object. Possibly this money, in whole or in part, might 
be given towards erecting a light-huus«' as a testimonial to Horsburgh, and it 
rests with this Cha:nbcr to decide as to taking any and. what steps in the matter. 
Only about $ 1500 is yet required to complete the light-house according to 
Mr. Thomson's plan, which the governor contemplated being given by the 
Hon*bIe the Cast India Company. The lautliern might perhaps, be seemed 
to think, be furnished by H. M. government, and the cost of maintaining tlic 
light would be a local charge on the revenues of Singapore. On this point it 
need only be remarked that any plan is better than enoroaching on tlie freedom 
of the port by levying even a small tax on vesssls. Supposing more money to 
be received, it will become a question whether to erect another light-house on 
a memorial of Horsburgh, or to render the one proposed on Romania island 
more substantial and elegant,— paucity of means alone having suggested tlio 
less durable structure. 

" The governor very judiciously remarks that a light-house if not properly, 
attended to, would prove infinitely more perplexing and dangerous to the mari- 
ner than its total absence, and proposes as the lowest establishment to attend 
the light and work the gun in case of necessity, 2 Europeans and 8 natives. 
The Europeans suggested by the governor are pensioners from the artillery, 
at a charge (in addition to pension,) of 50 Rs. each per month ; 8 Malays each 
11 Rs. per month, or (if sanctioned,) 8 first-class convicts would be cheaper 
than Malays. Allowing 50 rupees monthly for cotton, oil, &c., the annual 
charge against the revenue of Singapore would be 3,35G rupees." 

N. B. It is hardly necessary to add, that any information, wliirh 
may serve to aid in the proposed design will be duly appreciated if 
communicated to the U. S. consul at Singapore ; and the fclditor of 
the Repository begs to request that gentlemen, having such infor- 
mation will be pleased to convey the same directly te Mr. Balestier, 
U. S. consul at Singapore. 

Art. VI. Epitaphs on the graves of the Rev, Robert Morrison, 
i>. D., t/te hon, John Robert Mnrrison, <xnd the Rev, Samuel 
Djfcr, in the English cemetery, Macao. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

108 VertiM tf the Holy Saipimres. Feb. 

SatridUihe wumary rfihe tUoeremd Sammd Jhftt^ 
ProUUMi Mistimuay U the Ckimese: 
Who Ibr nxteeo yeari devoted all his energies to the adTancement 
of the goipel among the emigraDta from China settled in Penang, 
Malacca and Singapore. As a man, he was amiable and affectio- 
nate; as a Christian, npright, nncere, and humble minded; as a 
missiooarj, devoted, zealous and indefatigable. He spared neither 
time, nor labor, nor property, in his efforts to do good to his fellow 
men. He died in the confident belief of the truth, by which for so 
many years, he affectionately and faithfully preached to the heathen. 
He was born 30th Feb. 1801, was sent to the east by the London 
Missionary Society 1827; and died in Macao, 21st October, 1843. 

** For if we hduve thai Jesus dud mmd rose ogsiMj evem so ft—, «£*», wkiek 
dsef in Jesms^ will God krimg with Aisi.*' 

Art. YH. Chineit versions of the Holy Senpfures : need revision ; 

list of wards claiming particular attention; proposed meeting 

of delegates. 
Fas be it from us to depreciate the existing Fersions of our Holy 
Scriptures in Chinese, though we continue strongly to urge theii 
jevision. Ere they can be made so correct as to be universally re- 
ceii^ed, they must necessarily undergo many changes involving much 
time and much talent The sense and mode of expression, in every 
phrase and word, must be carefully studied ; every shade of meaning, in 
the original Hebrew and Greek tongues, must be exactly and fully com- 
prehended, and be cast into Chinese clearly and without distortion. 
The style of the translation, in all cases, must be made to correspond 
perfectly to that of the originals. The historical, the poetical, the 
epistolary, or whatever may be the style of the sacred text, the same 
precisely must be preserved in the translation. The translator must 
take all that belongs to the original, and give this, the whole of this, 
and nothing but this, in t4ie translation. What the Hebrew text was 
to the Hebrews, and the Greek to the Greeks, such also the Chinese 
version must be to the Chinese. Ther^ are now extant two versions 
of the whole BiMe, one by Marshman, and one by Drs. Morrison 
and Milne. Besides these two^ we have a third, of the entire New 
Testament by Dr. Med hurst and others-; also a version of consider- 
able parts of the New Testament by the Roman Catholics. Many 
books of the Old Testament likewise h^ve been revised, or retrans- 
lated since the version of Morrison and Milne was $rst published. 

Of the Roman Catholic version we are not prepared now to speak. 
It may be, taking it all in all, no way inferior to the others. But 
of tills, we have not yet been able to assure ourselves. Allowing, as 
we do, that there are imperfections in the other versions, still there 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Veraians of the Holy Scriptures. 100 

18 enough that is plain, clear, and unequivocal io (hem all, to make 
them the means of salvation to any and to all sincere inquirers. 
And we are ready to give them, each of them, circulation to the 
utmost of ovi ability. In our last volume we introduced a few re- 
marks on the words, God, angel, and spirit. 

Regarding these an 1 many others we shall be glad to Uarn and 
state the opinions of Chinese scholars. We will give here some of 
the words to which we wish to draw attention : angel; apostle; bap* 
tism; church; conscience; conversion; covenant; devil; divine; eUe- 
tion; evangelist; God; hell; holiness; heart; mercy -^ messenger; 
Messiah; mind; mystery; offerings; pratf^; priest; prophet; 
preacher; repentance; Sabbath; sacrifice; saint; soul; S^c, We 
might easily swell this list; and though some of the words may not 
seem to involve much difficulty, yet it will be seen, on reference to 
the several versions now extant, that there is a great want of unifor- 
mity in the translations of ihem. 

Since writing the preceding paragraphs we have received two 
notes from Shi\ngh4i, in one of which was inclosed the following, 
in print having reference to the *' Revision of the Chinese translation 
of the Scriptures." 

^ To the Protestant missionaries engaged in tho revision of the Chinese 
version of the Scriptures. 

^ Dear Brethren, this work, having been divided into parts, allotted to the 
missionaries at the various station on the coast of China, is now in an ad- 
vanced stage, and will soon be ready for the inspection of delegates from the 
different bodies of the missionaries engaged in toe work. It is contemplated 
to hold a meeting of such delegates, in September of the present year, at 
Shanghai, when the whole of ue revisions will be submitted for inspection, 
and after the views of the brethren respecting them have been ascertained, 
the complete work will be recommended to the Bible Societies in England 
and America for adoption. As several important questions have to be decided 
at such meeting, respecting the adoption of certain Chinese characters for 
the rendering of certain terms occurring in Holy Writ, about which there 
have been and still are differences of opinion among Protestant Missionaries, 
it is hoped that a full attendance will be afforded, in order as far as possible 
to settle the quesions at issue, and to obviate the necessity of further reference 
or delay. Those Missionaries who have undertaken certain portions, will 
have the kindness to get the division of the work allotted to them in readiness, 
and forwarded to the different stations, and especially to Sh4nffh4i, before 
the time specified ; while the Missionaries at Sh4nghai will do their best to 
accommodate the brethren from the various stations during their stay at tlio 
said city." 

" I remain, your obedient servant, W. H. Medhurst, Chairman to the 
Original Meeting." 

As many thousands of our fellow Christians in Europe and Ame- 
rica feel a deep interest in this work, we have thought it right to 
reprint Dr. Medhurst's note. But we fear the call for a meeting of 
" delegates," is premature. At a meeting of a very large number of 
missionaries in Hongkong, August 1843, wlien this work of revision 
was undertaken and the plan for accomplishing it arranged, it was 
resolved, among other things, *' That, when each of the local com- 
mittees has completed its task, a transcript thereof shall be sent to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1 1 Journal of Occurrences, Pbb» 

each station for further revision, and then these transcripts, with the 
corrections upon them, shall be submitted to the original revisers. 
When the whole of the New Testament shall have been thus revised, 
each of the stations shall select one or more of its most experienced 
men to act as delegates in a meeting of the general committee,** &c. 
(See Chinese Repository vol. Xll. page 552.) This plan, so far as 
we know, has been approved, and it ought, we think, to be adhered to 
in the execution of the proposed revision. We fear however, the 
time, as limited to September 1846, will not allow of this, for we 
know that more than one of the five local committees have as yet 
received from some of the others no part of the proposed revision. 

Art. VIII. Journal of Occurrences ; foreign consuls : protestant 
missionaries in China ; discussion regarding foreigners entering 
the city suspended; renewed; Macao to he made partially a 
free port, 

Bt an oversight there were some omissions in our list of consuls given in 
the Repository for January. The following should have been added : Fre- 
derick T. Bush, esq. U. S. A. consul, Victoria, Hongkong ; and M. Ch. Lie- 
febree de B^court, consul of the 1st class, acting as French consul in China ; 
and M. J. M. Callery, Chinese secretary. 

M Sh&ngh&i there are of the London Miss. Society the Rev. W. H. Med- 
hurst, D. D., and Wm. Lockhart, physician, and their families ; of the Eng. 
Ch. M. Soc. the Rev. Thomas M'Clatchie ; and of the American Episcopal 
Board of F. M., the Rt Rev. bishop Boone, d. d., Rev. R. Graham, Rev. E. W. 
Syle and their families, and Misses E. G. Jones and M. J. Morse. 

^ Mngpo there are, of the American Presbyterian Board of foreign mis- 
sions, Rev. W. M. Lowrie, Rev. R. Q. Way and Mrs. Way, Rev. M. S. Cul- 
bertson and Mrs. Culbertaon, D. B. M*Cartee, m. n., and Mr. Cole and Mrs. 
Cole ; of the American Baptist Board D. J. Macgowan and Mrs. Mcgowan ; 
Rev. T. H. Hudson and son from the Baptist Churches in England ; and 
unconnected with any missionary society, Miss M. A. Aldersey. 

At ChuMon are the Rev. A. W. Loomis and Mrs. Looinis from the Ameri- 
can Presbyterian Board. 

JH Amoy tliere are of the Ame. Presbyterian Board Rev. H. A. Brown, and 
Rev. J. Lloyd and Mrs. Lloyd ; of the Lon. M. Soc. Rev. J. Stronach and 
the Rev. Wm. Young and Mrs. Young ; of the A. B. C. F. M. Rev. W. J. 
Pohlman; and unconnected ^\\h any society Wm. H. Cumming. 

At Hongkong there are of the London M. Soc. Rev. Willian Gillespie and 
Mrs. Marshall, from the Baptist Churches in England Rev. William Jarrom 
and Mrs. Jarrom. 

At Macao there is the Rev. A. P. Happer of the American Presb. Board. 

At Canton there are of the American Board of Commissioners Rev. E. C. 
Bridgman and Mrs. Bridgman, Rev. P. Parker, m. d. and Mrs. Parker, and 
the Rev. Dr. Ball and Mrs. Ball ; of the American Baptist Board T. T. Devan 
and Mrs. Devan and the Rev. I. J. Roberts ; and Mr. James G. Bridgman un- 
connected with any missionary society. 

Discussions regarding foreif^ers entering the ciiyj it will be seen by the 
following note, have been suspended. 

Kiying of the imperial house, governor-general of the Two Kwang pro- 
vinces, &c., &c., and Hwang Ngantung governor of Canton, &c., &c., issue 

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1840. Journal of Occurrences. \ 1 1 

this luminous proclamation. Whereas the merchants and citizens of every 
forei^ nation have received the imperial will g^ranting tliem all the ri^ht to 
reside, and trade at Canton it is in itself rij^ht, that you and tliey should 
dwell together in muiuiil peace and cordial friendship. On a former occa- 
sion, in consequence of the English desiring to enter tlie city of Canton 
causing the inhabitant!} thereof to rabe their opposition, we the minister 
and governor issued our ptoclamation, and we trust you all know that now 
the deliberations concerning the English going into the city have stopped 
short in the midst thereof. All ve people and soldiery must understand 
our emperor's abounding virtue of lenient regard to the people from afar 
even to the excellent idea (of granting) to every nation free trade, peace, 
mutual friendship and good will. It is absolutely necessary that you con- 
stantly and quietly attend to your trade and delight in its profit You cannot 
still persevere in putting out placards stirring up anger ; still more are you 
not to repair to the front of the Thirteen Factories, creating difficulties to 
the disquietude of the merchants and citizens of all foreign nations in the 
prosecution of their callings. 

As it behooves us we issue our proclamation to notify the people and sol- 
diery within and without the city, that they one and all may understand tliat 
hereafter absolutely each one must mind his own business. Any one hav- 
ing matter (that requires it] can petition the officers of government and wait 
for them faithfully to manage it. Let tliere not again be a making of words 
(i. e. placards) under the false pretext of justice and righteousness, en using 
disturbance. If therefore any turns his back upon (tliis proclamation) and 
there be a man in whom tliis idea arises, positively, he sijnll be searched out, 
seized, and rigorously treated according to law. Each as is proper implicity 
obey. No opposition. Special edict. February 5th, 1846. 

These discussions^ which have been suspended for a few days, are again t9 
he renewed; it it rumored that dispatches have been received from the emperor 
and that a proclamation, commanding the people to conform to the provisions 
of the treaty, will goon appear. 

Mojoao is to be made h\d partially a fret pari, as will be seen by tlie following 
official documents, kindly sent to us by a gentleman in Macao. 

O govemador da provincia de Macao, Timor e Solor em conselho deter- 
mina o seguinte. 

Devendo executar-se nesta cidade, em virtude da portariu No. 302 do Mi- 
nisterio competente, datada em 20 d(* Novembro ultimo, o decreto da mesmu 
data ; elle se publica para geral conhecimento ; ficando entendido, que esta 
regia determinat^am commecara a ter o sen inteiro vigor, e execuvam desde 
o primeiro do mez de Abril proximo future, em confonnidude com o artigo 2o. 
do mesmo decreto ; e que as tabellas, regulamentos, e instrucvoens nellc 
consignados, para o mais fkcil e regular cumprimento das suas dispo9icoen.«;, 
seram publicados com a conveniente antecipa^am. As anthoridadcs a (luoni 
o conhecimento desta pertencer assim o tenhain entondido, e execntcm; 
Palacio do governo da provincia em Macao, 28 de fovcreiro de IH4(>. 

JozE GaEGoaio Pkuaoo. 

Tkndo pola abertura de alguns portos do imperio da China ao commercio o 
navega<;fto de todas as na^oens, cessado as circuustancias ex<;oi>cionac8 qne 
favorecifto o commercio da cidade do Santo Nome de Deos de Macao, ndo 
obiilante as reslriccoens que n'elle erfto impostas, e tornandu-sc de rigorosa 
uecessidade em vista da mudanca de situat^So que para a dita cidade produzio 
aquelle ocontecimento, adoptar providencias pclas quaes, modificado o syslcma 
restrectivo ate agora seguido, e aproveitando-sc a vantajosa posic^fio geographi- 
ca dequella cidade se poHsa fomentar, e desenvolvcr u sou commercio; hei por 
bem, usando da outhorisa^fto conferido pelo artigo primeiro da Carta da Lei de 
2 d^ Maid de 1843, e tendo ouvido o conselho de ministros, e o de estado, dc- 
cretar o seguinte. 

Artfgo 1. Os portos da cidade do Macao, tanto o interno, denominado do- 

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112 Journal of Occurrences, 

Rio— como ofl externos da>-Taipa,-'^ da-^Rada, b<Io declarados porloi irancou 
para n coiumercio de todaa as na^oens, e nellea serflo admitiida^ a couauino, 
dcpoiito, e recxporta^&o todas as mercadorias e generoa de comiueroio, seja 
qual for a aua naturesa. 

Artigo 3. TodoB os gen«rofl e inercadoriaa importadoa noa ditoa portoa, aob 
qoal quer bandeira, fioflo abaolutamente isemptos de direitos de entrada, pas- 
■ados trinta diaa depots da publicacno deate decreto na cidade de Macao. 

Artigo 3. He porem abaolutamente vedada a importe^fto de pe^aa d'artilbe- 
ria, prnjecteii, mixtoa inoendiarioa, polvora, tabaco de todaa as qualidades, 
^ rape, sabfto, a uneella. 

Artigo 4. Serd aomente aditiittida em navioa Portogueaea, procedentes de 
portos rortugueaes, para o effeito de gozar de isemp^Ao de direitos, — a impor- 
ta^fto dos ffeneroa aeguintes da produc^fto e industria Portugueza a aaber : — 
ariiiaa de fogo e brancaa, areca, atoalhadoa, canequina, cbapeoa de todaa as 
qualidodes, azeite de oliveira, coco e pal ma, carne de porco fumada e ensacada, 
fato a cal^ado feito, panno de linho, sal, medicamentos, pau sandalo, aguas- 
ardentes de yinho, e de sura de coqueiro, vishos, licores, e vinagres de vmbo, 
e de sura de coqueiro. 

Artiffo 5. Os mesmos generoa roenaionados no artigo antecedente, quer 
aejfto de produ^flo ou iudustria Portugueae quer do producr&o ou induatria 
estrangeira, poderfto ser importados por navioa Portngueaea ou eatrangeiros, de 
portos estrange iron, pagando yinte por cento ad valorem, 

Artigo 6. Oa ditos generos ezceptuados da franquia geral para consumo, 
poderfto todavia ser recebidos em deposito na cidade de Macao, com destine de 
serem reeiportados deiitvo de prazu de hum anno, com as cauteilas e garantiaa 
uzadaa em taea cazos pu^arido tfto somente hum por cento ad valorem de depo- 
sito, e baldeacfio, alem de armazenagem e trabalho bra^al. 

§ unico. Todos estea generos recebidos em deposito, quando dentro no 
aobredito prazo de hum anno nfto tiverem sido reexportados, ser&o obrigados a 
pagar o direito c'e conaumo marcado no artigo quinto. 

Artigo 7. T'.uos os demaia generos cuja entrada he inteiramente livre para 
consumo, ou para reexporta^fio, serAo unicamente sugeitos ao pagamento dos 
trabalhos bra^aea do companhia da alfandega, denominados dos^-culis — medi- 
ante huma tabella de aalarios que ser6 fixiula pelo governador em conselho, 
ouvido o director da alfandega, e que nfto poderi exceder oa prefos at6 aqui 
eatabelecidos para a dita companhia. 

Artigo 8 Os generos de que fazem men9fto os arttgos 4, 5, e 6, serfto arre- 
cadados nos armazens do governo para ficarem sugeitos i fiscalisa^jlo da alfan- 
dega, at6 serem despacbados. Quauto aos demaia generos comprehend tdos na 
gcneralidade da franquia, Bar6 livre a aeua donoa recolhe-los nos armazens da 
alfandega, ou em armazens particularea, como melhor Ihe oonvier. 

Artigo 9. Para o pagamento das armazenagens seri tambem fixada huma 
tabella pelo governador em conselho, ouvido o director da alfandega ; regu- 
lando-ad quanto for possivel o pre^o de taes armazenagens pelas que he cos- 
tume pagarem-se em armazenagens pai'ticularcs. 

Artigo 10. Para faoilidade do desembarque das mercadorias mais volnmoaaa 
o governo fari collocar nos locaea mais convenientes, ou nos caes mais fre- 
quentados os guindastes que forem necessarios, arbitrando tambem o governa- 
dor em conselho a deapeaa de guindastes que teri de pagar quern delles quizer 

Artigt. 11. de igualmente authorisado a governador em conselho, ouvidas 
as informaqoens convenientes, para eatabelecer huma tabella de ancoragens, 
de tal ntodo calculada que as despezas do porto que os navios houverem de 
pagar em Macao, convidem pela sua modicidade o commercio national e es- 

Artigo 12. Fica revogada toda a legisla^ar •• . contrario. 

O conselheiro d'estado extraordinario ror :diro e secretario d'estado dos 
negocios da marinha a do ultramar, assim o tinha entendido e fa^a executar. 

Pafo de Belem, em 20 de Noveuibro de 1345. — RiiNJiA. 


Edta comforme, MAhoxL J. d'Oliyxira Lima, 

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Vol. XV.— March, 1846.— No. 3. 

Art, I. Notices of Cochinchina, made during a visit in the 
spring of eighteen hundred and f&rtyfour^ by H. Isidore 
Heodb, a member of the FVeneh misston to China. 
After a passage of fifteen days from Siogapore we arrived in Ta- 
ron bay ou the Ist of May. We had a strong sea in crossing the 
gulf of Siam and afterwards fell in with the calms which commonly 
reign on the Cochinchinese coast. Bat the French corvette Ale- 
m^ne was designed for all those different changes. She had already 
been under dreadful typhoons and experienced long calms, but had 
kept herself very well. We anchored in three and a half fathoms of 
water and at a distance of about 300 feet from a small island called 
th Observatory island (in Cochinchinese MoKoieJ in lat 16* 07' 
N., and long. 106' 12' E. Greenwich. The ordinary anchorage is 
rather farther on in the same line, in front of the high woody moun- 
tains towards the east called Thann Shann, where a watering place 
is found. It was said there were there five fathoms of water ; other 
places have more, but they are not generally good for anchorage ; 
there are many banks in the bay. We could scarcely ever go on 
shore in a boat without touching the bottom. There were at anchor 
five square rigged Cochinchinese vessels, and the number rose to 
ten during our stay. These vessels were constructed after the man- 
ner of occidental nations, but they did not appear to be good sai- 
lors. Two of them, and one was the admiral's, hud left Singapore 
three days before us. We met with them between Pulo Condor and 
Pulo Sapata and we arrived three days before them. 
The etrtrance of the bay is defended by two small (bits called 
Vol. XV. NO 111 15 

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114 Notices of Cochinchina, Maiicm, 

Paiigliaie, at a t)i8lance each frOnf the other of three miles, (^tiller- 
ing the bay by a channel in the form of a spiral, we are then in a 
dock of an elli|)lical form, whose greatest axis may be of eight 
miles and the smallest six miles. This natural dock is surround- 
ed at the east, north and west by the high mountains on the way to 
Fouhu6, the capital of the kingdom, and whose angular tops of pri- 
mitive formation rise up in several places to the height of 6000 feet 
or more from the level of the sea. On the southeast side the bay 
is separated from the sea only by a large sandy ground, in which is a 
large village, surrou tided by some trees, and which borders on the 
Turon river. 

The French name Touranne affords us the explanation of that 
name better than the English name Turon. As this place is called 
Hann in Cochinchinese, and there is a fort or tower at the entrance. 
Frenchmen have called it Tenr Hann, which signifies tower of Hann. 
The small town of Turon, rather a large village, is at the most remote 
side of the bay towards the south, at about six miles from the com- 
mon anchorage on the left side of a broad channel, which is said to 
communicate with the sea, and into which the river from Sayfo 
empties itself. The place was formerly very mercantile and several 
European nations had establishments there. Now they have all de- 
serted it, and the place is only to be distinguished by the forts built 
with ditches and walls, after the European manner, one on each side 
of the water, and at a distance of a mile and a half. We landed, but not 
without difficulty, because mandarins do not like to see foreigners, 
especially when they have no presents to give, or when they arc influ- 
enced only by motives of curiosity. We saw the bazar, and some 
poor joss-houses, but we could not find the renowned white elephants' 
stables. There were no interpreters, but one poor fellow who could 
utter a few A'ords in bad French, Spanish and English. We were 
more happy another dny, in going up the channel to the marble 
mountain called None NitoCj i. e. fresh water, probably on account <>f 
the water of the channel, which being near the junction of the river 
Sayfo, is fresh and good for drinking, especially at low water. 

Cochincliiiiesc would have hindered us from visiting those famous 
rocks. They had called to their assistance all the power of their 
military and priestly stren^rth. Boats and jnnks were put across the 
rivf^r ; soldiers with their <juus were st'oii uloiirr on both sides of the 
clianiiol ; ;;on;i^.s wcru heard in all directions. But \vu landed in 
spiti' of ft II difllcnIlirLS. 

h would b« uot'lciii* hcK' to try todc:>crilit' .dl liic hciiutuiti i»f iho^^e 

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184fi. Noticed of Corhinckina. 115 

remarkable rocks, and itiyMerioiift eaves, where the water by stalac- 
tites and stalagmites, has produced so many fantastical works; where 
nature has been the architect and the sculptor as well as the painter 
and the beautifier. Perhaps at another time we shall try to give an 
idea of those magnificent and religious natural mysteries, especially 
of the subterranean pagoda, called Ouhien Ouhiet Dang, We have 
here only room to mention it. 

The same day of our excursion we went down and landed at Turon, 
and visited the chief mandarin who is a man of great ability. He is 
said lately to have made pome animadversions on the present king 
on account of his administration, a very rare thing in such a country 
of despotism ; and he has since left his position. Turon consists of 
several groups of villages on each side of the channel, the principal 
of which has about 500 mean habitations of bamboo and 2500 inha« 
bit ants. 

On another day we visited the west side of the bay. The shore is 
flat and sandy and we reached a village, inclosed in a group of trees. 
In the front is a large temple built in the Chinese manner, and behind 
bamboo huts, separated by gardens, where vegetables are cultivated. 
The principal articles are rice and maize. They have also some 
mulberry trees (morus allea) whose leaves they sell to Sayfo people 
who rear silk worms. Cotton is also cultivated, but it is employed 
in a very costly manner. Country people, especially women, have 
looms in which they weave cotton ; their looms are disposed in the 
Chinese manner, i. e. they have two treddles, or a pair of (reddles, 
and their reed is inclined and pushed by itself from the back side 
of the loom. Their cotton goods are very common, of one foot 
broad ; some are dyed red, with sapan wood, blue with native in- 
digo, black with diflferent kinds of leaves and iron water. 

We found also in a wild state two varieties of mulberry tree.<i, 
Morus IndicOf remarkable for their leaves cut in the shape of a rine ; 
the leaf of the first was broader than that of the other. We found also 
different species of what the people call ma fifiki* nnd which they 
employ to make ropes and hammocks. We discovered one of them 
to be the Urtica niveau from its leaves being on the backside very 
woody, and another, a species of sida, its leaves being very sharp, 
pointed and indented like a saw. Those plants grow in the plains 

* M^, eanabum^ is a kind of hemp, according to Tabord's Anamitic and La- 
tin dictionary ; but according to l«ourpiro's Flora, CocinsincnBiB canabis saliva^ 
which ia the true botanical name; the hemp from the Urtica nivea is called 
ywu kaie^ but the generic name is fna. 

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IIG Noiiees of CorMnchina. MarcHi 

OS well as upon the mountaiiw. We found a plenty of incligo shrubs, 
several in the marble caves. The woods all around are full of a 
peculiar kind of monkeys. They are of the size of a boy from four 
to five feet high. They have a white haired face, surrounded by a 
red beard. Their body is of a fine shining grey. Their feet and 
fore paws and their legs red. They are therefore called red breach- 
ed monkeys. They are very inoffensive and never attack men. 
But they are said to be very fond of fruits and vegetables, and de- 
stroy sometimes everything about the villages. People were well 
satisfied when they paw fifty or sixty of these poor things brought 
on the shoulders of our sailors and sent to our ship. In the muddy 
grounds and fields of rice are found a great number of leeches and 
tortoises. There are also small dangerous watersnakes. All around 
the bay are found different kinds of fish and fine shells. 

We did not find the climate of Turon so unwholesome as some 
have described it. During all our stay, twelve days, we lost no 
one of the crew and had only twenty men sick. No rain fell and 
the thermometer continued at 90^ Farenheit on board and in the 
shade. However every evening from seven and every morning from 
six o'clock, the surrounding mountains were covered with clouds. 
Lightnings were seen and a great noise of thunder heard all around. 
We used to take a bath in the bay every aflernoon, and I attributed 
my good health to this circumstance. There are no sharks nor other 
dangerous fish in that bay. 

The Cochinchinese were very kind to us ; though very poor, they 
were very civil and hospitable. We laughed at their mandarins, we 
spoke to their women, we entered their houses, we pushed down 
their soldiers, we drank their tea, and we found them of the same 
humor, never angry, never lamenting. They are not fair-faced, but 
there is something in their appearance which gives confidence. 
We would rather trust to Cochinchinese than to Canton Chinese. 
Generally they are very miserable. They are oppressed by their 
mandarins, who for the slightest offense require them to be put in 
fetters or to be bambooed. We were happy enough in several instances 
to save some of these poor fellows from the unsparing severity of their 

The patience which the Cochinbhinese had towards us and their 
kind reception of us was perhaps owing to the name of France, which 
has been respected by them since the days of the venerated bishop 
of Ad ran. I believe also that the energetic conduct of the com- 
mander of the American frigate llic Constitution, was fur something 

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1846. Notices of Cochinekina. 117 

in the balance. He had come lately to Turon Bay to take in wood 
and water ; he had heard of the imprisonment of a French bishop, 
and he resolved to attempt his deliverance. Thanks and congratula- 
tion may be offered to the generous officer, who for the sake of huma* 
nity, not consulting the difference of religion, did all in his power to 
deliver the poor bishop. 

The object of our voyage to Cochinchina was the delivery of this 
bishop who had been in fetters for seven months. The commandant 
of the Alcm^ne, a French corvette of 36 guns, captain Duplan, 
brought a letter for the king from rear-admiral Cecile. Immediately 
after our arrival in town the letter was dispatched, and the answer 
was, that without difficulty the French bishop would be released and 
sent from Fouhue to the French ship. Offices of the first and second 
rank came to bring this verbal answer, and consequently, some days 
after, M. Lefevre bishop of Isauropolis, was brought on board, ac- 
companied by a gracious letter firom Thieu-fri who earnestly sought 
to engage Frenchmen to come and trade with Cochinchina. The 
venerable and courageous missionary gave us some account of 
himself and the country. He told us that he had been living in the 
country of Turon these ten years, and had been in the most civilized 
places as well as among the savage tribes of the Tsiampa and Laos 
mountains. Christians are now tolerated by some mandarins. But 
they must not trust to the ill disposed who are the declared enemies 
of Christianity. No exterior worship was allowed anywhere, and there 
were no remains of the beautiful churches or monumental chapels 
erected by and since the bishop of Adran. All have been put down 
by the unsparing Ming Ming. Cochinchina is actually tributary to 
China. Gyalong the conqueror of his own kingdom, had got rid of 
that domination. But his son Ming Ming, father of the actual king, 
more experienced in belles-lettres and in science than in war, had 
voluntarily renewed the ancient use of investiture, which has been 
continued by his son Thieu-fri, a prince excessively rigorous to> 
wards his subjects. 

The kingdom of Cochinchina or Andm is now composed of: Ist. 
Tonquin, which contains according to M. Chaiquean, the ancient 
French mandarin, 18 millions of inhabitants. That is the richest 
part of the Anamitic country. There are in the interior two principal 
towns, Ketcheu and Vi-houang. The population of each is reckoned 
at 100 or 150 thousand inhabitants, and S20,000 Roman Catholics are 
supposed to be spread over all the country. 2d. Upper Cochinchi- 
na, wherein is Fonhu^, of rather I(igqb> residence of the king and 

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118 Notices of CocktHckina. March, 

capital of the kingdom. This place is apon an island, formed by two 
channels of the river. It is remarkable for its fortifications made on 
the European system, which were erected by the French and Irish 
engineers, who in 1799 accompanied the bishop of Adran. It is a 
town whose streets are said to be paved, gravelled and bordered with 
trees. Houses are made of stone and bricks after the European 
manner. There are ramparts defended by numerous artillery, and 
stone houses and arsenals well furnished with guns, and everything 
necessary in case of a war for lOO^OOO soldiers. The surface of the 
town is about five or six miles in circumference, and its population 
consists of about 60,000 inhabitants. 3d. Lower Cochinchina, whose 
principal town is Shaigoene, another town fortified afler the European 
system, and seaport at the mouth of a river of the same name, which 
must be an arm of the great Camboja river. There was according 
to Horsburgh a manufactory for the casting of cannon, and houses 
and stocks for the building of ships. According to different travelers 
this town was very mercantile, for the convenience of the harbor 
and the depth of water. But since the great insurrection of 1833, a 
great part of its fortifications have been put down, its commerce 
driven away and almost all the population perished. Those two ports 
of Cochinchina are said to contain according to the same aforesaid 
mandarin, 1,000,000 inhabitants, amongst whom are 80,000 Roman 
Catholics. 4th. Camboja, whose principal town is Penonben or 
Kalompe, with a population of 30,000 inhabitants. The frontiers 
of that part which separates the Anamitic empire from the Siamese, 
or from the uncivilized tribes which are supposed to belong to the 
^Siamese kingdom, are determined exactly, but they are frequently 
crossed, by parties of warriors, and occupied sometimes by the one 
«nd afterwards by the other, according to the chances of war, which 
tias long been carried on by the one government against the other. 
The population of that fourth part of the Anamitic empire is about 
one mitlion inhabitants, amongst whom are very few Christians. 

We cannot give an idea of the surface of that kingdom. It is a 
long band which embraces more than 12 degrees, from the borders 
of the three Chinese provinces, Yunnin, Kwingsl and Kwdngtung 
to the southern extremity of Cochinchina at the mouth of the Cam- 
hoja river, at the 10th degree of N. latitude. Its breath is 
in Tonquin, being of from one to two degrees. But in Lower Cochin- 
china it is oilen very narrow, no more than 12 or 15 miles in width. 
Mountains succeed immediately, inhabited by an unsubdued people, 
lyho come at times to plunder the poor and defenseless inhabitants. 

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18'iri. Notices of Coehinchhia. 1 19 

0«ichmcirnia is a very miserable country, on account of its late 
intestine wars, and of its form of government, which is very despotic. 
Nevertlieless the country is very fertile, especially in Lower Cochin- 
china. There are mines, especially one of gold at Phuyenn, and an- 
other at Shuongreek in the department of Kouannam. But govern- 
ment, which is afraid of foreign cupidity, forbids to touch them 
or even to speak of them under a penalty of death. 

There are but few roads in the country, and some paths on sands 
and across mountains, which barely permit men to pass on foot. The 
country was in a state of great prosperity in the time of Gynlong and 
Ming Ming. But since their time Cochinchina has declined much. 
Foreign wars, intestine dissension and sightless absolutism have 
ruined the country. There is virtually no property amongst the 
people. All belongs to the king, and after him to the officers. Thus 
if any man wants to buy or sell any land or building, he is oblig- 
ed to give presents to the officer according to the proportional 
value. The value of property generally depends upon its revenue. 
Thus a certain estate will be sold at four, three and even two times 
its revenue. So in Tonquin and in Upper Cochinchina, where the 
population is more dense and money is more abundant, a piece of 
ground will be sold at four or live times its revenue. But io Lower 
Cochinchina which is reputed the garden and granary of the empire^ 
in the magnificent alluvial lands formed by the delta of the great river 
of Cambojn, but where population is scarce and the price of silver 
high, a piece of ground may be obtained for twice its revenue in one 

Religion.s are almost the same as in China. There are joss-houses 
where Budhistic gods are represented and the goddess Thin Toie. The 
literary graduates go to the temple of Confucius to make prostration' 
and receive information. Commerce is almost nothing. The kinjf 
has taken to himself all the monopoly of trade. He buys goods fronr 
his subjects at the price he appoints, and sends his ships to sel^ 
them at foreign ports. He employs in trade five square rigged ships 
and steamers which have been constructed in the country. He 
sends them to Canton, to Singapore, to Batavia, and sometimes to- 
Calcutta. He sends to Singapore indigenous and Chinese silks,, 
also green teas, nankeens, cinnamon, rhinoceros' horns, cardamums, 
rice, sugar, salt, ivory, buffaloes' skins, precious wood and treasure. 
He receives camlets, common long ells, red, blue and yellow, for the 
use of his soldiers, tin, opium, fire-arms and some Indian goods. He 
receives from Batavia, clove;?, nutmegs, pepper, black and bluesilkfi. 

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\iO Notices qf CochiHchina^ MAftcu, 

and green velvets, and glass ware of every kind. To give an idea of 
the manner in whichabe trade is carried on, we may mention, that 
the last year the king sent to Canton two ships and twelve officers 
to sell his goods and to buy others in exchange. On their return, not 
being satisfied with their success, he degraded them, putting them in 
prison and in fetters and confiscating all their property. And they 
are still bewailing their miserable condition the reward of their ill suc- 
cess as merchants. The junks which trade from Cochinchina are un« 
der private authorisation or managed by fraud. A statement is here 
presented of the commerce between Singapore and Cochinchina. 
imported to Singapore, Exported from Singapore. 

1839, $176,261. 1839, «173,447. 

1840, 166,479. 1840, 200,304. 

1841, 245,521. 1841, 292,686. 

1842, 208,484. 1842, 248,324. 

1843, 254,785. 1843, 227,848. 

1844, 177,606. 1844, 229,413. 
The scale of duties for anchorage is as follows : — 

At Fouhu6 54 kouan for a thuoc (15,94} inches). 

At Shai'goene 102 „ „ 

At Turon 72 „ „ 

But the last place only is open to foreign trade. Very few ships 
come to trade. They have deserted on account of the arbitrary 
practices of the king, who has the entire monopoly of the trade, and 
because there are no fixed regulations for its management. 

Cochinchinese coins have been explained in Morrison's Commer- 
cial Guide, according to the statements given by the late J. L. Ta« 
herd, bishop of Isauropolis in his valuable Anamitic dictionary. 
They are well made both in gold and silver, and are as follows : 

1 golden ingot or loaf, weight 10 taels Sp. Drs. 238. 

i t» 99 f> " l> II liV. 

] golden iiaii or dink vang 1 „ „ 24. 

a •> II " " 4 II » ^'•* 

4 >* II " " 4 o »» ^' 

10 goldeti nails make one golden loaf so called. 
1 silver ingot of loaf nen bac weight 10 tae]s=Drs. 14. 
Its specific weight is 95 parts pure silver and 5 alloy, or 100 parts. 
The value of 17 silver loafs is equal to that of 1 golden loaf. 
1 silver nail or dinh bac weifirhs 1 tael, Drs. 1.40 

a »» »» II i 99 •" 

i II II »» i II w 

10 bilver nails are equivalent to one silver IglfbyGoOQic 

1840. J\oticfS of Cochiiichina, Yli 

Besides the native coin the Intc king Ming Ming issued a coinage 
of gold and silver dollars, and the reigning king Thieu-fri adopted 
the same. The weight and value are here presented. 

1 gold dollar weight 1.030 ounce Troy Drs. 13. 

4 „ » 0.519 „ „ G.50 

i „ „ 0.259 „ „ :J.25. 

1 silver dollar „ 0.8C2 „ „ 0.70. 

i „ „ 0.431 „ „ 0.35. 

i „ „ 0.215 „ „ 0.17. 

The specific weight is 190 parts of pure metal, and 80 of copper 
or alloy. One side bears the face of the Cochiuchiucsc dragon, and 
the other side the king's name in Chinese characters, some Ming 
Ming's and others that of Thieu-fri. Some are like common dollars 
and have a hole in the middle, while others are broader and nut so 

The only popular coin is the cash made of pure /inc. Its form is 
circular, and is 0,37 inch in diameter. It has, like the Chinese 
cash, a square hole in the middle, of 0,10 inch c'lch ^ldo, for the 
convenience of stringing a number Co;j;cthcr. It is not coined but 
cast. The Chinese characters are intended to represent the name 
of the king. Six hundred of them strung together in this maimer 
form what is called a kouan (ktnan) or a string. Each koitan mnk(.'s 
10 heaps or tiens, each of GO cash. The value of tiic cash varies 
in different sections, or according to the value attributed to gold and 
silver. In Turon and in Upper Cochinchina, one Sp;mlsh dollar is 
worth only three or four kouan. In Sliajgt)t'ne or in Lower Ctichin- 
china one Spanish dollar is worth five or six konan. So in taking 
the dollar at an average value of four /cwrtrm we shall have — 

1 ("scfiicArj cash worth Spanish dollar 0.0004100. 


2000 „ „ I. 


nrninl. p. 

1 kan, or catty of 10 luongs or taels, l{: ounce each I.37.S 
10 „ one yen „ „ „ |3.7^S 

50 „ one binh „ „ „ ()S.90 

100 „ oneta „ ,. „ 1;J7.8 

500 „ one kouan „ „ „ Ofeiy, 

Vol. XV. NO. iii lii 







Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

122 Ndiices cf Cochinchitia. March, 

There is no exactfy delei^mihed legal measure of length. Tkuor 
is the generic name. Its divisions will be here presented. 
10 phan8=l tak or inch. 
10 tak =1 thuoc or foot or ell. 
5 thuoc r=l ngou, or fathom. 
3 ngou =1 sao or rod. 
10 tao =:i mao or rood. 
The generic measure thuoc (the Chinese ckih, cubit, or foot) is 
▼ery different according to circumstances. Those more commonly 
employed are here presented. 

Thuoc used for measuring ships for the 

service of ports • . . . 0.405 metre 
Thuoc used for wood at Turon - - 0.425 
Thuoc mentioned by Taberd - - 0.48726 
Thuoc used by the king for measuring 
silks and other cloths in his transac- 
tions with a Frenchman. - - 0.594 
Thuoc used by natives in the Turon market 0.61 
Thuoc used according to Morrison • 0.64968 


1 ly=:444 metres. 

2 ly=l dam=888 metres. 
10 ]y=5 dam=4444 metres. 


1 mao=IO sao=:165 thuoc=80.9979 metres 
The mao is what a man may cultivate in one day. 


1 hao ^ - - - - 28 litres. 

2 hao=:l shita=l tao in weight=56 litres. 

The hao is a measure of rice required for a month's subsistence. 
It is given by the king to his soldiers. 


Hens and ducks' 



1 kouan. 

Fowl or duck 



2 tien. 



(I catty) 

4 tien. 


(a kati) : 

I to 2 kouan. 


(a catty) 

3 tien 


(a set) 

F tion 

Pine apples 


rj Rouan. 

Oranges - 


5 tien: 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Natieet of (JoekhuiuUt. 


Maise .... 

(a han) 5 to 10 tien. 

Sinali lemoiifl ... 


1 tien. 

FkHtr of millet • 

(a catty) 

3 kouan. 

Sale .... 


3 tien. 

Veal . . . - 


4 tien. 

Buffalo . - . - 


3 tien. 

Small oniontf ... 



Sweet potatoes 


1 tien. 

Beana .... 


2 tien. 

Yama .... 


90 s&peks. 

Small pigeons . - • 


90 „ 

Geese .... 


4 tien. 

Oysters . . - - 


1} kouan. 

Tarnips .... 

(t c«tt,) 

1 tien. 

Cakes made of eggs and flour 


i kouan. 

Cocoa not ... 


3 tien. 


(t catty) 

2 kouan. 

Fish (all kinds) 


2 tien. 

Tobacco ... 


H tien. 

Paper, white lea?es, made of bamboo (100) 

8 kouan. 

Sugar - . . . 

(a catty) 

1} tien. 

Candy .... 


3 tien. 

Cucumbers ... 


3 tien. 

Ginger (sweet meat of) 


7 tien. 

Mango .... 


6 tien. 

Tack .... 


2 tien. 

Cassia . . ; . 

(a catty) 

2 kouan. 

Black pepper ... 


1} kouan. 

Green tea from Hue - 


3 tien. 

Wood for fire - 


3 kouan. 

Ebony from Kouannam 


10 tien. 

£agle wood ... 


10 tien. 

Red copper ... 


50 kouan. 

Morfit .... 

(a catty) 

4 kouan. 

Horns of rhinoceros * 


10 kouan. 

Mats (best kind) 

(a pair) 

8 kouan. 

Green indigo ... 

(a catty) 

li kouan. 

Bees-wax . . - 


1^ kouan. 

Cotton .... 

„ 1 to 2 kouan. 

Raw Silk .... 

„ 3 to 4 kouan. 

Cotton cloth— a piece of 24 th'iioc 

7 kouan. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

124 Review qf Diseases in Hongkong. Marchi, 

Coat for a man - • - (1) 6 kouan. 

Trowsers - - • (1) 5 kouan. 

Turban of silk or cotton crape 8 kouan. 

Day's work in Upper Cochinchina (besides rice) 30 to 40 sapeeks. 

„ Lower Cochinchina ., 2 tien. 

Mason, carpenter and other mechanical trades in Upper 

Cochinchina - - - - - - 1 tien. 

Mason, carDenter and other mechanical trades in Lower 

Cochinchina - - - - . 2 to 3 tien. 

These several prices indicate the variety and cheapness of local 
productions. But it is not to be inferred that these prices are by 
any means constant, inasmuch as the king has monopolised com- 
merce. For instance, silk may be generally obtained from 2 to 4 
kouan which is very cheap. But if it be for exportation, the price 
may be increased to 6 or 8 or 10 kouan, according to the king's 
fancy. Under such circumstance3 trade cannot be easily carried 
on, and it is not probable that for a long time it will present any 
secure advantages to foreigners. 

JVote. In tendering our best thanks to Mr. Hedde for his ** Notices," we 
must apologize for iheir poor English dress; we were not awarn of the many idioms in the article until it was too late to correct them. The present king 
of Cochinchina, called Thieu-fri^ succeeded his father early in lb4l. See Chi. 

Hep. vol. XI. pp. 344, 4()0, 675. His father's name was '^ {iB Ming-ming^ 
and his grandfather's J|^ 1^ Kia-lungt written often, as above, " Gyalong." 
Folitically and morally considered, ** Cochinchina is a very miserable country," 
Ktill it hiis a very fertile soil, and under a better rule and good equitRble laws 
it ciin bccouii* a prosperous and happy country. We wish Europeans knew 
inoro of it, and that better Relations couM exist between Annam **thc Tran- 
quil South," und the nationn of tlie went. 

Art. II. Rrvicftj of diaecuies incidental to Europeans in China, 
pnrtirnlarly in Hongkong and for the year 1845, exhibited in 
public papers, prepared by Drs. Tucker and Dill. 
The first part of the following article we borrow from "an introduc- 
tory address delivered by Alfred Tucker, esquire, surgeon of the 
Minden's hospital at the first meeting of the China Medical and 
(/liirurgicnl Society, on the advantages to be gained by a medical 
association, and a cursory review of diseases incident ctl to Ciiropeans 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Rtvitto of Diseates in Hongkong. 


PMdralB PauiT>ali 
iMilrai dlKhargel. 

No. or IiiTt- 
dMth. Ucd. 





3 3 

in China. The first part of that address was given in onr last vo- 
445, the remainder we now subjoin, giving first the 


Of the Jirst one thmisand patients sent an hoard the Minden's 
hospital (in the harbor of Hongkong) for treatment, 

Fkli-Mi PaiiMCi No. or Inv*. 
Ntintt of ctJMMW. TCC«ivc«l. dbcluirged. dmth. lUaii. 

Hydrops, 3 

Vulnus, 6 




Deli. Trem. 






Choi, malig. 



Fis. in A no, 
da Axil, 
do. Perineo, 



Acne rosa. 


Morb. cor. 
8 Variola, 
si Morb. var. 


Comp. cere. 









Febres Inter. 
do« Remit 
Morbus coxarius 
Phthisis coaf 
da incip. 





















6 3 

3 1 















1000 579 345 10(J 

This abstract of diseases shoif s the result of practice in an establishment 
where patients are nursed by raost experienced nurses, every dose of medi- 
cine administered night and day in the presence of a medical officer, the most 
rigid dietetic regime m enforced, every change iu the symptoms and progress 
of diseases anticipated by immediate change of treatment if deemed necessary 
by the medical officer on duty, and the medicines and medical comforts 
supplied by tlie government without restriction. This table also shows the 
aliiio8t universal character of the fatal species of diseases. The necrological 
totiil exhibits tlie large proportion of 315 deaths of 1000 treated or 31. .5 per 
cent ; of tlicse 'MA were from periodic fever and dysentery and only 51 from 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

126 Remcw of Diseases in ffangkong. March, 

all other diseuea incliuiye, therefore, 1 shall a0iuiae that these are the 
only diseases of an aggrntyated and fatal character which afflict the European 
in China. 

Nosologista differ much in the proximate causes of fevers, and as I believe 
I di^r witli some as to the genus of the fatal fever of China, many contend- 
ing that it is a continued idiopathic fever ; but my opinion of the geniis and 
etiology of this fever is, that it is a periodic fever directly caused by the marsh 
miasma, derived from the oozy soil covered by rank vegetation in the niune- 
rous ravines on this island frequently extended up their acclivities, the re- 
mains of the system of terraced vegetation adopted in the growth of rice by 
the Chinese, previous to British possession. Whether every febrile or con- 
stitutional disturbance is a consequence of local derangment, or there are 
any fevers dependent solely on a general cause, and which as being uncon- 
nected with any local affection, merit the appellation of essential, will form the 
subject of future discussion ; the hypothesis that this fever is caused by mineral 
decomposition has many followers, from the fact that the hardest rocks are 
liable to disintegration from long exposure to the weather, and the gradual 
absorption of oxygen from the air, also the hypothesis of electricity, derived 
from certain mineral and vegetable substances, perpetually going on during 
the process ef vegetation, is the favorite opinion of some ; but in this colony 
where the largest proportion of decaying granite has been exposed, the least 
4|uantity of disease has appeared. But the Barraclcs occupied successively by 
tlic Bengal Volunteers, 37th and 55th regiments, situated to the westward, 
and nearly surrounded by swampy ground, were abandoned on account of 
(the fatal ravages of periodic fever and dysentery. The artillery barracks built 
an the summit of a height bounded on the eastern aspect by a ravine, the go- 
9^emmcnt residence of the late governor sir Henry Pottinger, the eminences 
on which the Seaman's Hospital and Missionary Institution are situated, 
liaviug much of this neglected swampy soil in their immediate vicinity, have 
Ibecn the sites where fatal fevers have been contracted. The pestilential cha- 
racter of the valleys to the eastward, till lately ncariy entire swamps, needs 
no comment But in that part where the larger number of people reside, 
situated between the Harbour Master's residence, and Mr. Shuck's chape!, 
«nly one death from endemic fever has ensued : here is a continuous rock, 
presenting a new sur^e, where in the progress of buildings, considerable 
quantiiics of the detritus of the underlying rock is turned up. 

To determine the genus of this fever is very important ; one thing is certain 
that during convalescence it frequently assumes the form of an irregular inter- 
mittent, but the etiobgy and type will be discussed on some future occasion. 
The intensity with which the disease invades the system is very uncertain. 
As is usual with Pyrexia, there is loss of mental energy, more or less confu- 
sion of the ideas, diminished motive power succeeded by more or less sensa- 
tion of cold, frequently amounting to a general rigor ; occasionally tliis period 
or stage of collapse is very intense, and great alarm 'm caused by tlie patient 
4y'isxg at ihe invasion of the disease; this aggravated form simulates very 

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1846. Review of Diseases in Hongkong. 127 

ranch tbe aspect of spasnKKlic cholera, there is a livid cold sarface, covered 
by a wet sweat, a sunken anxious expression of the countenance, and some- 
times incessant vomiting and purging of a thin serous fluid, (this exhalation 
of fluid from the mucus sarface is frequently mixed with the usual secretions) 
distressing jactitition, short hurried respiration, apparent somnolency, but 
when aroused there is perfect intellectuality, and the almost universal reply, 
is, that they feel much better ; but there is an absence of clonic spasm, Is- 
churia renalis, and the ejected fluid does not resemble tlie peculiar cholera or 
rice water excretion. 

These varieties of the first stage are succeded by the hot skin, flushed coun- 
tenance, fuctional derangement, generally of the encephalon, quick full 
pulse, and intense thirst, frequently attended by vomiting, impatience on 
pressure over the epigastric and hypochondriac regions and increased fre- 
quency atstooL This stage is also uncertain, the exacerbation being occasion- 
ally extended to the second and third day, when a free diaphoresis takes place 
and a well marked remission ensues, which is succeeded by an exercabation 
which frequently proves fatal The severity or duration of tliese exacerba- 
tions are very uncertain. This fever, particularly tiie most fatal form, assumes 
a most insidious and deceptive character, the accessions are marked by little 
febrile disturbance ; in fact, the skin is below tlie natural temperature, the 
pulse is rather more frequent, but there is deficient tone imparted to the finger ; 
the tongue is rather dry, and brownish, there is considerable somnolency ; 
but when asked if he has any complaint, replies that he feels quite well, but 
is evidently fractiuos at being aroused, tlicre is usually a short remissinpr in* 
the morning indicated by wakefulness, and apparent little complaint Tliis 
form of disease frequently terminates fatally on the fiflh or seventli day, to tlio 
surprise of the inexperienced practitioner, who has prognosticated to the. 
friends a favorable issue. 

During the accessions there is generally diarrhssa, which frequently be- 
comes dysenteric, the functions of the various cavities are uncertainly affected, 
and oflen the metastasis of venous congestion from one cavity to another is 
rather embarrassing. The prognosis becomes more favorable as the remis- 
sions are more protracted, or when it becomes of an intermittent character ; 
the reverse is expected when the exacerbations are prolonged, with progres- 
sive prostration of the vital powers. 

As relates to therapeutics, I feel, I have no curative remedy tb offer for 
your opinion. The usual treatment is generally adopted, diat)horetics and 
effervescing draughts during the accession, relieving local conjections by 
leeches, cupping, or blisters, and when tiiere is much pervigilium a full dose 
of calomel and opium ; but directly a remission is apparent the exhibition of 
quinine in combination with small doses of calomel and opium, when not 
incompatible witli cerebral disturbance or intestinal flux. When tlie latter 
is complicated with periodic fbver, I have found the arsenical solution in a 
menstruum of infusion of Cascorrilla or Buchu very useful : or when there 
was much- gastric irritabiliy, four drops of Hydrocyanic acid in one ounce oi^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1-J8 Ilevlcio of Diseases in Ilonghong. M.\uc'rr, 

Camphor Julop, every four hours. It is not expected in a cursory review to 
detail tJie whole catalogue of remediefc asuolly prescribed; therefore f shall 
only say ; that in Ihe stage of collapse, i usually prescribe fiie diffusible 
stimuli, frictions of the surface witti amnioniated liniment, and the application 
of artificial warmth , but in the aggravated species of tliis stage, I should 
like to gain your opinion as to the propriety of small bleeding from the ann; 
with the intention of acting as a stimulant, by unloading the large venselu 
leading to the centre of the circulation — it is certain without that organ )si 
stimulated by arterial blood it never acts. 

I must make one remark on the treatment of general bloodletting in tlie 
stage of excitement I can assure you I have seen sudden sinking frequently 
take place after the abstraction of a few ounces of blood. After the European 
has resided a short time in China, if blood is taken, the large proportion of 
serosity is remarkable. Probably the atmosphere always more or less surchar- 
ged with noxious exhalations from the paddy swamps acts as a powerfully debi- 
litating cause, and it will be an interesting topic at some future meeting to 
discuss, whether the blood, or the nervous system is primarily affected. 

The intermittent type of fever appears eitlier as a primary disease or a 
sequent of the remittent It most frequently assumes the tertian species, but 
once the system becomes saturated with marsh poison, it is always liable to 
erratic returns, developed by atmospheric density, or dietetic irregularity. 
Post mortem examinations present considerable congestion of the venous 
system, but no structural change or organic lesion — I shall conclude my 
remarks on the first order of the pyrexial class, and proceed to offer a few 
observations on Dysentery. 

This genus of disease presents two species, the acute and chronic ; the 
latter either succeeds the acute form or appears as a primary disease. The 
^rst species is generally preceded by constipation, sometimes by diarrhoea, is 
accompanied with more or less pyrexia, nausea, a distressing sinking sensation, 
eructation, excessive pain along the track of the colon, but more acute over 
the site of the ccpcum, painful tenesmus, and frequent purging of muco-san- 
guineous stools. The character of the dejections varies much even in the same 
individual, some are entirely sanguineous, others are muco-sanguineous, 
muco-feculent streaked with blood fluid resembling the washing of beef, 
occasionally with an admixture of depraved secretion, rags of detached mu- 
cous membrane, or viscid mucus. This disease sometimes assumes an adyna- 
mic or typhoid character, with a cold surface, dry brown encrusted tongue, 
sordes around the teeth, petcchioe, spontaneous ptyalism, ulceration and spha- 
celas of the gums and lining membrane of the cheeks, and proor.s.sive sinking 
of tiie vital powers. This is a most hopeless form to treat ; mercury acts as a 
poison, the abstraction of blood even by leeches is often attended by sudden 
sinking, we know that the disease is proceeding rapidly in the process of 
disorganization of the large intosiines, we feci that wo must do something, 
and it is doubtful wholhor we do too lillle or too much. 1 have ordered the 
Hydrocyanic acid in combination witli one of tiio preparations of opium, thin 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. RetiiW of DUeases in Hongkong. 1S9 

fitfi]iace(NU flaid with wine, and the atdnid bniClM in «^ 
It repeated. The first foirn if a much more eatiafactoiy dieeaee to treat Au- 
topsiea have shown that it ie an active inflammation of the mucone eujftce of 
the large intestines, and by decided and prompt measures is generally sub- 
dued. Warm baths, blood letting both general and topical, and the intro- 
duction of mercury in combination with opium to impregnate the system. The 
indication of decreasing or suspending the use of the mineral, is cessation of 
pain, apjrrezia, and healthy feculent discharges fem the bowels— for some 
period the discharges will be more or less mixed with mucus, and some 
frequency to stool is kept up by slight irritation immediately with the rectum 
from hyperomia of the hemorrhoidal veins. I have generally found an ene- 
ma of sulphate of nnc or nitrate of silver^ or the application of a few 
leeches to the anus sufficient to relieve this affection of the rectum. 

The chronic species will form the next subject for consideration ; a fum 
of disease which too frequently baffles all our best endeavors. As a sequel 
of the acute species, it frequently depends on an atony of the capillaries, and 
an undue secreting activity of the submucous glands. This form is generally 
cured, but leaves the patient susceptible to a recurrence from slight predis- 
posing causes. The treatment 1 have pursued is about ^ grain of calomel in 
combination with opium and ipecacnan at bed time— email doses of riiubarb, 
magnesia and 3 or 4 of the tincture of opium in the morning ; rubefacients 
and flannel bandaging over the abdomen ; but medicine has no avail without 
the strictest dietetic regime. There is another form of this species, the lien* 
teric ; this is generally the result of old and neglected diarrjMBa — when pati* 
ents think it necessary to apply to a medical man it is too late for any curative 
treatment to be adopted. They tell you, that they have very little the matter 
with them, that they have usually three or four stools during the day and 
night, two of which are usually passed about daylight, that they have lost flesh 
and strength, and only require some medicine to stop the looseness — ^they 
present an attenuated appearance ; in fact there is general atrophy, exsangui" 
fication, the countenance of a yellow tinge, the eyes sunken in their sockets 
the skin arid and of a dirty straw color, moderate desire for food, tongue sharps 
morbidly red with a smooth flayed appearance, the abdomen concave and 
tense, the dejections composed of a thin brownish fluid much resembling beef 
tea, with a large proportion of unassimilated food in comparison to the pro- 
portion received into the stomach ; there is no particular pain, but occasional 
eructation, hiccup and an uneasy sensation of flatulent distension of the 
abdomen. This disease is always progressive, and when not directly preci- 
pitated by gastric enteritis seems to prove fatal by simple innutrition. The 
novice is frequently startled by the information, that the patient he had just 
pronounced something better, is dead. They appear perfectly unconscious 
of their own perilous condition and speak continually of the anticipation of 
soon meeting their friends in the land of their fathers. These form the large 
proportion of deaths among invalided seamen and soldiets on their pasdage !b 
England. \ believe this disease is incurable. 

VOL. XV. NO. Ill 17 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

180 Review of Diseases in Hongkong, MAncffi 

The chronic Bpccies proceeds insidiously to ulceration of the large intesti- 
nes by a process of passive inflammation ; the amount of diseased structure 
found on examination, much surprises the medical attendant, particularly from 
the very slight pain experienced during the process of the disease. 

The uniformity of the following post mortem presentations, namely hyper« 
trophy, lividity, and ulceration of the ccecum, colon and rectum which have 
frequently a fibro-caitilaginous feel, leaves no doubt of the immediate cause 
of death in dysentery ; very rarely any other lesion is seen, the healthy ap- 
pearance of the liver is proverbial, and the stomach and small intestines are 
perfectly normal. 

As regards the treatment of the last form described, 1 have tried the whole 
list of mineral and vegetable astringents: sulphate of zinc and copper, nitrate 
of silver, diacetate of lead, ioduret of iron, -mercury with chalk, cascarrilla 
buchu, &c., vesicating the abdominal surface without any improvement in 
the symptoms. I now satisfy myself with palliating symptoms, as one be- 
comes more irksome than another. An opiate at bed time, absorbents, opiate 
suppositories, small astringent enemas very gently throwji up, and an unirri- 
tating bland diet, seem by mitigating urgent symptoms to prolong life. 

I have described periodic fever and dysentery separately, but with the 
exception of the acute species, they are generally found in complication, and 
I have fre(inently noticed dysentery assume a periodic character particularly 
of the tertian type. These cases are most tedious in their convalescence, 
and the permanent cure is almost impossible, without change from this mala- 
rious atmosphere. I wish to caU your attention particularly to a mode of 
procuring that benefit. 

The summit of the height, on the declivity of which Victoria is built, is 
1800 feet above the level of the sea ; and the variation of temperature at the 
base, when measured by lieutenant Bate of the surveying departtnent, was 
11* of Fahrenheits^ scale, the result was 72" 5' at the foot, and 61" 5' at the 
top in February 1841* But there is a much greater apparent decrease of 
t3mperature, and the circulating medium is perfectly free from the noxious 
exhalations of the low land.- I therefore would suggest the establishment o^ 
a convalescent hospital on an eligible site at this elevated locality. I think 
it would be the means of saving very many lives during tlie summer months. 
Patients might be very easily removed on a litter, or chair. I trust you will 
give it mature consideration, and if you approve of the scheme, will meet and 
make a representation on the subject to the proper quarter. 

I have read a cursory review of the diseases incidental to Europeans in 
Chin?). I tliink in conclusion it is- right to consider those diseases from 
trhich Europeans have almost an immunity in China. The abstract table of 
diseases only presents 3 fital crises of pneumonia, V2 from phthisis and two 
from bronchitis ; of 313 fatal cases about 5 p3r cent or only IJ per cent of the 
number treated. I believe statistical records show about J of tlie deaths in 
England from pulmonic disease. Tliere are only 1(» cases of rheumatism sent 
lux treatment of lOOU aduiitted, a disease so universal in England* ti therefore 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Review of Diseases in Hongkong, 131 

I think we may assume that diseaaes of the thoracic cavity and membranous 
tissue seldom affect Europeans in this country. The consideration of this 
subject is important from the position which this colony bears to India, and 
whether people affected with these diseases raif^rht not be induced and receive 
much benefit by a temporary residence in this country, particularly during^ 
the northeast monsoon. 

The following report of sickness and death among the officers of 
the civil government in Hongkong, we borrow from the China Mail 
for January 29th, 1846. 

Table I. — An abstract of sickness and death among the civil government 
officers, &c., in the island of Hongkong, from Ist January tr> 31st Dec. 1845. 

Government officers. 

PoUce, 4^c. 


No. Oil «i:k No. or 
IbL dentht. 

No.nn liEk 



No on tick No. of 
iMU dMiha. 




5 la 









7 Oh 

April, . 




7 2e 

May, - . 




7 Od 





12 2« 

July, - . 




7 3/ 

August, - 




9 Off 


5 1 



3 OA 

October, - 




13 Ot 





13 Oj 





8 Ok 

134 1 



107 8 

a A Chinese female prisoner died from Puerperal mania. 

b The wife of a policeman died of dysentery. 

c An overseer of roads died of grastric fever. One Chinese prisoner died 
of ulcers. One Chinese prisoner died from smoking opium. 

d One policeman died of chronic diarrhoea in the military hospital. An 
overseer of roads died of fever. 

e Two British prisoners died, the One from apoplexy, the other from dysen- 
tery. One overseer of roads died of fever. 

/ Two Chinese prisoners died from ulcers. One Chinese prisoner died from 
smoking opium. One policeman died of dysentery, one sailor found on the 
street in a state of intoxication and died in jail. 

g One Chinaman found on the street in a state of destitution and died in 
custody. One policeman died of remittent fever in 18th R. I. regt. hospital. 

h Government officer of the supreme court died of low remittent fever. 
One policeman died of abscess in the liver, another of dysentery. 

i One policeman died of remittent fever. A woman (formerly a soldier's 
wife,) and her child died of dysentery; a constable died of dysentery ; a police- 
man died at Stanley, not treated by the colonial surg., and disease unknown. 

j One policeman died of jaundice. 

k The wifo of a policeman died of dysentery. 

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1JJ2 RevictD of Diseases in Hongkong, March, 

Table II.— The actual number of caaes and different diaeaaea amon^ the 
government officers, &c., in each month throughout the year 1845. 

Jan. Vtb. Mar. April, lUf, Jane, Wjr, Awf. Bepu Ort. N**. I>bg. TttoL 















Remittent Fiver - 














Diarrhcaa . . . - 














Dysentery - - - 














Venereal Disease 














Ottitis ... - 














Ophthalmia - - - 














Infl. of Knee - - 














Infl. of Breast - - 














Paronychia - - - 














Abscess .... 














Dropsy . - - - 














Neuralgia - - . . 














Insanity .... 














Paralysis .... 














Delirium Tremens 














Apoplexy - . - . 














Coup de Soleil - - 














Cynanche Tonsillaris 














Catarrh .... 














Parulis .... 














Dyspnoea - . - - 














Enteritis .... 














Dyspepsia .... 














Worms - - . - 














Constipation - - - 














HcBmorrhoids - - 














Liver Diseases - - 














Splenitis - - - 














Nephritis .... 














Uterine Disease • 














Parturition ... 














Rheumatism - - 














Periostitis ... 














Cutaneous diseases 




























Wounds &. Accidents 














Effects of Smoking ^ 
Opium - - - ) 














Diaphragmitis - - 














Violation .... 














Intoxication - - 














Destitution - - - 














Total - - - 51 29 22 41 43 44 47 39 U 60 73 41 r,01 

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1 in 195 



1 in 66.5 

1 in 7.25 

1846. Review of Diseases in Hanglumg. 133 

TMe III.^The number of prisonen and the proportion of deaths in the 

jail daring the year 1845. 

Europeanst indumt^ P€rtugMU€^ C%tiM#«, TtUU number fTo. iff deatks, 

62 45 10 354 451 7, or 1 in 64.45 

Table IV.— The number, proportion of deatha, A«., of all thoee under the 

medical auperintendence of the colonial surgeon during the year 1846. 

'l-tewholtNo. TtovbolaNo. Th* wl^k No. dMSHtewfaoie telhiHton^^ 

GoTemment officen, 65 
Police, wives & child- ^ 

dren of police and > 253 

overseer of roads. ) 
Prisoners. 352* 

Table V. — The population of Hongkong and the proportion of deaths daring 
the year 1845. 

PkiMdulM. ll«Bbir«rpo|mlHltai. Muriwr efdMte. FwportHiortete. 


In Table No. 1. — We discover that the list of sick is smaller in March than 
in any other month throughout the year, while 'on the other hand it is greater 
in November, although it must be recollected that it is not actually the most 
unhealthy month. The reason then assigned for the increased sickness in 
November, is, the circumstance of the number of Indians who usually suffer 
most from the setting in of the low range of temperature at that time. It will 
be observed that there have been no deaths daring January and February, with 
the exception of one woman who died in childbirth. The months of July and 
October shew the greatest mortality ; still we are not to consider the month 
in which the greatest mortality appears, to be the most unhealthy, as the cases 
that prove fatal, have generally been taken ill in the previous months and this 
statement is besides corroborated by what is observed in Britain, where nearly 
100 more die of Phthisis in spring and summer than in autumn and winter, 
and yet these are certainly not the most unhealthy periods. The most unheal* 
thy months in this island, or rather the months in which the most fatal dis« 
eases have their origin, are July, August, and September, the three hottest 

In Table No. 11. — The most prevalent diseases are dearly shown to be 
ague, diarrhoea, remittent fever, and dysentery. But though ague stands 
at the head of the list in respect to the number of cases, yet by looking ovef 
the causes of death as laid down under the head of '* Remarks " In the table 
No. I. it will be seen that while out of 27 deaths that occurred last year, there 
were six of fever and nine &tal cases of dysentery, thus proving the latter to 
have been most fatal. Now by referring to the colonial surgeon *s report for 
the six months ending December 1844, it will be found that fever was then 
the most fatal malady. The reason for this change cannot at present be satis- 
factorily accounted for. 

* The difference between this table and the one above is owing to one pri« 
soner who died in the seamen's hospital not being included in the table above* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

134 Review of Diseases in Hongkong. March, 

In Table No. III. — We see the namber and proportion of deaths amongr 
the prisoners, which shews the mortality in the prison to be very small, being 
about 1|| per cent. The ehief causes of the mortality are ulcers. These occur 
among the lowest class of the Chinese, and are owing to their inexcitable or 
non-inflammatory temperament, their spare diet, consisting of rice and salt fish, 
their filthy habits, and a wish on the part of the patients to prevent the ulcers 
healing so as to avoid work. These are often induced by the chains on their 
limbs, which may be said to act as the immediate exciting cause. Epidemics 
have been unknown in the jail. 

In Table JNo. IV. — We find the deaths among the government officers to 
be small, only amounting to 1 in 66 of the whole, that is l^ per cent, or a 
little more than 1 per cent, among all the cases that have been under treat- 
ment in 1645. But in the police department, including overseers of roads, we 
find a much greater mortality, being 1 in 14 of the whole number of persons, 
that is 7 per cent, or among thofee who have been under treatment, 1 in 19.5, 
that is, about 5^ per cent. This mortality is owing to the constant exposure 
to the vicissitudes of the climate, the intemperate habits of the individuals, the 
deleterious nature of the spirits they imbibe, and further, to the road overseers 
living in temporary djjVjellings erected on the damp soil. 

Table No. V. — Ske^vs tjtie European and Portuguese population in Hong- 
kong for 1845 and the number and proportion of deaths to the population, which 
we discover to be 1 in 18.3 or nearly 5 per cent. 

The past year appears to have been much more healthy among the civil com- 
munity than the years previous, which is to be accounted for by the improv- 
ed state of the colony, improvements in draining, in roads, and in dwellings 
^ore adapted to the country, also from the deleterious nature of the climate 
he'mg better known, and therefore more care taken to avoid the causes which 
promote disease ; and it is hoped that disease will now continue to diminish 
MB the improvement of the place increases. 

F. Dill, m. d., Colonial hospital surgeon, 

Victoria, Hongkong, January 17th, 1846. 

The pian for a sanitarium, suggested by Dr. Tucker, we have 
often heard commeDded; we think, with him, ''it would be the means 
of saving many lives." Something more than a mere " convalescant 
hospital " qiight be had ; there might be a villa, where not only 
individuals but whole families could reside. Whether the site he 
has designated be the best, we are not able to say ; one of the more 
easterly summits has been named as more eligible, being of more 
eas^ access and presenting a broader space for buildings. 

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1846. Houses and Rcocnue of ilongkwg. 135 

Art. III. List of houses and public buildings on the island of 
Hongkong^ with statements of the revenue and expenditure of 
the colony during the year ending Zlst December ^ 1845. 
Thb following documents are copied from the China Mail. The 
accounts of the reveuue and expenditure are published in the go- 
vernment paper, by direction of "his excellency her majesty's pleni- 
potentiary and chief superintendent of British trade/' &c.; the list 
of houses, &c., seems not to have been published by authority ; the 
Editor of the China Mail, says : " To Mr. A. L. Inglis, the assistant 
magistrate of police, the public is indebted for this valuable piece 
of statistics." The account of the various Chinese craf\, including 
iishing boats, &c., is for the month of December 1845. In the 
second number of the " Hongkong Gazette," May 15th, 1841, were 
published the names of the villages and hamlets on the island with 
the number of their estimated population. See Chinese Repository 
vol. X. p. 289. There were then : 

In the bazar, .... 800 

In the boats, - - - . 2,000 

In twenty villages ... 4,350 

And laborers from Kowlung - 300 — 7,450 

At the present time, allowing five to 

each house (5 X 1874) there are 9,370 

There are also some thousands living 

in the boats, say in all - - 4,000 

Total pop. in Dec. 1845, say 13,380 

Mr. Inglis, being we believe a student of the Chifiese language, 
will excuse us for drawing his attention to the names of the villnges, 
&c. '^Bahel " must be written on them as they now stand. As far 
as practicable, we should certainly say, give the Chinese names and 
in the court dialect, (as exhibited in Williams' English and Chinese 
Vocabulary,) taking care to add, where necessary, tlie local Chinese 
or English names, or both. By adopting some such method for indi- 
cating the names of places, the present confusion would be avoided.- 

By the by, while on this subject we will improve the opportunity 
to acknowledge the receipt of a very obliging note from a friend 
in Hongkong, drawing our " attention to the subject of the names 
and surnames by which foreigners should make themselves known^ 
to the Chinese." This subject is worthy of consideration, not only 
as regards the names of persons now living, but as it regards tlMMse 

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Houses and Rovcnue of Hongkong, 


of other times, and especially such as occur iu sacred history. In 
writing foreign names, we, in common with many others, have some- 
times adopted the Manchu usage : thus, for Morrison, instead of 
writing Md-li-sun^ the first syllable only has been given ; this in 
common parlance is well enough, and was the practice of both the 
Morrisons. Our cor/espendent, however, is decidely opposed to this 
usage. We may recur to this subject on another occasion, in the 
mean time we shall be glad to learn the opinions of others. 


VICTORIA— European. 
Public offices. Uarncks, police tUtioni, 

and hocpitai»— detached building! 


(/atholic chapel, - - - 
Mosque, ------ 

Merchanto' honf^, shops, and private 

dwelling-houses, - - - - 
In different stages of erection, 
Untenanted, - . . - - 

STANLEY— £i»t>f)ean. 
Police stations, - - - - 
Catholic chapel, - - - - 
Buildings witliin the militiry canton- 

CHAI-WAN— fJuropsim 
Barracks, . - - - 

VICTORIA— C4mcst. 
Town hall, - - - - 
MuuicipaJ police stations, - 
Ilotpitils, - - - . 
Shops with foreign mercliandize. 
Druggists, . - - - 
Opium retailers, - . - 
5)>irit merchants, - - - 
AVoorfdo., - . - - 
(^handlers, - - - - 
House painters, - - - 
liSnilscape, . . - - 
Silversmiths, . . - 
Coppersmiths, . - - 

Blacksmiths, . - - 
Pawnbrokers, - - - - 
Watchmakers, - - - 
Bookbinders and stationers, - 
Cabinet-makers and upholsterers^ 
Outfitting shops, - . - 
Tailors, - - - - 
Shoemakers, - . - - 
Builders of bimboo houses, - 
l^iidertakeks, - - - - 
"VVashermpp. - - - 


Victuaridi.), - - - - 
^'hina and earthenware shops, 
J^iikers, . - . - 
1^1 ilk men, . . - - 

























Fishmonger . - - • . | 

Poulterers, 8 

Fruiterers, U 

Green grocers. 
Manufacturer of plaster of pans. 
Inhabited by Macao |>ortugiiese, &c.. 
Do. bj Knglish, - . - . 
Chinese families inhabited, - 
Brothels, - . - . 

Lodt'ing houses. - . - 

Shops for the sale of hewn stone, - 
Untenanted, - . . 

In course of erection. 
Wooden houses inhabited by familiee, 
Do. do. Stone cutters. 
Do, do. House Carpenters, 

Chandlers, ... 

Stone masons, 
Lim J bnmers, 
Rice ;.-cller, 
Carpenter, - 
Gardener and fisherman, 

TIN-POONG— CAifissr. 
Fisherman, .... 

POK-FU-LUM- CAiftfse. 

HEONG-KONG— C/ktness. 
Iu the neighboring bays, 

Police station occupying, . 
Rope makers. 

Barbem, .... 


























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Houses and Revenue of Hongkong. 






Rice Store, . 
Nam-mo Shopf, 







Green grocen, 
BiscoitBaken, . 


Salt-fiih itorei, 


Stationer and bookseller, 


Graaa cutten, 


Lime burner, . 



Fishermen, • • 


Victuallers, . 




Grave Digger, 



Municipal police station, . 

Ro^ Makers, . 

Spirit merchants and chandlers. 





General stores, 


Biscuit bakers, 



Salt-fish stores, 


Opium retailen, 





Blacksmiths, . 


Boat builder, 







Earthenware shop, . 


Tailors, .... 




Nam-mo shops, 


Dyer of nets, 







Grinder of bean curd, 




fishermen, dtc. 


Unoccupied, . 




Boat builders, 


Water sellers and fishermen, . 


Grass cutterti 








Huabandmen and fishermen, 14 


Stone masons, .79 


Boat builder, 











WONG-MA-KOK, choonohum, 

Huabandmen and fishermen, . 19 

SHEK-O— a/ne«e. 




CHAl-Vf AS— Chinese. 
Lime burners, .4 

Chandlers, ... 3 

VOL. XV NO. Ill 1^ 

Shops and houses on Messrs. Jardine 

Matheson &, Co.*s property, . 29 
Market house, I 

Stone masons, .63 

Grass cutters, 3 

Tea shops, .4 

Salt weighman, . . 1 

Barbers, .... 4 
Rope-maker, • 1 

Grinder of bean curd, . • 1 

Chandlers, ... 3 

Carpenter, . . . 1 

Husbandmen, . 17 

Grass cutters, .66 

Laborers, ... 16 

Tea shops, .4 

Tailors, ... 2 

Cowherd, .... 1 
Schoolmaster, . 1 

Carpenter, . . .1 

Lime burner, . 1 

Fishermen, . . .4 

Chandlers, ... 3 

School house, . ' . .1 



Butchers, .2 

Tanners, ... ] 

Wood merchant, .1 

Chandlers, ... 7 

Sellers of bean curd, 2 

Carpenter, ... I 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Flower gardener, 

Houses and Rovenue of Ilojigkong. 


Total amoant of stone, brick, and 
wooden houses in the colony, 1874 

The following list of Chinese junks 
and boats engaged in the trade, ^ or 
otherwise connected with or deriving 
employment in the colony daring the 
past month of December may be taken 
as a standard for the preceding months 
of the year 1845, with the exception of 
the fishing crafl at the villages, which 
vary monthly. 


At anchor in the Upper, Middle, and 
Lower Bays, exclusive of passage and 
trading boats to the coast. 
Lime boats. 
Stone do., 
Large do. for transmission 

oi cargo in the harbour, 
Kow-loong and Cheem-sha-tsui 

ferry boats. 
Large fishing crafl refitting, . 
Watermen's hak-kows, . 

Chii-ka-teang inhabited by families, 
the smaller description of which ply 
witli passengers during the day, 304 









Trading junks and passage boats to 
the different porU on the coast which 
have anchored during the past month 
in Victoria harbor. 
Large trading junks from Tien-tsin 

do. do. Fuh-kien, 

Canton river salt junks, 
Tai-chow do., 
Hoi-foong do., 
Macao trading lorclias, 

Do. fast boats, . 
Canton do.. 

Do. daily post-boats, 
City of Toonkoon passage-boaU, 
Sh^k-long, (do.) do. . 
Tai-ping, (do.) do. 
Sze-kiu, (Poon-yO) do 
ChOn^chiin, (Sun-tuk) do, 

City of (Son-wui) do. 

Kong-moon, (do.) do. . 

Sei-hcong, (Sun-on) do. 

Nam-tow, (do.) do. . 

Tai-o, (do.) do. 

Choong-chow(do.) do. 

ChekchU, do. 

Toou-koou, Pun-yU, and Suu-tuk 



brick and tile boats, 
Hoi-foong boats with poultry, pigs, 
and eggs, . . .145 




At anchor, exclusive of trading 

and passage boats. 
Stone boats, . . G2 

Fishing crafl refitting, &c., 112 

Boats For transmission of cargo 

in the harbor, . 26 

Watermen's hak-kows, . 38 

Bumboats. . . .24 

Cha-ka-teang inhabited by families 162 



Trading junks, &c., which have an- 
chored during the past month at £aat 

Tiu-chow and Hoi-foong opium 

dealers, . . .5 

Fuh-kien do. 4 

Canton boats with timber for 

building, . .10 

Do. with bricks and tiles, 12 
Kwei-shin firewood and charcoal 

boats, . • .33 

Macao fast boats hired by private 

individuals, 16 

Kow-loong (Sun-on) lime-boats, 19 
Kwei-chin, Hoi-foong, and Tai-chow 

salt boats, . . 8D 

Sun-tuk, Poon-yO, Toongkoon, ic, 70 
Foo-mun (Toong-koon) traders, 11 
Kow-loong mandarin boats, 3 




Anchored in the bay during the past 
Fishing crafl. 

Fishermen,, small sampans, . 
Hoi-foong traders in salt-fish. 

Do. and Kwei-shin salt-boats, 
Watermen's hak-kaws, . 
Kwei-shin firewood, and charcoal 

General traders from different 

ports, .... 
Fruit and vegetable boats, - 
Canton, Macao, and Toong-koon 

passage boats, . 
Victoria do. 






Cha-ka-teang inhabited by families, 147 



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Houses and Revenue of Hongkong » 



Kwei-shin firewood boaU, 

Fruit & vegetable boats &. bumbonta, 1 5 

Watermen's hak-kows, . 9 

Anchored in the Bay during tlie past 

Fishing craft, . . 259 ChQ-ka-tcang inhabited by families, 230 

Passage boats being hogged, &c., 16 
Rice boats, . .39 

Salt do. . . . 2 



RoTenne and expenditure of the colony of Hongkong during the year ending 
31st December, 1845. 

Revenue of the colony of Hongkong received during the year 1845. 





630 11 
6,122 15 
5,313 14 

90 13 
1,463 14 

Police assessment, ... 
Two and a half per cent, on goods ) 
sold by public auction, - ) 

On land for buildings, arrears of 1843, 
„ do. do. do. 1844, 

„ do. on account of the year 1845, 

„ Deposits by purchasers of crown land, 

„ From villages, .... 

„ From stone quaries, 

„ For fishery, 

„ Of markets, arrears of 

„ do. for the year 

„ Of buildings .... 

Licenses. For opium farm, ... 
„ Selling wines and spirits, 

„ Auctioneer, - . . - 

„ Salt broker, ... 

„ Serangs, .... 

„ Billiard room, ... 

„ Pawnbrokers, .... 

On leases and deed registry, - 

For sundries, as signatures, d^., A.C. 

For registering boats, 

From supreme and police courts. 

From supreme and police courts ... 

Forfeitures, ...... 

Waif to the Queen, - . - - - 

Surcharges recovered, - - . . . 

Refunds, ...... 

Charts and port-regulstions, sailing letters, and passes, 

Nett proceeds of sundries sold by public auction. 




304 8 10 


76 14 

245 2 

437 14 


2,384 15 2 

1,1.54 7 9 

99 7 1 

226 10 

111 15 II 

13 13 10 

464 19 3 






4,454 19 10 



445 19 
108 4 
628 3 

1,297 7 

744 14 

20 2 

15 9 

92 10 
76 2 

41 9 

14 13 

ToUl Revenue, pounds sterling 22,242 8 1 
Expenditure of the colony of Hongkong^ far the year ended 31st, Dec, 1845. 

Civil government. 

Salaries, ... 
Ordinary coniingencics. 
Special disbursements, . 

Ecclesiastical department. 

Salaries, ... 
Ordinary contingencies, 

Revenue departments, 

Ordinary contingencies, 
Special disbursements, . 

12,673 7 7 

1,016 19 1 

796 19 2 

710 18 10 




5,043 16 






3 11 

£ s. d. 

14,487 5 10 
752 14 4 

5,878 17 7 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

140 Chinese Proverbs, March, 

Judicial dcpartmofit, 

Salaries, - ... - 6;590 9 

Ordinary continfrencies, . . 749 13 9 

Special diBbanements, . . . 834 16 7,567 18 9 
Police departmento. 

Salariea, 4,351 4 8 

Ordinary contingencies, . . 5,311 11 10 

Special disbarBements, . . . 392 19 1 9,985 8 7 

Medical department. — ^— — 

Salaries, . . - - . 600 00 

Ordinary contingencies, • . 67 17 3 

Special disbursements, - . . 154 10 5 892 7 8 

39,494 12 9 

Fublic works and buildings, . . . 96,800 19 3 

Compensations for removing houses and clearing ground, 136 4 7 

Miscellaneous, . - - . . 295 9 10 

Total expenditure for 1845, pounds sterling 66.796 19 5 

FREDsaiCK W. A. Bauci, CoUmial secretary 
Victoria, Hongkong, January 9th, 1846. 

Art. IV. Chinese proverbs, selected from a collection in the Eng" 

lish version of P. Pr^mare's Notitia Lingues Sinicm. 
The desirableness of having the Notitia Lingua SinictB of P. Pr6- 
maiC translated into English having often been suggested, we are 
happy in being able at length to announce its completion, and also 
to state, in reply to inquiries for the book, that it is now half through 
the press in the office of the Chinese Repository. Pr^mare's work, 
we believe, is generally admitted to be the best extant for aiding the 
student in the acquisition of the Chinese language. We have before 
us the sheets that have been printed ; and as a specimen of the work, 
and of the thoughts of the Chinese and their mode of expressing them, 
we select a few of the apothems and proverbs from the closing sec- 
tion of Part First, which treats of ''the spoken language and fami- 
liar style. 


<« The apothems and proverbs in the Chinese language add not a 
little to its dignity and strength of expression. There are doubtless, 
in all, many more than are comprised in this collection. In the ex- 
amples presented it will be desirable to attend as wel 1 to the mode of 
expression as to the ^ense." So says P. Pr6rnare. 

1. Yih mdng yin chung mdng^ sidng tsidng juh ho h^dng^ -^ ^ 

both go into the pit. 

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1846. Chinese Proeerbs. 141 

^2. Hoi^ungVaueVuh,inngt^ungV€nijuh,Jjl^^A\^^ 
!^ P ^, misfortunes proceed from the mouth, and by the mouth 
diseases enter. 

3. Hdu tieh piih id ttng^ hdu jin puh Idng ping^ "(T ^ ^ i[X 
^ ilSF A ^ ^ ^, good iron is not used for nails, nor are soU 
diers made of good men. 

4, Shun fung puh A«4 Idng, ll^^'^i^]^^ ^ fair wind 
raises no storm. 

6. Svifung tdu to, shun shwui iui ch^uen, ^ JSL ¥'J j^ )^ tK 
t^ j|Q[i to sail with wind and tide. 

6. Shi shun fung ch'ui ho, hid shwui hang ch*uen, J§ M ||[ pjij 

y^ "F ^ fr N0^ *^ ^*" ^^ ^"*® *" * f*'"" '*^*°^» ^^^ ^^ imjpeX the 
boat with the current. 

7. Yih men wdn nien, — >^ || ^^ one mind, ten thousand 
years ; aJways of one mind. 

8. Tthku lidng <e^ — ' ^ p^ ^, or yt& it« U6ng pien, ~i 
$ ^ ^' ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ '^^^ ^^^^ ^^ stone. 

9. Yih nien ehi ch'd, chung shin chi hwui, — i^ J^ |||^ ^ 
/21 ^y ^® ^^^^^ ^^^ thought, the regret of a whole life. 

10. Sidu puh jin hedn td mau, /|^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^, a J»tt'« 
impatience subverts great undertakings. 

11. K'i hoh i fien, jin sin ndn rnitdn, H^ '^ ^ j^ A & 
m H^, vast chasms can be filled, the heart of man is never «atisfied» 

12. fie^f^.ip^Uhmvng,%^^^-y^^1^^^^^ 
eases may be healed, but fate cannot be remedied. 

13. TUhshm.ipuhithum.'^^^p^ ^ ^ tf »6» ^*>« ^^7 
may be healed, but the mind is incurable. 

14. Jtft sin weihakd ling, shdn huh wei hU H ying, A ^|^^ i|# 

$.tkS\^^^&i^kM^ ^^"^ ^P«" ™"*^ ^fl^^'^ the 
hollow dell resounds. 

15. Shu Idu H sun sdn, ^^^^^, when the tree ftilla 
the monkeys flee. 

16. ShA <att toii y»>i ^ ^J fiEC 1^, when the tree falls the 
shade disappears. 

17. Huluhpuh fung y6» rf^ ^ /f% |^ j^, the tiger does not 
walk with the hind. 

18. Sui luh cU M hk fd, ^^i^-^^^ ^, he who 
pursues the stag disdains to notice the hare. 

19. Td Mung puh l^ih fuh juh, ;/<ft :^ Pt ft S» the 

tiger does not molest a lying carcass. " r^ r^r^^]o 

Digitized by VjOOQIc 

142 Chinese Proverbs. March, 

20. Tang fsB puh fsu kwo hau moh hwui, ^ Q)t 7 ^ j^ 
^^ ^ 40*9 ''^ ^^^ neglects a good op[iortunity must not afienirards 

21. Tang twdn jmh twdn fan sJidu k*i Iwan^ '^ ^ ^ H ^ 
iS* ^ ^, trouble neglected becomes still more troublesome. 

22. lAn chang puh mat sm^ hu shdng puh yuh yu, jLk 4^ >f^ ^ 

^ iifl Jl ^^ ^ /^.> ^^^ '* "®* **'^ '° ^^® ^^"^^ ''<^'" ^*» «^^ t*»e 

23. ITtcdn «Adn tih shdu Mai, kwan ho tih h^ih skwui, '^ \h fh 

')^ ^^ ^ H fi^ Pt ^^ **^® ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^"^^^ ^"™« "P **^® 
wood, the kecj)er of the stream drinks up the water. 

24. Shijih chi hiuen, fing lui cht lung, |g "^ B^ ^[^x # 
^ ^, he who looks at the sun is dazzled, he who hears the thunder 
is made deaf. 

25. Yuh mieh Uih, *rh tsau siueh chung, ^ M ^ fff] ^ §i 
til, he desires to hide his tracks and walks upon the snow. 

26. Htcdi Mdu VA Via fang, i^ ^ jfjj ^^ ^, his desire to 
become agreeable renders him disgusting. 

27. K}i lu mih ^u> ]^ ji@ ^ ^, be seeks the ass» and 1o he 
sits upon him. 

28. Shdng puh Jcin Ueh hid man, Jl /f\ ^ KlJ "K |^, when 
the master is not rigid the servant is remiss. 

29. Yen Uing fidu hwui h*i tdu, |g [j^ ^ \^ ^ ^, when 
the eyes quiver it is a bad sign. 

30. Yih jin Udu fan kin Uuh Udu chU, — A 5a ^ A- i^ 
^ ^» ^^' ^^® crime of one the whole family aiifTcrs. 

31. Moh shwoh td jin, sien shu Udu tsz' ki, ^- ^ "ftb A ^ 
^ T 1^ ti' ^^^^^ "^' of others, but first convict yourself. 

:i2. Tidu puh k^u kan, chung tang fuh sang, M PK ^ JiB ^ 
•^ ^ ^? i^ *ho root remains the grass will grow. 

33. Yuh leiu sang kw^di hicoh, su hid sz' kungfH, gl^ ^? /j: ^Jdl 

^'^M T*^I^:^' Sr^** pleasures are purchased only ^with 
great pains. 

34 '^UnU^du M kanmavg yd puh f ah, ^ ^ If^ ;j^ ^^ 
yr ^^ ^?' if the root is killed the shoots will not revive. 

35. K'ih fdnfdng yeh, hing lu fang Ueh, Ptl '^ K^ 1^ ff {^ 
h S^' ^® "^^ ^*^°*^® yourself in eating nor let your foot slip in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1810. Chinese rro»crb^. M3 

30. Lii Is&i Vdu It yih wan tsiH vhi, ^^ \] \E.'^f^^ 
ipn, ^ in^n who has a tongue may go to Rome. 

37. Ho $hdng (^ienyiU j)^ t ^ lA' '® ^^^ ^"^^ *^ ^^^ flame. 

38. Li kid yih lu jnih ju «'* '<» ft ^ — M ^ ^|i M l^i 
better be at home than three fiirlon^rs off. 

39. Chd hdu /i, miu U^ien li, ^ ^ ^ ^ "T" S» ^ slight 
devia ion leads to a great error. 

40. Fan jin puh J^o mdu sidng^ lidi shwui jmh k*o tan lidngy 
H A >r ^ ^ Ifl H A^ ^ ISf i|- i;, a mao is not always 
known by his If/oks, nor is tlic sea measured with a bushel, 

41. Yuh puh choh puh chUng h^i^ jin pvh mo puh cUing tdv^ 

without rubbing, nor is nmn perfected without trials. 

4a. J'ing lin kau kih pih su «' Uh, .f; gt' ^ ^ -jL ^^ % jirfc, 
extreme peril requires extrcfnc effort. 

43. Fic'rhchiyenwanyut^ienU^^^^-J^^^f^Jj^^ 
^, a word spoken in the ear is heard a thousand miles off. 

44. Puh td k'i tung, puh nang jin chung, /^ /^ ^ |^ ^ |^ 
^ ^, a small beam will not bear a ^reat weight. 

45. Sidng yd puh Muh shu Vdu, ^ ^ /f^ |1| ^ H "^^"^ 
does not come from a rat's mouth. 

46. Wo puh y in jin ts^U jin puh pi^ ^ ^^h^^^ \^ 

A /T* i$ ^^ ^' *^ ^ *^^^p ^^*^ "™y ^^" ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ "^' ^ 

debauched by others. 

47. Kiun Uz* puh nien ki<b ngoh^ ^ "J" ^ ^> § ^*» *^^ 
wise forgets past injuries. 

48. Jin sang yih */if, Ui^du sang yih ch^un^ ^ ^ — • "jj^ © 
f^ — ^, man lives one age, the flowers one spring. 

49. Ning J^o wi lidu yu puh h*o yu lidu wi/, ?^ pT ^ "T ^ 
^ pT /fT Y ^^ better not bo than be nothing. 

50. Ki tsz' yfi shih tsz' tau, %^ l&l^^ ^ ^ the egg- 
fights with the rock. 

51. Chi Ivh wei ^^^^ ^"^ Mj^ to point at the stag and 
mean the horse. 

52. r ydng yih niHf ^ ^ SL ^, to exchange a sheep for 
an ox. 

53. Tang jin pvh lung wuh, ^ /^^ m '|j' * '"*'* ** ^^^ 
ter tliaii a pledge. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

144 Chinese Proverbs. Maucii, 

54* Hdu jin sidng fung, ngoh jin sidng K, ^ A^%,^ 
h jtH S|, the good seek each other, the bad mutually repel. 

55. Tan «*' puh clHng den, ^^^ )^ j^9 one thread does 
not make a rope ; a swallow does not make a summer. 

56. Wdng mei chi koh, hwd ping Jt^eh ^ ^ ^ jh ^ ^ ^ 
It^ ^, to feed upon the pictures of one's own fancy. 

57. Kid ck'au puh A*o ttdi ydng, ^ H ^ "ff ^ ^, do- 
mestic foibles must not be exposed. 

58. Chung chin shi sz* ton nan seh^ lieh f& lift toei yU Hdu yung^ 

subject dies without fear, and a virtuous woman meets danger with 

59. F{l tt*i mien UMen moh shwoh chin, p^ang yd mien UFien moh 

between husband and wife there must be all affection, between friends 
all fidelity. 

60. rth kid nu \h mh puh teh lidng kid fdn, — ^ -|t* 5g. 
Pf^ ^ 1^ ^ ^ '^^ ^ woman in one house cannot eat the rice 
in two; a wise woman does not marry the second time. 

61. Aienifc«ito«ienjH6ncA4*«iMti,|^. ^ g^/g^{J^^, 
consider the past, and you will know the future. 

62. Kdng Idu sui he^di puh chdn vHi tsui, ^ J] ^^ ')[^ 
$)t fim 31, though the sword be sharp it will not wound the inno- 

63. Shih ko fv jin kin kotu, -f' ® ||f A JL^^^ 
nine women in ten are jealous. ^ 

64. Wan ngoh yin wei shau, peh hing hidu tcei sien, ^ ^ ^ 
-ft -^ "5" ;?Y ^ ^ ^f sensual indulgence is the greatest evil, 
i&lial obedience is the highest good. 

65. Shen jin teh fuh tcei chi shdng, ngoh jin teh fuh wei chi ydng, 

n a blessing to the good, but to the evil it is a curse. 

65. Slien jin i^ing shwoh tin chung U^z\ ngoh jin fing shwoh Wh 

instruction pervades the heart of the wise, but cannot penetrate the 
ears of a fool. 

67. Hdi teh sing mingy tien puh teh tsing mingy ^ ^ 4^^ W 
T^ ^ t^ iH ^' * '"*" ^^^ ^ deprived of life but a good name 
cannot be taken from him. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. English and Chinese Vocabulofff. 145 

Art. V. Ying Hwd Yun^fU Lih^kidi, $^ Ip S||j^ M P^' 
or an English and Chinese Vocuhulary^ in the court diedect. 
By S. Wells Williams. Printed at the office of the Chi- 
nese Repository. 

This work, haring been pub!i«hed more than two years ago, ought 
long since to have been noticed and commended in the pages of the 
Chinese Repository. Though only a Vocabulary, it comprises in a 
neat and commodious form of 520 octa?o pages, no less than 14,146 
articles with an index of 5 109 different Chinese characters, and such 
as are in roost common use. It is a vademecum which every resi- 
dent in China, whether living in Canton or at the northern ports, 
will do well to have always at hand. The plan of the work, and the 
system of orthography employed in it, Mr. Williams thus describes. 

*' The only feature of this work which renders it different from a 
mere Vocabulary, is the attempt, by means of the index of characters 
at the end of the book, to make it useful in holding intercourse with 
those who speak the two provincial dialects most known to foreigners, 
namely, the Canton and Fukien. The body of the work is in the 
general language of the country, (usually, but improperly called 
the mandarin dialect,) as it is exhibited in the syllabic part of Dr. 
Morrison's Dictionary. In the index, the characters in the volume 
are all arranged under the 214 radicals, and the pronunciation of three 
dialects given to each character. The same sound contained in the 
body of the work is repeated in the index, followed by the sound 
given to the character in the Canton and Amoy dialects. Wheth- 
er this plan is one that will succeed well must be decided by 
actual practice, for the attempt has not heretofore been made. It is 
probable, however, that the beginner, in almost all cases, will make 
comparatively but little use of the index, for finding that the words he 
reads off are not understood by one speaking another dialect, he will 
show the characters to him, in order to hear and learn his pronun- 
ciation of them. This is indeed, in all cases, the only way to learn 
their sounds accurately, and it is then, ailer having heard them, that 
the index, by helping him to remember them, will be found useful. 
It is hoped too that it will facilitate intercourse in the Canton and 
Fukien dialects to one more advanced than the freshman; enabling 
one who has learned a number of characters, and made some advances 
ih the idioms of the language, and become acquainted with the usual 

Vol. XV. NO. Ill IH ^ T 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

146 English and Chinese Vocabulary, March, 

changes which the sound of characters undergo in passing from one 
dialect into another, to communicate in one or the other of these 
dialects. The index will then come into use in assisting him to 
recall the right sound. 

'' It might be added that notwithstanding the labor which has been 
expended in compiling the whole Vocabulary, it is somewhat doubtful 
whether it will prove to be more than an imperfect aid to the beginner 
in talking with the people. It is believed that an educated Chinese 
will understand every phrase and character in the book when shown 
to him, except the names of a few foreign articles ; but the proportion 
of educated men to be met with on the coast, and in shops, at landing- 
places, in families as servants, or wherever foreigners usually meet 
them, is small; and in addition to the ignorance of the hearer, the 
pronunciation of the foreigner is at first so strange, his idioms are 
80 unlike those employed by the native, his intonation so incorrect, 
and his attempts at tallnog altogether so rude, that the interlocutor will 
ofltimes end the conversation, by observing to a third person,*' I do n't 
understand what this man says; what is he talking about?" Besides 
these obstacles to a ready intercourse in the Chinese spoken language, 
the number of colloquial phrases that are unwritten is great, and their 
use so general, as oflen to drive the more learned book phrase quite out 
of the common language of the people; and it will then require the 
aid of an educated person to translate these latter expressions into 
the better understood phrases in use on the spot. This is so much the 
case in those parts of Fukien province best know to foreigners through 
the emigrants from them, and the number of unwritten sounds in that 
dialect is so great, that it has been a matter of some doubt whether it 
was worth while to illustrate it at all in this Vocabulary ; it will be 
a pleasure therefore to learu that the present attempt has not quite 
failed of its object. 

" It may here be observed that, in order to make the book as small 
ns possible, the pages have been closely printed, and synonymous 
Chinese phrases have been omitted, and others sr.attered under English 
words of similar meanings; so that if the first phrase turned up is not 
readily understood, let another one besought under a word of similar 
import. A little care must be taken at first, not to use a Chinese 
word or phrase as a verb, when the English word is a noun, and vice 
vers^; for instance, ho Id sk }0 '\s a grate, not to grate ; jin pan ^^ 
^u is fo bnilf not a bail. Every endeavor been made, however 
to avoid the liability to such mistnkes , but sometimes two or three 
phrases with meaiiiug&( very uaJikc, arc found luidcr oue Eii^li&U word, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1d4G. English atid Chinese Vocabulary, 147 

corresponding to the different meanings of that word as a verb, or 
a noun. In such cases, some knowledge of their application is indis* 
pcnsible to their right use. 

•* The orthography of few languages has been so difficult to fix as 
that of the Chinese. This difficulty is owing chiefly to the endless 
diversity of pronunciation among the people themselves, resusltingin a 
great measure from one peculiar feature of their written language, that 
no word affords in itself the means of ascertnnining its own pronuncia- 
tion, either by any resolution of its parts into elementHry sounds, or by 
attending to any system of rules agreed upon for pronouncing words* 
In Kdnghi's Dictionary, the sound of every character is given by a 
kind of dissection of the sound with two other characters; as from 
tsz' f- and yd |>>^ to make tsiH ^,;)j|, which is done by taking the 
initial of the first word and the final of the second, and combining 
them. Another character of exactly the same sound, if there be one, 
is then quoted, which the reader is supposed to know beforehand : so 
that the pronunciation of the entire language is traditionary. In fact, 
in two well known provincial vocabularies, the Fan Wan ^ ^^ in 
the Canton dialect, and the Sip-ngoi Im H"* Jl "^j" >" ^^^^ Fukien 
dialect, the characters are all arranged by their sounds, according to a 
system founded upon the initial and final portions of the words; so 
that a person must already have heard the sound and learned the 
character whose meaning he wishes to know, before he can use the 
work. There are also shades of difference between sounds that must 
be written with the same letters, much too delicate to be described by 
any alphabet, consisting of certain inflections of the voice not noticed 
at all in western languages, and which no modern alphabet was ever 
contrived to reprei^ent, but which in Chinese, when wrongly used, 
of\en totally alter the meaning of the word, and perhaps affect the 
sentence in which it is used. The English words, a present and 
to present, a record and to record, afford a slight illustration of this 
difference of tones in Chinese words — though it must not hence 
be inferred that tone is identical with accent. 

" Another difficulty in settling upon any uniform mode of ortho- 
graphy for writing Chinese sounds, has gradually grown out of 
the many western languages in which they have been written, and 
consequently the various ways which they have been spelled. For in- 
stance, the character |i^ has been written kuai, c'oai, kouai, kwae, and 
kw^ai ; ^ has been written xam, seng, sa&ng,.?Lnd sang ; jtU is choam, 
tchouang, c/toang, chtoang, and chtodng ; and so of others : and each of 
these four modes is intended to express precisely the same sound. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

148 English and Chinese Vocabulary, March, 

and several works have been published, in which one or other ofthem 
has been followed. If to these various forms of writing the sound of 
a character, when one dialect only is intended, the different sounds it 
has in various parts of (he empire, and the correponding modes of 
writinor them be added, the confusion becomes greater ; so that among 
them all. a foreigner is altogether at a loss to know what is the mean- 
ing of a phrase when merely the sounds of the characters are written. 
The various syllables eull, olr, ul, ulh, Ih, urh, 'rh, f, e, lur, nge, ngi^ 
j^fj't 3re some of the ways in which the somds of the character 
\\n in different dialects has been spelled by different writers ; and 
there are probably more ways still of sounding this character (which 
is however a puzzling one) in other dialects in which no books have 
yet been published. It seems therefore highly desirable that at least 
those scholars who write upon Chinese literature in the English 
language, should agree upon a uniform system of orthography for 
expressing the sounds of the characters in whatever dialect they write ; 
so that a student acquainted with only one, shall be able to use the 
works explantory of another dialect as soon as he sees the sounds of 
the characters in that dialect. At present, there are two or three 
modes of writing the sounds of the character among English sinolo- 
gues, and among French students of Chinese, there seem to be at least 
three; Portuguese scholars have another mode, and Germans still 
another. In many words, the differences of spelling in all these 
languages would be none at all or trifling, as in hing, lin, sung, d&c, 
but in the majority it would be such as to veil the meaning of the cha- 
racter, except to those acquainted with the particular system adopted. 
** The system of pronunciation followed in this vocabulary has been 
employed in a few works which have lately issued from the press, and 
has been adopted by many students in Chinese as the one best adapt- 
ed to express the sounds of all the dialects in the empire. It is much 
like the sybicm proposed in India by those gentlemen who have 
Romanized some of the languages of that country, where it has been 
proved to be well fitted to express all the sounds occurring in those 
tongues. Owing to the monosyllabic nature of the Chinese lan- 
guage, it is of the highest importance to have a system of orthography 
which will as accurately express the sounds of the characters as it is 
possible for the 26 Roman letters to do it ; and that system is undoubt- 
edly the best which approaches nearest to this mark. Whether 
this system possesses these qualifications use must decide; those who 
have ma(Je trial of it long enough to become familiar with the applica- 
tion of the diacritical marks, and the power of the letters, gire it the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1646. English and Chinese Vocabulary. 149 

decided preference to all others for ejcpressiog the sounds of the 
Chinese language. It has deficiencies, for there are a few sounds 
in some of the dialects which elude every attempt to express ihem hy 
any letters ; and objections can be raised against two or three of its 
features ; but on the whole, it will probably be found more consistent 
with itself, and more flexible in its application to some of the nicer 
distinctions of sounds with as little expense of time in writing it and 
as simple an apparatus of marks to express the sounds, as any one 
heretofore proposed. It may be observed, however, that the attempt 
to introduce any new system of orthography, containing diacritical or 
accentual marks of any kind among those who use the English lan- 
guage, is likely to be opposed on the one hand by those who are fami- 
liar with the old systems where there are none ; and on the other to be 
disregarded by those who have not yet learned any, simply because it 
is against the genius of the English language to employ marks of any 
sort which influence the powers of the vowels. In writing our mother 
tongue we prefer to give a dozen sounds to one vowel, and employ 
one vowel to express a dozen sounds, than trouble ourselves with any 
marks ; and the sounds of the diphthongs are as varied as those of 
the vowels. 

''This system is now empolyed in writing the sounds of the court 
dialect for the first time ; and in other dialects, it has been used 
only in the Chinese Chrestoniathy and Easy Lessons in Chinese, 
in the Canton dialect, and Esop's Fables done into Fukien colloquial. 
The general rule adopted in the system is to mark the long vowels 
with an acute [" ] accent, and leave the short vowel sounds unmarked ; 
some other sounds occur which are marked with the grave [^1 accent. 
As far as it has been possible, the same sound has always been 
expressed by the same letters, and this fundamental rule, upon which 
the excellence of any system must depend, has in no case here been 
infringed. But at this point the difficulty which has been already 
noticed, that of the discrepancies among different natives in speaking 
the same character, comes up in full force ; and the difficulty of 
writing a word so that it shall express the most usual sound in the 
dialect has been great. Not only will one character be sometimes 
sounded in one, two, and perhaps three ways, by different persons 
living at no great distance from each other, but the same person will 
sound it unlike at intervals; while still the general resemblance of 
the language is so close that the dialect has its characteristic features, 
which are tolerably well defined, and immediately distinguish it from 
^11 others. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

150 British Shipping at Canton, March, 

" For instance, the two small books above referred to, the Canton 
Tonic Dictionary, the Fan Wan; and the Fukien, the Sip-ngoilm ; 
represent the pronunciation of these two dialects as well as any works 
which have been published ; yet it is nevertheless probably true that 
while the general features of these dialects are well preserved, not an 
individual can be found in China who pronounces «t7ery word accord- 
ing to those standards, and the variations from them are almost endless 
within the range of a few miles. It is from this circumstance easy to 
be seen that nothing more than an approximation to the pronuncia- 
tion of a district can be expected in any work ; — when the student 
begins to use this Vocabulary, he will not therefore, if he bear this in 
mind, throw the book aside, if he hears a man call a character by a 
sound unlike that here given to it. The people of Macao speak so 
much like those in Canton that both parties easily understand each 
other, and the language of both places is properly called the Canton 
dialect; but a native of Macao says ngUn ^ for in, sui -it for shui, 
chi ^ for tsz\ ngi ^ for i, t^ang )^^ for tUng, &c., d&c, so that 
his birthplace is known to a citizen by his patois. The student will 
learn these variations by mixing with the people ; and as he will 
never learn to talk in Chinese at all without associating with them, 
they need give him no anxiety. It may perhaps be safely said, that 
two Chinese cannot be found in the empire who pronounce every 
character alike; while the fact is evident that the largest associated 
body of people that ever existed in the world under one government, 
use one language, and find it fully adequate for all their wants." 

A tabular list of vowels, diphthongs, and consonants; remarks on 
the tones and asperates; an alphabetical and comparative list of 
syllables in the court, Ningpo, Canton, Fukien and Ti^chiu dialects; 
a collections of homophonous characters in the court dialect, &c., 
isake up the remaining part of the Introduction, occupying 88 pages. 
With this pimple account of the Vocabulary, we recommend it as a 
most convenient and useful manual, well designed to facilitate inter- 
course with the Chinese. 

Art. VI. Statdfnnit of tonnage dues, import and erport duties, 
paid by British vessels in the port of Canton frooi \st Jan, 
to 3J.>/ Dec, 1845. (From the China Mail Feb. VXth, 184G.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


British Shipping at Canton. 


Tonnnge dues. 
VrsseVs names. Tonnage, t. m. c. c. 
John Wickliffe, 
Scale by Casllc, 
Charles Forbos 
Robert Pulsford, 

iiord Klphinstonc, 
Maid of Athens, 
Jercmiflh Garuett, 

John Christian, 

Challenffcr, 208f 104 3 

Adrocate, 206i 148 1 

Cordelia, 378 181) 

Prince Albert, 6:V>1 317 7 

Eagle, 388i 11)4 1 

Victoria, 3di3i 11>4 2 

Helen, 685 342 5 

Guisachan, 474 237 

Marmion, 3r?8 194 

Mohawk, 475 2:^ 5 

Royal Alice, 534 267 

Humayoon 530 2(r> 

Bt'ulah, 578 280 

Chusnn, 482 241 

Strathiala, 378 1U3 5 

Cheerful, 1231 

Sidney, 184 02 

Dowthorpe, 373 IcG 5 

St. Vincent, 62<) 157 2 

Swithamley, 727^ 3(53 6 

Oriental, 506 253 

GeorgeBuckham, 385 I!J2 

New Margaret 411 205 

Earl Fowls, 21)f)i 149 
Flying Squirrel, 86 8 

City of Sydney, 106 10 

Olympus, 3151 157 8 

Isabella, 355J 177 8 

Cacique, 150 75 

Pantaloon, 202 101 

Oriental, 396.i 198 2 

Earl Grey, 571 285 5 

Emu, 381 190 5 

2 5 

iv9p. ^ et.p. dntirs. 















2,2! J5 







































III. c. e. 

8 8 6 
H 5 

6 5 

5 7 

9 9 9 
9 5 


5 ' ^ 




2 2 5 

9 1 









12,' 137 

2,2! r, 






8 8 


6 5 

9 9 
9 5 

5 5 

1 4 



8 8 8 
9 2 


2 I 



































1 8 

7 6 

2 8 

8 9 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

15*i Briiish Shipping at Canton, March, 


e dues. 

Imp. ^ 

exj). duties 


Vessel 8 names, i 

























































































Anna Eliza 












Sarah Louisa, 











Win. the Fourth 

, 109 







SuiUna, 1,1 HI 





















Anne Jnne, 












Queen Mab, 











SirHt. Compton 















































FramjeeCowasjee, 950 








Lowjee Family, 






























































Buckinghamshire, 1,731 865 









Good Success, 




































D. of Clarence, 























Thomas Crisp, 











City of Shiraz, 














Buenos Ayrean, 

, 340.i 












Lady Sale, 





















Emerald Isle, 












K. Cowasjce, 
William Parker, 

















































James Turcan, 










































Dchss. of North 

. 541i 










Francis Spaight, 

, 3664 












Alice Brooks, 




















Helen Stewart, 
























Ardaseer, • 









Black Dog, 















































William Mitchell. 400^ 
























Fort William, 













Priuce Albert, 













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1846. lintish Shipping at Canton. 153 

Tonnage dues. Imp. ^ erp. dutrfB Total. 

VesscVs namet. tonnage, t. m. c c. t. m. e. e. t. m. c. c. 

WiUiam Shand, 500 256 11,337 3 8 14,537 3 9 8 

Karl of Chester, 5171 258 6 2 5 23,192 1 4 2 23,450 7 6 7 

Liviuntone, 467 233 5 13,497 7 8 3 13,731 2 8 3 

Earl of Clare, 910| 455 1 2 5 8,5<K> 6 8 0,051 8 5 

Prince of Wal<>9, 820 413 3,t^74 6 4 4,2d7 6 4 

Marj Bannatyi.e, 5351 267 6 2 5 17,510 4 8 9 17,778 1 1 4 

Charles Forbea, 1,120 560 10,036 6 7 10,596 6 7 

Anonyma, 257 128 5 3,^21 8 7 8 3,950 3 7 8 

Earl Balcarras, l,4asi 744 1 2 5 8,161 6 8 7 8,!K)5 8 1 2 

Scotia, 7761 389 1 2 5 20,659 2 7 8 21,048 4 3 

Castle Huntley, 1,505 752 5 13,849 7 7 14,60l 5 7 7 

Charles Grant, 1,609 849 5 10,646 3 3 1 11,495 8 3 1 

Faize Rabaney, 563 281 5 5,301 3 6 6 5,582 8 6 6 

Pandora, 2JI7 148 5 2,092 3 8 9 2,1^40 8 8 9 

Bahamian, 3181 159 t 2 5 10,764 4 5 1(),<)23 5 3 

Mayarum Dyarum, 7341 367 1 2 5 2,959 6 6 2 3,326 7 8 7 

D. of Northumb. 541^ 270 7 5 15,555 5 2 5 15,8:;26 2 7 5 

Amelia, 102 10 2 444 7 5 454 2 7 5 

CityofDerrv, 474 237 13,883 2 3 5 14,120 2 3 5 

Bombay Castle, 6091 304 6 2 5 3,164 9 9 1 3,460 6 1 6 

General Wood, 754 377 3,5S3 6 7 2 3,060 6 7 2 

Tyrer, 3:J4 167 11,562 6 3 7 11,729 6 3 7 

Scalcby CasUe, 1,5<»7 753 5 10,066 8 8 8 11,720 3 8 8 

Sandersons, 30^1 154 1 2 5 10,4!»5 1 4 7 10,'j49 2 7 2 

Macodon, 52R 264 10,614 5 6 10,.- 78 5 6 

Victory, 426J 213 3 7 5 11,2:)7 4 11,510 7 7 5 

Anita, 219 109 5 2,308 6 5 2,508 1 5 

Patna, 362 181 14,146 4 1 4 14,:W7 4 1 4 

Druid, 342 171 15,516 6 1 3 15,6^7 6 1 3 

Saghalien, 3771 188 6 2 5 9,605 f^ 2 4 0,884 4 4 9 

Amaxon, 423f 211 8 7 5 1,019 l 2 7 1,231 5 2 

Mary, 705 352 5 19,3:>0 1 4 5 19,702 6 4 5 

Inglewood, 518 259 12,627 9 8 9 13,0h6 9 8 9 

Culdee, 387 193 5 12,0^3 2 5 12,276 5 2 5 

Duke of Bronte, 4231 211 6 2 5 13,146 5 8 3 13,358 2 8 

Glcnelg, 8671 433 7 5 9,909 2 8 10,342 7 7 8 

Hindostan, 500^ 250 2 5 16,7:M) 9 4 6 16,981 1 9 6 

Ellen, 4401 221 1 2 5 10,706 8 2 9 10,926 9 5 4 

ShahAUum, 939 469 5 8,502 8 3 3 8,!)72 3 3 3 

Syria, 542| 271 3 7 5 16,229 2 7 4 16,500 6 4 9 

Brahmin, 616 308 lb,3S3 8 6 9 18,601 8 6 9 

Sarali Louisa, 215 107 5 3,'.^36 3 1 6 3,343 8 1 6 

Arun, 300 154 5 7,141 3 9 7,r)08 8 9 

Caroline, 32r) 164 5 1,701 6 2 1,K>6 I 2 

D. of Lancaster, 563J 281 8 7 5 14,742 3 4 15,024 2 6 

Harbinger, 2i>7 148 5 7,231 9 6 9 7,:k?0 4 6 9 

Helen, 685 342 6 4,026 7 5 2 4,369 2 5 2 

Prince Regent, 287 143 5 1,209 6 4 4 l,:v;3 1 4 4 

Dumfries, 46^1 234 1 2 5 11,389 3 4 6 11,623 4 7 1 

Madura, 603 301 5 2,11!) 3 8 2,7:)0 8 8 

Julia, 755 377 5 9,0:12 9 I 7 9, J 10 4 1 7 

Albert Edward, 327 163 5 8,338 9 2 H,501 5 2 

F. Momburack, 1,0901 545 1 2 5 8,605 2 5 9,150 3 7 5 

Anna Robertson, 447] 223 7 5 14,231 3 4 M,1">r> 9 

S. Edward Byan, 320 160 2,H18 2 8 2,978 2 8 

Antilles, 19:)1 97 6 2 5 3,5.>6 8 4 3,<»51 4 2 9 

Riiyal Exchange, 131 13 1 2>8 3 7 8 2U 4 7 8 

Duvou, 5091 254 G 2 5 13,090 1 8 5 13,944 « I 

VOL. XV. NO. Ill '^1 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Toleration of ChristianUy, 


Tonnage dves. Imp. ^ 

exp. duties. Total. 

Vessel's namts. tonnage. 

t. \ ^ 

m. c. 

c. t. 








Marquis of Bute, 












































Jane Prowse, 









Sir Robert Sale, 










Duke of Portland 
























































John O'Gaunt, 












Sophia Frazer, 



























7 5 




















Sea Park, 













6 2 

5 2,826 






Sir Ht. Compton, 

































Prima Donna, 














2 5 






John Cooper, 


















Anna Eliza, 



2 5 










7 5 







Red Rover, 












Queen of England 











An tares. 






























Total, ^ 86,087 

42,050 6 







« 72 per cent, 








a 4s. 4d. per $, 



Canton 28U] Jan. 1846. 

Francis C. Macgrsgor, H. B. Consul. 

Art. VIT. An imperial decree providing for the further tolera- 
tion of Christiamty^ hy granting the restoration of real estate 
to Chinese Christians throughout the empire. 

The following proclamation, from Kiyin? and Hwang, making public the 
pleasure of their imperial master, is evidently designed to give full effect to 
the decree of December 28th, 1844, published in our number for April 1845. 
See our last volume, p. 105, also pp. ^) and 588. The government of China, 
to far a."? we are able to ascertain, is disposed to give, not only the l^im 
Ckii kutu, but Christianity, full toleration, to place the worshipers of the 
Lord Jesus Christ on the same footing where they stood under the reign of 
tUe illudtrious Kauglii. Ajid tlic honor of bringing about this change, in 

Digitized by 


1846. ToJeraiian of ChHstianity. 155 

hifl majestv** council, is due to the French commissioner Lagi^n^, and to 
their excellencies Kiying and Hwanjjr. K4nghi came to the throne in 1G()2, 
dismissed the regents and assumed the reigns of ^vernment in 1669, and 
died in 1723. During most of his reign Christianity was tolerated, and iti 
propagators stood high at court The year after his death, a decree was is- 
sued by Yungching forbidding the propagation of Christianity. Hundreds of 
churches were destroyed, or converted to other purposes. And so, for aught 
that appears, they have remained till this day. What and where those houses 
are, which " have been preserved,^ as alluded to in the decree, we do not 
know. We give below a translation of the decree, &c., and on the following 
page a copy of the original of the same. 

Ktying of the imperial house, vice guardian of the heir apparent, a 
vice high chancellor, a director of the Board of War, a member of 
the Censorate, governor-general of Kwdngtung and KwiingBl, d&c, 
dtc, and Hw^ng member of the Board of War, governor of Kw^ng- 
tung, &c., &c., having respectfully copied out, promulge the follow- 
ing imperial decree, received the 20th of February 1846, in reply to 
a memorial laid before the throne for the purpose of securing immunity 
to those who profess the religion of the Lord of heaven. 

^ On a former occasion Kiying and others laid before us a memorial, re- 
questing immunity from punishment for those who doing well profess the 
religion of heaven's Lord ; and that those who erect churches, assemble 
together for worship, venerate the cross and pictures and images, read and 
explain sacred books, be not prohibited from so doing. This was granted. 
The religion of the Lord of heaven, instructinfi[ and guiding men in well- 
doing, differs widely from the heterodox and illicit sects ; and the toleration 
thereof has already been allowed. That which has been requested on a 
subsequent occasion, it is right in like manner to ^nt 

*'Let all the ancient houses throughout the provmces, which were built in 
the reign of Kanghi, and have been preserved to the present time, and 
which, on personaf examination by the proper authorities, are clearly found 
to be their bona fida possessions, be restored to the professors of this reli- 

fion in their respective places, excepting only those churches which have 
een converted into tempies and dwelling houses for the people. 

** If, after the promul^tion of this decree throughout the provinces, the 
local officers irregularly prosecute and seize any of the professors of the 
religion of the Lord of heaven, who are not bandits, upon all such the just 
penalties of the law shall be meted out 

"If any under a profession of this religion do evil, or congregate people 
from distant towns seducing and binding them together ; or if any other 
sect or bandit!?, borrowing Uie name of the reli^on of the Lord of heaven, 
create disturb mces, transgress the laws or excite rebellion, tliey shall be 
punished according to their respective crimes, each being dealt with as the 
existing statutes of the empire direct 

•• Also, in order to make apparent the proper distinctions, foreigners of 
every nation are, in accordance with existing regulations, prohibited from 
going into the country to propagate religion. 

"For these purposes tliis decree is given. Cause it to be made known. 
From the emperor." 

As it behooveth us, we, having copied out, promulgate the decree. 
Let all the officers, the military and the people understand and yield 
the obedience that is due. Oppose not. A special proclamation. 

March 18th, 1S46. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



^ m ii ^- liP ^ ^ # 
^ Hf ;Ji X tt P0I # 1^ 

^ 1^ ^^ iTtl t « JM # 
f f gS^jit^a M W -f- 







JF ^ t->^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Journal of Occurrencefi, 157 

Art. VIII. Journal of Occurrences: memorial regarding the laie 
prefect of Canton ; proclamation by the present prefect ; popu- 
lar feeling towards foreigners; the French Legation; Mr. 
Everett; the China medal; Seamen's Hospital in Hongkong; 
Morrison Education Society; Sabbath day salutes; the Plover; 
Amoy ; LiUchiU ; a visit to Fuchau ; Ningpo ; Chusan ; Shdng* 
h&i; Peking. 
Regarding the riot in Canton on the 15th of January last, we have 
now before us the memorial of their excellencies Klying and Hwing. 
It is perhaps worth translating, and we may give it in our next num- 
ber. Their excellencies dispose of the affair very easily, as being 
one of no great importance, having been occasioned by some ban* 
dits, whom they quickly dispersed, without damage to the records or 
treasury of the prefect's office. '* Prostrate they beg his august 
majesty's holy glance and directions." 

Among the proclamations that have been published by the present 
incumbent in the prefecture, is one comprising the principal provi- 
sions of the late treaties. This proclamation is, however, only a 
repetition of one published some months back by his predecessor. 
We have not carefully compared the two, but from a cursory read- 
ing of them on the walls i : the city, the several paragraphs of the 
two, which refer to the relations of the Chinese with foreigners, seem 
to be identical — their object being to make the people acquainted 
with the provisions of the treaty. Proclamations from the authorities 
are usually posted on the several gates of the city, and in a few 
other places of general resort, such as are most frequented by the 
people. But these documents, even when tney have been printed 
on imperial paper and in Manchu character, seldom remain entire 
for a week. If they refer to an unpopular subject — like that which 
appeared on the morning of the 13th of January last, allowing fo- 
reigners to enter the city, — they are torn down immediately. The 
first copies of the late prefect's edict, giving the items of the treaties, 
was not well received but were torn down or defaced within two or 
three days after they appeared. Those which have been put out by 
the present prefect are commanding more respect and have been 
less rudely handled. Some of them are still (March 24th) upon the 
walls, untorn, undcfaced, ** where all eyes can behold them." 

Popular feeling towards foreigners, if we may judge from this 
index, is improving. But it is far from being what it ought to be. 
The hosts of idle vagrants are troublesome subjects, being hero, as 
everywhere else, at the beck of unprincipled demagogues. These 
vagrants are troublesome not only to the government, but to all the 
sober and industrious people. They are the ofTscouring of society, 
are everything that is base and wicked, and as wretched as tjiey are 
base. Hundreds of them in Canton annually die of starvation and 
want, and hundreds more expire under the sword of the public ex- 
ecutioner. But wicked as these vagrants are, they often give tone 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

158 Journal of Occurrences. March, 

to the popular feeling. It was so at the late riot, in January last. 
The Chinese authorities understand the character of these baser sort 
better than foreigners do; and when they can separate them from 
what they call the '^ good people/' they know how to make short 
work with the bandits, the rabble. That Kiying and Hw&ng both, 
like their august master, are favorably inclined towards foreigners 
there can be little doubt ; and that they are using means, the best 
that they can devise, to carry into full effect the provisions of the 
treaties, we readily admit. Still they need prompting. And so 
strong is the influence of old custom and old usages, operating 
against them, that foreigners must needs be watchful and persevering, 
or their interests will be neglected, and the advantages, provided for 
in the treaties, lost. Much remains yet to be done. Foreigners, 
not excepting high officers — cannot appear abroad in Canton without 
being assailed with abusive language if not with uncomfortable mis- 
siles, such as brickbats, d&c. 

Since writing the preceding paragraph, a proclamation, dated the 
23d instant, has appeared on the city gates, emanating from the 
governor-general and governor, Kfying and Hwdng, and confirma- 
torj of what we have said above of vagrants, and of their excellen- 
cies' watchful care to prevent such from having any opportunity to 
create disturbances. They repeat, what had been stated by them 
on a fornMsr occasion, that the discussion regarding the entrance 
of foreigners into the city had been chung chi cb jt* ** stopped 
midway," or when half finished. And they add, that, "Recently a 
French deputy [M. Callery] having arrived at the city, and business 
requiring a personal interview, they went out to see him." They 
then state that the business had no reference to the entrance of the 
English into the city ; but hearing that false rumors were abroad, 
and that lawless bandits would make them an occasion for raising 
suspicions and exciting popular feeling, they could not but issue a 
stringent proclamation to repress such conduct. They instruct the 
people one and all to keep in their places, and not give heed to idle 
reports. There are other subjects, besides that of entering the city, 
requiring personal consultation with foreigners, and the people need 
not harbor any suspicions. And finally they threaten with capital 
punishment any and fill who strive to stir up sedition and discord. 

The Prench legation^ or diplomatic mission, which arrived in 
China on the 14th of August, 1844, (see page 447, vol. XITI.) took 
its departure on the llth January last, his excellency, M. Th. de 
Lagren6 having embarked two days previously, on the 9th. It was 
through inadvertence, and not design that this item of intelligence 
was not given in our Journal of Occurrences for January. 

Mr. Everett, minister from the government of the U. S. A. to 
China, is thus spoken of in the late annual message to Congress: 
the president says : *' Since the return of the commissioner to the 
United States, his health has been much improved, and he entertains 
the confident belief that he will soon he able to proceed on his mis- 
sion." We sincerely hope Mr. Everett will soon be in China : he ought 
certainly to be here before commodore Biddle, the present^tiijjj t 

igi ize y g 

1840. Journal of Occurrences. 159 

aommissioncr, leaves the Chinese waters. But we do not at ail like 
tlie idea of his having to reside at Macao, or even in tlie provincial 
city of Canton. He should go to Peking and reside there. It seems 
malapropos for a minister plenipotentiary, to a great sovereign like 
Taukw^ng, to be sequestered in a remote corner of the empire, 
where he can never see the face of the monarch, and where all offi- 
cial correspondence and all intercourse with the government must 
be carried on to jrreat disadvantage. 

"TAc China Mtdal" we see in a late English paper, instead of 
exhibiting "The British Lion trampling on the Dragon," as was at 
first proposed, is to have a faithful likeness of Her Majesty; and on 
its reverse side there is to be this motto : '* Peace in Asia, restored 
by Victoria, 1842." 

The Seamen's Hospital in Hongkong, now under the trusteeship of 
Messrs. Alexander Matheson, Alexander Anderson, Donald Mnthc- 
son, Peter Young, Gilbert Smith, and Frederic T. Bush, has we 
hear been placed under the immediate care of Dr. Balfour. 

The friends and patrons of the Morrison Educcrtion Socictff will 
rejoice to know that the Rev. Mr. Brown hns at length the assis- 
tance of his long expected associate Mr. William A. Macy, from 
New Haven, U. S. A. It was in IS4I, if we remember correctly, 
iu a letter written by the late hon. J. R. Morrison, at the direction 
of the trustees and in obedience to a resolution of the Society, that 
formal application was made for a second teacher. We congratu- 
late the friends of education on this new accession of strength to 
cultivate and improve the wide field open before them in China. 
Mr. Macy arrived on the 12th inst., in the Lucas, from New York. 

Sabbath day salutes. The U. S. A. sloop Vincennes arrived in the 
harbor late on the 14th inst.; the next day, at noon, the Christian 
assemblies, in both the Union chapel and the Colonial church, had 
their services interrupted for some time by a salute and a return 
salute of 21 guns each; which, with particulars we gladly pass over 
in silence, drew forth from the clergymen officiating in the latter, 
the remark, iu the course of his sermon, that such interruptions 
were " very humiliating to a Christian community " The influence 
of example, too, is not to be overlooked. The Chinese are begin- 
ning to read the word of God and to inquire about the religion of 
foreigners; and it is exceedingly desirable that the conduct of Chris- 
tians should coincide with the sacred canons of their faith. Public 
attention has of late been repeatedly called to the desecration of the 
Lord's day; but we hope for better things in future. 

The Plover, H. B. M. surveying ship, has recently come down 
from the east coast, where captain Collinson, her commander, has 
been so usefully employed in searching out, and laying down on a 
series of charts, the dangers of the Chinese coast. Captain Collinson 
arrived in China in 1840, and his surveys extend from Nanking to 
Canton. He is now about to proceed to England, but we hope he 
may agrain return to carry on those operations designed to give secu-- 
rity to the navigation of the Chinese seas. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1»*>0 Jtntrnnt of Occunmccs. 

At Ainoy missions are coming under the favoralile 
notice of the local oHiccrs, who not only visit the missionaries^ but 
invite them to their own dwellings. Public Christian worship is 
maintained; audiences, numbering a hundred and more, listen to 
the prcciching of the word; and many more receive portions of 
Scriptures and tracts. ** The city," say the missionaries, " to whose 
inhabitants we seek to communicate the saving knowledge of the 
gospel, is said to contain a population of between 200,000 and 
300,000 souls. It was formerly, as is pretty generally known, the 
seat of a tolerably extensive trade with western nations, and our 
countr)|men seem to have resorted thither in considerable numbers, 
many tombstones, with English inscriptions, erected io 1693, 1700, 
d&c, being still visible in the neighborhood." 

Some of those inscriptions might not perhaps be deemed out of 
place if transferred to the pa^es of the Chinese Repository, with 
notices of the commerce there in by-gone days. 

j\oic. We beg pardon for erroneously insorting the name " Mrs. Lloyd,'* 
in the list of niisHionarios nt Ainoy published in our last number. 

From the Rev. George Smith, of the church of England Missio- 
nary Society, we have received some valuable notices of Fuchau, 
which will appear in our next. They were made on a recent visit 
there. He estimates the population at half a million. The British 
consul with his family and others reside within the walls of the city. 

At Ningpoy by our latest dates, every thing remained in statu quo. 
So at Chusan ; and we hear nothing of the withdrawal of the British 
forces from the island. It is supposed that sir John Francis Davis 
has made a reference of the question to the queen, and is now await- 
ing her instructions. We doubt if all this delay is wise, but there 
may be reasons for it which we do not understand. 

j^etters and visitors from Shanghrii give us favorable accounts of 
the residences at Shayighdiy both with regard to intercourse with the 
people and facilities for business. 

We sincerely hope that commodore Diddle, ere he leaves the Chi- 
nese waters, will display his broad pennant in each of the northern 
ports, especially at Shanghai. 

It is not perhaps generally known that a mission has been under- 
taken to the people of Liuchiu. A missionary, Rev. B. J. Bettelheim, 
M. D., with his ftimily, destined to those islands is now at Hongkong, 
expecting soon to proceed northward, p. s. While writing this, Dr. 
Bettelheim has arrived in Canton, and we learn from him that he will 
sail immediately and directly to Liuchiu. 

From Peking we have late dates, but no news. The emperor 
continues to enjoy tranquillity, and seems anxious to have all his peo- 
ple happy and prosperous ; and with a view to this, and in considera- 
tion of the shing mu hwdng tdi hau, ^ ^ ^ /^ ^, lit. ** holy 
mother august great queen," i. e. the queen-dowager completing her 
seventh decade of years, his majesty has been pleased to decree that 
all the arrears of ta.xes due to the government prior to 1840 shall be 
graciously reinitlod. Proclamations, announcing this to all his suih- 
jecls, have recently been published throughout the provincejK^ t 

igi ize y g 



Vol. XV.-.APRIL, 1846.— No. 4. 


Art. I. Revision of the Chineu version of ike Bible; remarks 
on ike words for God, Fatker, 8on, Spirit, Soul, Propket, 
Befptism and Sabbatk. ^ 

Knowing somewhat of the great interest now felt by the wise and 
good throughout almost all Christendom in the welfare of the Chi- 
nese, knowing also some of the difficulties there are to be encountered 
in the revision of the Holy Scriptures in this language, we may hope 
to be excused for volunteering to take part in the arduous labor of 
working out some of the materials requisite to accomplish the pro- 
posed end. Before this nation will receive the gospel and become 
a Christian people a great preliminary work must be done. Of this 
sort, none is more important than the revision of the Scriptures. 
Success in modern warfare, so far as it depends on second causes, is 
now made to depend very much on the machinery and weapons em- 
ployed. By the use of steam vessels and the improvements in gunnery, 
d&c, conflicts between contending nations are brought to a speedy 
close. Something analogous to this is doubtless to be witnessed in 
the Christiaji conflict. The modern champion has, in his armory, 
a great advantage over those who lived v/hen months and years of 
toil were required to produce a single copy of the Bible. The truth, 
including the whole revealed word of God, is the grand ordnance 
by which " the prince of this world," and "the powers of darkness " 
are to be overcome. 

The enemies of all righteousness and of all good dread the pro- 
gress of Scriptural knowledge. They see it to be — as it is charac- 
terized by the pen of iiispiratiou— " the sword of the Spirit." To 

VOL XV. NO. IV. ^l r^ ] 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

162 Rtvisiun of the Chinese Virsimi of fhe IMhlt, Apua. 

iii.ike lliiH — whiit It ought to be iii every laitguaj^o — perfect, as it 
came from the pen of those who wrote as they were moved by the 
spirit of God, is of infinite importance ; and to accomplish this-is the 
high aim of those who are now engaged in revising the Chinese 
versions of the Holy Scriptures. 

To the first protestant translators of the Bible into Chinese, Mor- 
rison, Miine^ and Marshman, much is due. They performed most 
important service. And doubtless multitudes will be blessed and 
saved through their instrumentality But from the nature of the 
case the first versions could not but be imperfect. No one that has 
been made into any language can claim perfection. Our own Eng' 
lish version, after all the talent that has been employed upon it, fur 
centuries, is far from being perfect. The critical scholar and the 
controverlist must have recourse to the original Greek and Hebrew 
texts. But the humble inquirer after truth and duty, with the com* 
mon English version in his hands, need not err. So with the Chi- 
nese. In the several versions they now possess, they have instruct 
lion enough and sufficiently plain to guide them into the way of 
eternal life, and sufficient moreover to leave them without excuse if 
they fail to walk therein. The soldier of the cross, though his wea- 
pons be not carn-rd, yet must needs have them in good condition. 
Faith comes by hearii>g, and hearing by the word of God; and this 
word must be in a language that is intelligible, otherwise it cannot 
be expected to have its full and legitimate effect. Tn the Chinese 
version, as in every other, great pains ought to be taken to express 
correctly the cardinal doctrines of the gospel, and to convey the es- 
sential terms which involve the eternal welfare of immortal souls. 

Under present circumstances, it is hardly to be expected that a 
version in this langunge can be equal to the English, which was long 
coming to its present state. Still such has been the advance since the 
first Chinese versions were published, that longer to neglect their 
revision would be clearly a dereliction of duty. The follovving short 
paragraphs are subuiilted to the readers of the llepo.sitory, in the 
iiopc of facilitating the revision by drawing attention to some of the 
most difficult terms, ami by eliciting such discussion as the impor. 
tanco of the subject demands. 

Tliu Bible, it h to be leuiGmbcred, contains a multitude of facts 
,i!!d idens, describes maiiy thou;flsls and feeliug:?, which are new to 
ihu:ic who ii.ivc- not eiijoycd Iht* \'\\^\iX of divine revelation ' These 
...(.•,v l.icis, uiiiaii, <!Vi/C , rnubt b? *xi)i'j35ed, howc^^er. in v/ords tlut 
a>o aliettdy Taifiiliar lu the minds of ihe people And here '\Q the i»r<9ai 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

ISir, Hfriaion nfthtt Chinese VersioA of the Bibti. 163 

difficiilty A Christian nn«l a pagan m^iy Rpcak of Gcxl, of heaven, 
of hell of etorniiy and a vhousand other things, antl may each u»e 
the most appropriate terms in Uioir rcspoctivc languages, while llieir 
ideas may dJH'or excoodingly. IIow dissimilar their ideas of truth, of 
fnith, of hope, of iht «ou), ^c, iS:,c. And what now is to be done? 
The path is ]ilain. Common words, buch as are in good and uni- 
versal use, must be employed, and these be left to acquire their pro- 
per signification by use, &lc. We ctmimencc with the word for the 
nipromc being, as used in the Now Testament. 

God and deoj:. Lexicographers arc not agreed in opinion regard- 
ing the origin of these words. The Greeks had gods innumerable. So 
ihc Chinese, and the word most commonly used to designate them is 
jm shin. This is a compound one formed of ^ sldn, to extend, 
to explain, and 7^; shi, signs from heaven. The Chinese speak 
of god or gods of heaven, of earth, of the sea, 6lc, Among their 
gods there are ^ ^, tHm ckii, lord of heaven; ^ 3l£» '^ ^^^* 
lord of the earth. For a long list of phrases in which the word shin 
occurs, the Chinese scholar is referred to the Pci Wan Ynn Fu of 
K^nghf. We have already expressed our opinion in favor of this 
term ; and continue to prefer it to BQ ^, shintHen^ divine heaven j 
or _^ ^ shdng ti, most high ruler ; or ^ ^ tHcn chit, divine 
loid or Lord of heaven. 

For the words fatiieu and son, 'jra7>}p and uiof, (see John's Gospel, 
5:20, and elsewhere in the latest Chinese versions of the New Tes- 
tament) we find J|l^ ^ shin fii, divine father, and |dl ^p shin 
tsz\ divine son; or god father and god son; or, rendering the phrases 
like ^ ^ t'ien tsz\ son of heaven, we then have father of God, 
and son of God. We should prefer the simple terms ^ /«i, Father, 
and ^ tsz\ Son, and would leave the reader to gather the true 
sense of the words from the context, or from any other means at his 

For the vvord ^SJf^a, which occurs more than 370 times in the 
New Testament, there is a great diversity of phraseology — ^probably, 
however, not greater in the Chinese versions than in the English. 
Ill some cases an original word may be rendered uniformly l)y one 
and the same, either in the English or in the Chinese ; but it is 
sometimes far otherwise, as with the word now under consideration. 
Turn to any Greek lexicon of the New 'i'estameiit, and it will be 
there seen how large is the variety of meanings given to this word. 
To MHTic extent this ia ciccn also in our common English version. 
\VV cite Ji few piis.sagcs ; from Mai ! 18, the Holy Ghosf ; 3. I(i^ ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

164 Ransim of the Chinese Version of the Bibk. April, 

the 8pMt of God; 5:3, the poor in spirit; 10:1, the unclean 
spirits; 10:20, the spirit of your Father; 28; 19, yielded up the 
ghost; Mark, 9: 17, a dumb spirit; Luke, 1:17, in the spirit and 
power of Elias; 4: 14, in the power of the spirit; 4: 18, in the 
spirit of the Lord; 4:33, a sptnl of an unclean devil; 7:24, evil 
spirits ; 24 : 37, supposed they had seen a spirit ; in John, 3 : 8, it 

occurs twice, thus, the wind bloweth born of the spirit^ 

** wind" and *' spirit" being one and the same word in the original. 
I^et these few texts suffice. 

But how shall the word be disposed of in the Chinese version? 
In Mat. 1:18, one version has for Holy Ghost, ^ 1^ M> '^^V 
shinfung; and another has only the first and second words shing 
shin: shin is the same as above and denotes God, or what is divine ; 
fung corresponds very nearly to «vi&>|M, and is the common word 
to denote the wind. 

The Chinese say ^ ^ ;^ ^ )|(^, *'ie« fi chi shi yne 
fung, the messenger of heaven and earth is called wind or spirit. 
Like the Greek word «vsu|m, the Chinese fung is used in a great 
variety of phrases, such as the following; S ^ ^ B , sing ^ 

hdufung, stars have good influence; ^ J|^ ^ jj^, tdu fung siik 
shi, a rational wind (or spirit) renovating the world; they speak also 
of jl^ j^, chingfung, a straight or correct wind or spirit, ^ j^, 
shenfung, and jil ^^ nganfung, good, benevolent wind or spirit; 
they have also ^ ||[, tHen fung, and ^ Jg[, shing fung, ce- 
lestial and holy wind or spirit. 

In Mat. 5 : 3, for " the poor in spirit," one version lias ^ ^ ^, 
5m ptft ch^, sin denoting the heart or mind, emdpin, poverty ; another 
version has j^ j^ ^, Au sin chi, hu denoting vacuity, or what 
is not filled or sullied. 

At present we must confess that the word ]^ fung seems to us 
better fitted than |^ ehin to stand in the place of «^sufAa. 

Others prefer ^ fing^ for spirit. Thus they say p^ J^ ^, 
shin ndi ling, God is a spiril. (See John's gospel, 4 : 24.) For the 
single word spirit, in the origina) of all the 370 places referied to 
above, neither ^ fung oor f^ ling could be used invariably. 

This latter, ling, may perhaps bie the best word to denote the soul, 
>)/uX^, man's immortal spirit. 

For irpo<pii7T)ff, prophet, ^ ^ shing jin^ holy man, has been 
used. In certain cases the sense of the orignal may be preserved, 
bui we should think generally not. r^^^^T^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIc 


Skipping in the Port of Canton, 


In most, if not in all the verBions, we find j^ j|{ <^ A* o^ ^^^ 
equivalent for /3oMr7i^a), and its different forms. So in conversation, and 
in books, the phrase vA ^ Q fi-^NU-ytA, is used for the word Sab- 
bath. In the latter the use of |^ H is perhaps admissible, but 
we doubt if it be so in the first 

We will not now longer encroach on the patience of our readers. 
Enough has been said to show some of the difficulties that surround 
this subject of revision — enough, we would fain hope also, to draw 
forth, from those who are competent to the task, more full and com- 
plete discussions of these and the many other words and phrases 
employed in Holy Writ. 

Art. IL Statements of the number, tonnage, Sfc,, of the mer- 
ckant vessels of different nations in the port of Canton, for 
the year 1845. (F^om the China Mail, Feb. Sth, 1846.; 
In our last number page 151, was given a statement of the tonnage 
dues, import and export duties, paid by British vessels in the port of 
Canton for 1845 ; we now subjoin further statements ; and in future 
numbers we will add such statements as we can command regarding 
the commerce of Amoy, Fuchau, Ningpo, and Sh.inghAi. These, 
which we borrow from the China Mail, have been published by di« 
rection of H. B. M. chief superintendent of British trade. 

No. l.^A return of the number and tonnage of merchant veasela which 
arrived at, and departed from, the port of Canton daring the year ending the 
3l8t December, 1645, distinguishing the countries to which they belonged, vis. 












Under what colors. 



Under what colors. ^^ 


*YS " 


British, . . 204 ' 

American, . 




. . 85 



















Swedish,. - 



Swedish, . 


Austrian, - 





Hamburg, - 




. . 5 





. . 2 






Columbian,''& Pcruv 

ian 2 


Columbian, Sl Peruyian, 2 









aUl ' 327 


Canton, 28th Jon. 1646. 

Francis Q. Macgasoor, H. M. Consul. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

IGO Shippin/r 7> f^r Port of Canton Aprit 

No, 11. — A return of the nnnib*^r of merrhnnt vessels cf a'li nations, dii^tin- 
guinhing their respective flntrs whirh alenred nt the cuRtom-house at Cnnton 
during the year endin/!|[ the 3]nt Dcc*^inber, IWS, proceeding from, or bound 
for, the port3 nnd placen undermentioned, viz. — 



















1 1 








16 a 







47 // 







1 f 


1 « 


4 t 

















60 Z 










5 n 







1 7 






G 1 




23 r 

12 5 






1 1 





4 f 





19 I 


23 u 

10 14 


1 'X 





3 a 

13 10 





6 X 




2 y 


5 z 


2 a 




4 ft 








5 c 





1 </ 





5 e 




4 / 
















12 t 






83 3 






:^)2 2()4 b5 




4 5 

9 4 


Total of tonnage inwards 136,850. Total of tonnage outward 148,273 

Names of Ports or Places. 

n London, b Liverpool and Newport, c Glaiigow, Greenock, Leith, and the 
Clyde, d Dublin and Cork, c Havre and Bordeaux, /Amsterdam and Rotter- 
clam, g Copenhagen, k Gottenburg, i Hamburg, j Bremen, k Cape of Good 
Hope, / Bombay, m Colcutta, n Madras, o Tutocorin and Chippicollum, p 
Colombo, q Siam, r Pcnang, Singapore and the Straits, s Batavia, Sourabnya, 
Bamarang, and Menado, t Bali and Lombok, u Manila and the Philipine Is- 
J.mda, V Halifax in N.S., w New York, x Bo^ston, y Pliladelphia, z Baltimore 
and Siilem, a New Orleans and ?VTouile, // Mazatlan end Mexico, c Callao and 
Liii;a, d Valparaiso, t Sriiidwich Islands hnd Polynesia^ / Sydney, Port k'hi 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fi/uftjtiftj^ in Iht Por( of Canton 


lijs and U'^birt Town, ^ lloiiiikor.j, /♦ Maran, i A moy, Chilean, Nmgpo, and 


C« nU»n, Jan. 2dlh, li^iO. Francis (' MArr.iiEcoR, /f M ('onsnf The c^lun-.n h. nilcil '' Miftci'lloncoup ' inrlndrs 8 Spnuisli, 1 Co- 

IumiIm?*ii, n*Ht one •iliip nnflcr fr$inm colorn 

No. 111.— A statement cxlnhiting th? znovcim^it oi' Ilritisli shipinng in the 
trade with the pnrt ofCnutiin during tlie year tH45, dinttnguiBliing llie British 
.ind Cuuntry ship, and ^iliowinir the number and tonnagt; of vessels at Wham 
|ioa on thif Slct December 


ffritish. Con nil If. TttOtl British. Country. Total, 


fjimdon, 15 

TioiikWr-' N«. T'jmi:i«— N<». ' 

ti.7lil 15 




N«. ■! 

70 37.61.8 

Livorinxd, 30 


30 ] 






C;ia8|row, 1 

Lcilh and > 1 








thu Clyde, 1 

0'i»>|in & 
Cork. S 





Ikimbay, 26 


'17 JO,0:iO 03 41,2111 



J7 82.630 80 23.148 

CalculLa, 'A 


il 803 4 



5.032 10 


Madras, 5 





854 2 


Tutocorin, 8 




Chi|)])icollttin, 1 










1 147 1 


Siniraiwrc, 7 


7 1,3«1 14 



],U5'I 5 



1 123 1 





3.376 10 


Iiombok, 1 




.Sydney, 2 
Ilobart Town, 

2 58(i 8 



1 183 3 





606 9 


1 86 1 





433 4 


Port Philip, 







826 l! 


C. G. Hope, 


1)06 r 


Victoria, 1« 


2,022 25 




1.811 15 


Macao, 1 


2 3UG 3 



465 2 


Amoy, 1 







904 3 


Chnsan, 1 




Shanfrhai. 1 


1 202 8 







1 llT 1 

[37 50,184 67 30,153-201 


ToUl liU 

50.101) 64 35.888 182 





/Jnd cf cared in 

British - 118 vessels, 

50,100 tons 


13 vessels 

, 4,342 tont> 

Country 64 


35,rH8 „ 




3,656 „. 

Total 1(58 vessels, 

86,087 tons 

Total ■ 

2:1 vessels 

7,0fW tone 



Wkampoa on Z\sl Dccevihcr. 

Urilish • 137 vessclw, 

59,124 tons 



3 vc:i3cl8 

> 1,325 tons 

Country 67 


30,153 „ 




a>3 .. 

Total 2f)4 vessels, 

08,277 tona 

Total 2 

4 vc 


, 1,440 toiii 

f'tj which number entered in baUast 
British • 18 vc;iuols, 4,Bf^ tons' 

Country 18 ,, 8,378 „ 

ToUl 21 weasels, V^ ly.u 

C«aton, Jttii. idlh, Idlb. Viai 

C iM^ -*.*»: EG OB, I/. .U C«/4^. 

Digitized by 



Shipping in the Part of Canton^ 


DenanUnatioii of arUcUs, 


Estimated value 

t'n Spamisk 








7'^ J Changs 145,472 


„ 377,240 


„ 212,997 


„ 119,754 






Pain 3,916 


Value $7,536 


Pieces 679,412 


„ 166,735 






: 23,426 


Doiena 14,126 


No. IV.— A return of the quantities and value of merchandise imported into 
the port of Canton, in 158 British vessels of 78,823 tons, and in 60 Hongkong 
Lorchas of 3,508 tons burden, from the countries and places undermentioned, 
during the year ending the 3l8t December, 1845, viz.:-- 

JVb. tit 


I. British manufactures and 

staple articles. 
l,~^Mant{faauTes of wool, 
Broad cloth, Spanish Stripes, Habit 

and Medium cloth. 
Narrow woollens, not described, 
Long Ells, 
Woollens not enumerated, 

2.— Jtfanif/ocAcrtf of Cotton. 
Long cloths. 
Do. White, - 
Do. twilled. 
Cambrics and Muslins, - 
Chintzes and Prints, • 

Ginghams, Pulicatcs, dyed Cottons, 
velvets. Velveteen, Silk and 
Cotton Mixtures, Wool and 
Cotton mixtures, and all kinds 
of Fancy goods, - - • . 
Cotton Yarn and Thread, 
i.—Miscollaneous ArticUs^ raw 
and man^faetured, 
Clocks and Watches, including Te- ^ 
lescopes. Writing desks, and Dres- J 
sing cases, Hardware, Ironmon- l 
gery, Cutlery, Perfumery, &«., J 
£arthettware of all kinds, - 


Glass and GIOss ware, 
Iron in Bolts, Bars, Rods, Hoops, &c. 
dtcel, raw, - - - - 
Tin plates, . - . - 

Lead, - - - - - 


Wine, Beer -• - . - 


N. B. the abovementioned, " British manufactures and sUple articles," 
are from the fullowing '* countries and places," viz: 

London, Liverpool, Glasgow, the Clyde, and Hongkong. 

II. Productions of India and 

other countries. 
3 Botel-nut, .... Peculs 

Bicho de Mar, 

Value $19,050 

Peculs 20,446 

Value $28,546 



























Birds* ncstsi, edible, 






Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


iilhipping in ike Fort of Canton 



ja,599 J 

57,933 f 

tj,531 J 

VecuU 527,201 



12 Cotton, VIZ.: 




ir» Caw Bezoar, . . ^ . 

17 £lephants' teeth, - 

18 Fi«hmaws, .... 
22 Ginsenff, . . . - 

24 Gum Olibanum, 

„ Myrrh, - - - 

„ not ciuimcratcu or deHcribed, 

25 Horns, Buifalo and Bullock, 
Horns, Unicorn and lUimoceros, 

29 Mother o'Pearl-shells, 

30 MeUls, Copper in Rods, Sheets, i&c, 

Do. Tin in Blocks, 

32 Pepper, - . - - 

33 Putchuck, . - , 

34 RatUns, 
36 Rice, 

36 Rose Maloes, 

37 Saltpetre, 

38 Shark fins, . - • 

39 Skins and Kurs, viz : 

Ox Hides, Land-otter, 
Hare, Rabbit, Beaver, and 
Racoon Skins, - 
41 Soap, common, • 
43 Sea Horse Teeth, - 
46 Wood, Sandal, 

Do. Sapan, ... 

III. Miscellaneous Imports, and 
Articles not enumerated in 
the Tariff. 
Including Agar-agar, Agates, Alum, 
Amber, Asafcetida, Black-lead, 
Blue Stone, Books, Carpets, Clo- 
ves, Coals, Coral rough, and Coral 
Beads,. Corks, Cornelians, and 
Cornelian Beads, Cudbear, Fur- 
niture, Glass (broken), Goatskins, 
Gold and Silver Thread, Guano, 
Paper and Stationery, Pearls and 
Precious Stones, Provisions, Rai- 
sins, Snuff, Timber, Tobacco, 
Wearing Apparel, and a number 
of small articles belonging to the 
trade of India, . - - Value $ 215,650 

N. B. The above-mentioned articles, under divisions II 

III, are from British India, Singapore, Penang, Bali 

Lombok, Manila, Sydney, and Sandwich Island. 

IV. Treasure, from 
London, Liverpool, and Penang, 




















































Total of Imports in British ships, 
Canton, 28th January, 1846. Fra.ncis C. Macgregop 

VOL XV, NO IV 'i2 


, H M. consul 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Shippinfr in the Part of Canton. 


Rcmiirks. Tlii' precediiigr returns have been compiled from the entries in 
the books kept at this consulate, and the quantities specified are those that 
have paid duty. The weights and measures stated are those in use at Can. 
ton. One catty is equal to 1| pound avoirdupois, and 10(> catties correspond 
With 133|Ibs. in England. One chang is 4 English yards, nearly. The value 
given has been computed upon the average prices of the year in the Canton 
market. The Spanish dollars have been reduced to sterling at the rate of 
4^. Ad. per dollar. 

No. V. — A return of the quantities and value of merchandise exported from 
the port of Canton in 181 British vessels of the burden of 90,Si79. tons, and in 
24 Lorchas of the burden of 1440 tons, to the countries and places under- 
mentioned during the year ending the 31st December, 1845. 

I. Raw produce. 

1 Alum, 

2 Aniseed Stars, - . • . 
9 Camphor, . . - - - 

10 Canes, 

12 Cassia lignea, .... 

Cassia Buds, .... 

12 China root, 

28 Hartal 1 or Orpiment, - 

37 Musk, 

Quicksilver, . - . - 

45 Rhubarb, 

46 Silk raw. Nankin, - 3467 ) 

do. Canton, - - 1725 5 
Silk, coarse and refuse, 
Sugar, raw, 


Tea, viz.— 

Orange Pekoe, 

Miscellaneous s«rts, 
Hyson Skin, 
Youn^ Hyson, - 



53,986 a 



1,054 h 



24,123 e 



1,4:^ d 



171,230 e 






9,125 ir 



2,528 A 



8,174 i 



15,324 ; 
60,834 i 





2,004,260 I 



420,637 m 



683,854 n 

289,160 S 
10,856 1 

5,243 g. 
16,734 ^ 
10,481 ^ 

7,752 « 
11,786 I 

1,463 « 
25,998 / 


429,867 15,825,954 o 

\i6 Tobacco, Piculs 


2,496 p 


Names of Ports or Placrs. 
a Calcutta and Bombay, b Singapore, c London, Madras, Bombay, d Lon- 
don, Liverpool, Leith^ Bombay, e Lonaon, Singapore, Bombay, / London, 
Manila, India, g London, Liverpool, Bombay, h Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, 
4 Bombay, 7 Calcutta and Bom!»ay, k London, Manila, Singapore, India, 
I London, Liverpool, Calcutta, Bombay, m Bombay, n London, Singapore, 
Calcutta, Bombay, Hobart Town, o Great Britain and Ireland, British India, 
Singapore, Australia, Briiitih America, Cape of Good Hope,;i London, Calcutta, 

4 Bangles or Glass A nnlelb, Bcxes 127 7,867 a 

5 B»iiirboo war**, .... Piculs |:W 2,5206 
(- Biaas leal,' Boxes 117 :^,660 c 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


^hippinj^ in the Port of Canton. 







Bonr and Horn ware, 

China ware, - - . - - 

Crockery, .... 

Coppor, Tin, and Pewter ware, 

Crackers, and Fireworks, 

Fans of all sorts, . - . . 

Furniture and Wood ware, 

Glass and Glass ware, - 

Glass fieads, .... 

Grass Cloth, 

Ivory, Mother of Pearl, Sandal ) 

Wood, and Tortoiseshell ware, ) 
Kilty sols, - . . . 
Lackered ware, - - - - 
Mats and Mattingr, 
Nankeen and Cotton cloth, 
Oil of Aniseed, - - - 

Do. Cassia, .... 
Paper of all sorts, ... 
Preserves and Sweetmeats, 
Rattan work, . . . . 

Silk thread and Ribbons, 
Silk manufactures. 
Silk and Catton mixture, 


Sugar Candy, .... 

Trunks of Leather, 




582 rf 


4,718 ) 

$1,055 ; 

94,628 e 





3,843 A 





6,240 i 



6,625 j 





31,985 I 






4,392 « 



11,767 o 



12,583 p 



10,556 <i 



12,756 r 


24 > 

3,254 s 


8,646 I 



3-2,186 1/ 



22,512 V 



2,975 w 



19,726 r 


69,54r» ) 
24,487 5 

483,848 y 


72,520 z 



4,256 a 



31!), 127 A 



5,G70 r 



2^,916 d 

Names of Ports or Places. 


a Bombay, Calcutta, the Cape, h London, British India, Anstralin, r Bom- 
bay and Madras, d London, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, ef Loiulon, Livortmol, 
British India, Australia, Manila, sr London, Liverpool, Briti.sU India, h 
British India, Australia, % Great Britain, British India, Auslralia, j Croat 
Britain, British India, Australia, k Calcutta, Madras, Bomb:ty, I Calcutta, 
Madras, Bombay, m London, Liverpool, British India, n Great Britain, 
India, Australia, o Madras, Bombay, Colombo, p Great Britain, British India, 
Australia, 9 British India, Australia, the Cape,r London and Bombay, s< Lon 
don, Singapore, British India, Manila, u London, British India, AiiHtraiia. 
« Great Britain, British India, Australia, w Bombay, Sydney , iho Cape, x 
London, Madras, Bombay, y z Great Britain, Britisli India, Ausitralin, the 
Cape, a London, British Indio, Manila, b Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, c Lon- 
don, Bombay, Calcutta, d Bombay, Calcutta, the Cape 

III. Miscellaneous Exports, and articles not enumerated in the Tariff. 
Including Bees' Wax, Cochineal. 

Capoor Cutohery, Curiosities and 

Fancy Articles, Ready-made Clothes, 

Drums, Dragon's Blnod, Artificial 

FloN^ers, Glass Pictures, Hats and 

Caps, Glue, incense Stickb, China 

Ink, Lanterns, Lead white and red, ) Vilue <;:itima- 

Mace, Marble slabs. Mirrors, Pain- 
tings in Oil, Pictures on Rice Paper, 

Pearls factitious, Shoes women s, 

Silveramith's \i;o\V^ Smalta, (^liin.i 

Tinfoil. 'I'urmorir. ITnibn Ibc-. Silk. 

j led at S 209,524 209,524 a 

T«if:il of Ejt ports in BtmieH Shifii. 


Canton 28ih January. It$46 

Francis C Macgkecoc, H M Cvtt^ui t 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

173 Captain Mercator Cooper*s visit to Japan, Apkil, 

Rmuirks. The preceding leUiras have been compiled from the entries in 
the booki kept at thia office, and the quanUea specified are those that have 
paid duty. The weighU and measares sUted are those in use at Canton. 
One catty is equal to 1( pound avoirdupois, and 100 catUea correspond with 
I33jlbs. in England. One chang is 4 English yards nearly. The value given 
has in most insUnces been computed upon the average prices of the year in 
the Canton market, and where this has been impracticable, an approximate 
estimate has been substituteu. The reduction of the Spanish dollars into 
Sterling has been made at the exchange of 4#. 4d. per dollar. 

Art. ///. Same account of Captain Mercator Cooper's visit to 
Japan in the whaU Ship Manhattan of Sag Harbor. By C. F. 


The following account we borrow from a public paper, "The 
Friend," published at Honolulu, Oahu, February 2d 1846. In a 
note to the editor of that paper, Dr. Winslow, the writer of the. 
article, says he recei?ed all that he has communicated, and mucn 
more from Captain Cooper's own mouth, and has endeavored to be 
entirely correct. Those who are interested in Japan will wish these 
notices had been more extended and enriched with the additional 
information in Dr. Winslow' s possession. Such as they are we give 
them, without further comment. 

«» It was about the first of April, as Captain Cooper was proceeding towards 
the whaling regions of the northern ocean, that he passed in the neighborhood 
of St. Peters, a small islanrl ljii|igalew degrees to the S. E. of Niphon. It 
is comparatively barren and was supposed to be uninhabited ; but being near it, 
he thought he would explore the shore for turtle to afford his ship's company 
some refreshment. While tracing the shore along he discovered a pinnace of cu- 
rious construction, which resembled somewhat those he had seen in the China 
Seas. Turning his walks inland, he entered a valley, where he unexpectedly 
saw at sone distance from him several persons in uncouth dresses, who ap- 
peared alarmed at his intrusion and immediately fled to a more secluded part of 
the valley He continued his walk and soon came to ahj^t, where were collect- 
ed eleven men, whom be afterwards found to be Japanese. As he approached 
them they came forward and prostrated themselves to the earth before him, and 
remained on their fkces for some time. They were much alarmed and expected 
to be destroyed ; but Capt. C. with great kindness, reconciled them to his pre- 
sence, and leari;ied by signs that they had been shipwrecked on St. Peters many 
months before. He took them to the shore, pointed to his vessel nn^ intbrmect 
them that he would take them to Jeddo, if they would entrust themselves to ki$ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Captain Mercafor Cooper^ $ visit to Japan. 173 

care. They coniented with ffreat jpj,; and abandoning eveiy thing they htd 
on the island, embarked with him immediately for his ship. 

" Captain Cooper determined to proceed at once to Jeddo, the capital of the 
Japanese empire, notwithstanding its well known regulations prohibiting A* 
meriean and other foreign yessels to enter its waters. The Capt. had two great 
and laudable objects in view. The first was to restore the shipwrecked stran- 
gers to their homes. The other was to make a strong and favorable impression 
on the government, in respect to the civilixation of the United States, and its 
friendly disposition to the Emperor and people of Japan. How he succeeded 
in the latter object the sequel will show ; and I will make but few remarks 
either on the benevolence or boldness of Capt. C.*s resolution, or its ultimate 
eonseqnences touching the intercourse of the Japanese with other nations. The 
step decided on, however, has led to some curious and interesting information, 
relative to this country, whose institutions, and the habits of whose people are 
but little known to the civilized world. 

** Capt. C. left St. Peters, and after sailing a day or two in the direction of 
Niphon, he descried a huge and shapeless object on the ocean, which proved to 
be a Japanese ship wrecked and in a sinking condition. She was from a port on 
the extreme north of Niphon, with a cargo of pickled salmon, bound for Jeddo* 
She had been shattered and dismantled some weeks previous, and was drifting 
about the ocoan at the mercy of the winds, and as a gale arose the following 
day, the Captain thinks she must have sunk. From this ship be took eleven 
men more — all Japanese — and made sail again for the shores of Niphon. A- 
mongthe articles taken from the wreck by its officers were some books and a 
chart of the principal islands composing the empire of Japan. This chart I shall 
speak of in detail hereafter, and it is, perhaps, one of the most interesting speci- 
mens of geographical art and literature which has ever wandered from the 
shores of eastern Asia. 

'* In making the land, our navigator found himself considerably to the nortli 
of Jeddo ; but approaching near the coast, he landed in his boat, accompanied 
by one or two of his passengers. Here, he noticed many of the inhabitants em- 
ployed in fishing at various distances from land. The natives he met on shore 
were mostly fishermen, and all appeared to belong to the common or lower clas- 
ses of society. They seemed intelligent and happy, were pleased with his visit, 
and made no objection to his landing. From this place he dispatched one of his 
passengers to the emperor, who was at Jeddo, with the intelligence of his in 
tention or wish to enter the harbor of the c ipital with his ship, for the purpose 
of landing the men whom he had found under such distressed circumstances, 
and to obtain water and other necessaries to enable him to proceed on his 
voyage. Then returning to his ship, he sailed along the coast for maiyy leagues, 
compared his own charts with the one taken from the wreck. The winds 
beconaing unfavorable, however, he was driven away from the land so far, that 
after they changed, it took him a week to recover a position near the place 
where he first landed He went on shore again, dispatched two other messen 
gers to the Capital, with the same information that he had previously sent, and 
the reason of his detention. He sailed again fcr Jeddo, and the winds proving 
auspicious, in due time he entered the mouth of the bay, deep within which the 
city is situated. As he s^-iled along the passage, a barge met him coming fron) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

174 Captain Mercaiar Cooper^ s visit to Japan. April, 

the citj, in command of a peraon who, from his rich dren, appeared to be an 
officer of rank and consequence. This personage informed him that his mes- 
sengers had arrived at court, and t)iat the emperor had granted him permission 
to come up to Jeddo with his ship. He was, however, directed to anchor 
under a certain headland for the night, and the next morning was towed' up to 
his anchorage within a furlong of the city. 

" The ship was immediately visited bj a great number of people of all ranks* 
from the governor of Jeddo and the high officers attached to the person of the 
emperor, arrayed in golden and gorgeous tunics, to the lowst menials of the 
government, clothed in rags. All were filled with an insatiable curiosity to see 
the strangers and inspect the thousand novelties presented to their view. 

" Captain Cooper was very soon informed by a native interpreter, who had 
been taught Dutch and who could speak a few words of English, but who could 
talk still more intelligibly by signs, that neither he nor his crew would be 
allowed to go out of the ship, and that if they should attempt it they would be 
put to death. This fact was communicated by the very significant symbol of 
drawing a naked sword across the throat. The captain dealt kindly with all, 
obtained their confidence, and assured them he had no inclination to transgress 
(heir laws, but only desired to make known to the emperor and tJie great offi- 
cers of Japan, the kind feelings of himself and of the people of America to- 
wards them and their countrymen. The Japanese seamen who had been taken 
from the desolate island and from the wreck, when parting from their preser- 
ver, manifested tlie warmest affection and gratitude for his kindness. They 
clung to him and shed many tears. This scene-— the reports of the shipwrecked 
men of the many kindnesses they had received — and the uniformly prudent 
And amicable deportment of the American captain made a very favorable im- 
pression on the governor of Jeddo. Duriug his stay, this great dignitary treated 
him witli the most distinguished civility and kindness. 

>* But neither captain nor crew of the Manhattan were allowed to go over 
her sides. Officers were kept on board continually to prevent any infraction of 
^his regulation, and the more securely to ensure its maintenance and prevent 
all communication with the shore, the ship was surrounded and guarded by 
^hree circular barriers of boats. Each circle was about a hundred feet asunder, 
,and the inner one about one hundred from the ship. In the first circle the boats 
were tied to a hawser so compactly that their sides touched each other, and that 
aoiliing could pass between or break through them. The sterns of the boats 
were next the ahip, and in these were erected long lances and other steel 
weapons, of various and curious forms, such as are never seen, or heard 
of in modern times among, European nations. Sometimes they were cover* 
ed with lacquered sheaths, at others, they were left to glisten in the sun, 
apparently for the purpose of informing the foreigners that their application 
would follow any attempt to pass them. Among these, vere mingled flags and 
banners of various colors and devices. In the middle of this circle, between 
the Manhattan and the city, was stationed a large junk, in which the officers 
resided, who commanded the guard surrounding the ship. The boats compo- 
sing the second cirrje, were not so numerous, and those in the third, were inore 
scattering still ; but the number thus employed, was almost bewildf^iiug to look 

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iHiti. CapUiui Mrrcafor Cmtptr,- risif /<• J*/jmn 175 

upon. TIn»y ainounU'd t-j nearly a tliouKaud, aiitl wcrcali ariiitdand oruaiiU'iHc d 
III u similar manner. It was a scone of the most intense iiiU.resl and smiUM" 
uicnt to llic AnKTicanii, the most of wliom had never heird of the ktraiigu riis 
tonus of Uiis secluded and amost unknown people. As macrnificiMit and wond'-r 
fill a specUclc, however, as this vast array of boats presented during the daij^ 
decorated with gaudy banners, and with glittering s|)cars of an infinite variety 
of forms,— in the night it was exceeded by a display of lanterns in such count- 
less numbers, and of Buch shapes and transparencies, ns almost to entrance the 
b«*holders, and to remind them of the mugic in the Arabian Tales. 

" The charactar and rigor of the guard stationed about the ship, was atone time 
•.iccidentally put to the test. The captain, w isliing to repair one of his boats, at- 
tempted to lower it from the cranes into the water, in order to take it in over the 
vessel's side. Ail the Japanese on board immediately drew their swords. The 
uflicerin charge of the deck guard, appeared greatly alarmed at the procedure, 
remonstrated kindly, but with great earnestness, against it, and declared to 
Capt. C. that they should be slain if they permitted it, and that his own head 
would be in danger, if he iKJrsisted in the act. The captain assuicd the officer 
(hat he had no intention to go on shore, and explained to him cieairly what his 
object was. When it was fully understood, great pleasure was manifested by the 
Japanese officer He commanded the crew who were managing the boat to 
leave it, and set a host of liis menials to work, who took it into the ship with- 
out allowing it to toucli the water. 

*^ The Manhattan was at anchor in the harbor of Jeddo four ul^-5, during 
which time the captain was supplied by command of the emperor with wood 
water, rice, rye in the grain, vegetables of various kinds and some crockery 
composed of the lacquered ware of the country. He was recruited with cwary 
thing of which he stood in need, and all remuneration was refused. But he was 
told explicitly never to come again to Japan, for it he did he would great y 
displease the emperor. During these four days, he had many convcr.<-niioi.i witi! 
the governor of Jeddo, and other persons of rank, through their interpreter. '}i: 
one of these, he was informed by the governor that the only rciison why he 
was allowed to remain in the waters of Japan, was becauso Die emperor felt 
assured tliat he could not be a bad hearted foreigner by his having come so far 
out of his way to bring poor persons to their native country, who were wholly 
strangers to him. He was told that the emperor thought well of his " heart 
and hud consequently commanded all bis officers to treat him witli markec 
attention and to supply all his wants. The day before he Icfl, the emiioror sent 
him his autograph, as the most notable token of his own respect and consider 
atiou. It is often said that the greatest men are most careless in tin ir chirog 
raphy, and in this case the imperial hand would support the truth of the remark , 
for the autograph, by the size and boldness of its characters, appeared as if a 
half-grown chicken had stepped into muddy water and then walked two or three 
times deliberately over a sheet of coarse paper than like any other print to 
which 1 can imagine a resemblance. 

^*Amniig the books taken from the wreck was a small one, in form like a note 
hook, filled with figuie.'^ of various and eccentric forms and pictures of spear:* 
rxnf\ battle-axes of strange and anoiii.ilous paltrrns. C f iider each were characters, 
probably explanitory ol lJi«j objcclc, allached to lliem Both fnuit and chiitac 

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1T6 Captain Mcrcator Coopers eisit to Japan. April> 

Irr were neatly and beautifally ezecnled, and they presented the appearance 
of ha V in V been iMued from a press of copperplate type like the plates of astro- 
nomical and other scientific works. This little book attracted Capt. Cooper's 
attention and excited his curiosity to such a degree that, aAer noticing similar 
figures embroidered in gold on the tunics of the high officers, he ventured to 
inquire their explanation. He then learned that it was a kind of illustration 
of the heraldry of the empire — a record of the armorial ensigns of the different 
ranks of officers and the nobility existing in the conntry. Capt. C allowed me 
to examine this book and it appeared to me to be a great curiosity both as a 
spcH^imen of typographical art, and as giving us information of the numerous 
grades of Japanese aristocracy, and the insignia by which they may be distin- 

^ "These figures were wrought always on the back*of the officer's tnnic, and 
the weapon which appertained to his rank corresponded with the one drawn un* 
der the ensign in the book alluded to. Each grade of officers commanded a body 
of men whose w 'apous we eof a particular and given shape, and those waapons 
were used by no others under an officer of diffisrent grade, or wearing a differ- 
ent badge on his tunic. 

** In a conversation with the governor, when the latter told onr navigator he 
must never come to Japan again, Capt« C. asked him ** how he would wish 
him to act under the same circumstances." The governor was somewhat dis- 
concerted — shrugged his shoulders — and evaded by replying that ** he must not 
come again.*' — Capt. Cooper th?n asked him, '- if he should leave his country- 
men to starve or drown, when it was in his power to take them from another 
wreck.'* He intimated that it would please the emperor more for them t6 be 
left, than for strangers to visit his dominions. Capt. C. told him that he never 
would see them drown or starve, but should rescue them and feed them ; and 
then inquired what he should do with them. The governor replied, "carry them 
to some Dutch port, but never come to Japan again." This was all spoken by 
the governor with mildness but with firmness also, as if he uttered the imperi- 
al will. 

"Ths governor of Jeddo is represented to be a grave and elderly looking man, 
somewhat grey, with a remarkably intelligent and benignant countenance, and 
of very mild and prepossessing manners. He appeared interested with Capt. 
O.'s account of the people and civilization of America, and the latter spared 
no pains to leave a good impression of the American name and character, 
especially as a commercial people, on the minds of those high officers whose 
position might carry them into audience with their sovereign. 

**The day he left the country the interpreter gave him an open letter, without 
a signature, written in the Dutch language, with a bold and skilful hand. Mr. 
Lmgren, the clerk in the Consulate, a gentleman learned in many languages 
df Northern Europe, has translated it and stated to me the leading ideas con- 
tained therein. This document informs the world that the bearer of it has fur- 
nished assistance to Japanese sailors in distress, and had brought them to their 
native land, — and then commands all Dutchmen who may encounter him ship- 
wrecked and in want, to afford him similar services. It further declares for 
the information of Holland and China, — the only nations in the world with 
which they have any commercial treaty, or who are allowed within the waters 

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1840. Captain Ahrcator Cooper* s oisit to Japan. 177 

of the etiipir<>,~that (he peraoiis in the foreiifn ship had been allowed no eom- 
munication with the shore, and had been strictly debarred from all knowledge 
of the conrmodities or comnnerce of the country.— Furthermore that the foreign 
ship had been a long time at sea, and had become destitute of wood, water and 
provisions, and that the government had furnished the recruits of which sh« 
stood in need. 

" It was early in April, that Cipt. Cooper visited Japan ; and he represents 
the climate and appearance of the country to be pleasant and lovely in the 
extreme. Wherever he inspected the coast, the whole earth teemed with the 
most luxuriant verdure. Every acre of hill and dale appeared in the highest 
state of cultivation. Where the eminences were too steep for the agricultural 
genius of the inhabitants, they were formed into terraces, so that for miles to- 
gether, they presented the appearance of hanging gardens. Numerous white neat 
looking dwellings studded the whole country. Some of them were so charmingly 
situated on sloping hill sides and sequestered amidst foliage of a flresh and liv- 
ing green that the delighted mariners almost sighed to transplant their homes 
there, — the spots were so sunny, so inviting and so peaceful. 

" The whole appearance of the landscape indicated a dense and industrious 
population. Around the capital, the same signs of culture were exhibited as in 
the country, further oorth. The city itself was so filled with trees and foliage, 
that not houses enough could be distinguished from the ship to indicate with 
certainty that a city existed, or to allow the circuit of it to be defined. The 
buildingj were white and rather low and no towers or temples were seen peer- 
ing above the other edifices. 

**The harbor of Jeddo presented a maratime population as numerous and indus- 
trious as tliat which appeared to exist on the land. Vessels of all sorts and sizes, 
from mere shallops to imnaense junks, were under sail or at anchor, wherever 
Uie eye turned on the bay. Jeddo seemed to be the mart of a prodigious coast- 
wise commerce, and tlie whole sea was alive with the bustle and activity ap- 
pertaining to it. 

** The Japanese, from Capt. C.'s observations, are rather a short race of men, 
square built and solid, and do not possess Mongolian features to the extent ex- 
hibited in the Chinese. They are of a light olive complexion, are intelligent, 
polite and educalcd. 

"The dressos of the common people were wide trowsers and a loose garment 
of blue cptloii. Dignitaries and persons of consequence were clothed in rich 
silks, profaHr*1y embroidered with gold and silken thread of various colors, ac- 
cording to their rank. Some of these personages were so splendidly attired, as 
to excite great admiration in the foreign visitors. No woolen fabric composed 
any part of their dress, but of this material, they seemed particularly curious, 
and examined it with great attention. It seemed a great novelty, and all the 
sm:ill pieces they could obtain, were solicited and taken on shore as objects of 

" But the map, of which I spoke, in the early part of this communication, is 
perhaps one of tlic most interesting illustrations of Japanese civilization which 
has come into our possession. It embraces the island of Niphon,all the islands 
south of it, and a sni-ill part of Jcddu on the nurth. It is 'four feet lonj^ aiid 


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178 Captain Meredtar Cooper^s visit to Japan. ApRiti 

nearly is broad, and when folded np, resembles a common church music book, 
handsomely bound in boards. As will be perceived the islands are projected 
on an uncommonly large scale. The minutest indentations in the coast, with 
all the trading ports, large and small are laid down, apparently after accurate 
surveys. Captain Cooper found the coast which he followed to be correctly 
delineated, by nis astronomical observations, and his own charts of Niphon 
were altogether erroneous. The tracks of the coastwise trade are traced through- 
out the whole group, from Jesso to Nangasaki. But the most interesting 
part of this production is the topography of the interior of the islands. They 
are laid out in districts, and all variously colored, like the states of our republic, 
in Mitchell's map. The smallest villages are denoted and named. The re- 
sidence of the governor in each district, and other public establishments occu- 
pying less ground, are also delineated. They are all embraced in enclosures of 
different shape ^nd coloring, and from the uniformity of these, in appearance 
and number in every district, we may suppose the administration of the gov- 
ernment of Japan is conducted with great system. This is iu accordance with 
our previous knowledge of the country. The rivers, even their smallest tribut- 
aries, are all traced to their source. The number and extent of these streams, 
are surprising. No country of its size, can be more abundantly watered, than 
Niphon. The streams are so numerous, that the whole interior has the appea- 
rance of being irrigated by countless canals. But they are evidently river 
channels, and can all be followed from their sources in the valleys, to their 
junction with each other and their termination in the sea. The public roads 
are exceedingly numerous, intersecting the whole country from shore to shore, 
and indicating a vast amount of travel throughout the empire. In several 
parts, high mountains are laid down in dark coloring. These occur occasionally, 
in small groups, and occupy but little space. The general appearance of the 
country is that of bold and lofly hills alternating with great numbers of broad 
valleys. All pour forth rills and streams which fertilize the earth as they flow 
along, and afford a thousand advantages and encouragements to an industrious 
population engaged, like the Japanese, in agricultural and commercial arts. 
The whole Empire swarms with towns and hamlets. It is almost impossible 
to conceive of its populousness without an inspection of this map. 

" On one side of the sheet is a large amount of unintelligible writing, which 
appears to be explanatory of the figures, characters, roads &c., delineated in 
the different districts on the map. If interpreted they might furnish us with 
much novel information. 

**This map, with several other articles in Capt. C.*s possesion, was accidentally 
left in his ship by the Japanese. They desire^ to give him many things which 
they perceived were interesting to him, but they assured him they would be in 
danger of losing their heads should the emperor learn that they had furnished 
strangers with any means of information relative to their country or its institu- 
tions. They showed great and real alarm on this subject, and concealed or de- 
stroyed many things- as they approached Jeddo, which had been about the ship. 
Capt. C. took no advanta^re of their dependant situation, but allowed them to 
follow their own inclinations in all respects. 

" Having laid at anchor four days, and replenished his stores of wood, water 

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1816. Captain Merr.aior Cooper s visit to Japan. 179 

Ac, he ai^ified hii retdinem to depart, but the winds were advene, and it 
wai imposnible for him to get to sea. There teemed to be no disposition mani- 
fested by the gorernraent to force him away, but there was none for him to 
remain a moment bejond the time when his wants had been satisfied. A head 
wind and tide presented no impediments to going away from Japan, in the 
mind of the governor of Jeddo. At his command, the anchor was weighed, 
and a line of boats was attached to the bows of the ship, so long that they could 
not he numbered. They were arranged four abreast, proceed in the greatest 
order, and were supposed to amount to nearly a thousand. It was an immense 
train, and presented a spectacle to the eyes of the seamen, approaching the 
marvellous. The boats, instead of being propelled by rowing or paddles, were 
all sculled by a single oar, employed however, by several men. In this manner, 
the Manhattan was towed twenty milea out to sea, and the officer in charge of 
the fleet, would have taken her a greater distance, had not further aid been 
declined. The Japanese then took a courteous leave of our hero, and while his 
long train of barges wheeled with a slow and graceful motion towards the 
Rhore, — the latter spread his sails for the less hospitable regions of Kamschatka 
and the north-west coast, highly gratified with the result of his adventure 
among this recluse, but highly civilized people.*' 

We cannot dismiss Dr. Winslow's account of captain Cooper's 
visit to the harbor of Y6do (or Jeddo) without a remark or two regard- 
ing the policy of the Japanese government. From the commencement 
of the Repository, we have improved every opportunity, that has offered 
itself, to draw public attention to one of most interesting countries 
in the world, rich in all its varied productions natural and artificial, 
with a dense and industrious population. For what has been said in 
our pages regarding the country and its inhabitants, reference may 
be made to former volumes.* 

These are the principal references ; and any one who will take the 
trouble to turn to them will be ready to concur in the opinion that 
• Volume I, pages 100,365; 

Volume II, pages 318,327; 

Volume III, pages 145,193; 

Volume VI, pages 105,209,353,401,406,460; 

Volume VII, pages 217,496,5*^; 

Volume VIII, pages 226,273,559; 

Volume IX, pages 86,291,369,489,620,625; 

Volume X, pages 11,72,120,160,205,279,309; 

Volume XI, pages 244,255,580; 

Volume XII, pages 56,109; 

Volume XIII. page.s 168,353 

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180 Captain Mcrcator Cooper's visit to Japan, April, 

Japan is one of the tnoet interesting states in all Asia. Pid its inha* 
hitants possess the knowledge and the sciences which they might 
enjoy, were free and friendly intercourse allowed with the people of 
Christendom, the islands of Japan would be in the East what the 
British isles are in the West. And who will deny that such free and 
friendly intercourse ought to be allowed t Could any roan, but a 
misanthropist, situated as captain Cooper was, pass by those exiles, 
those shipwrecked mariners ? He who could leave his fellow-creatures 
to drown or to starve would be unworthy of the name of Christian or 
of man. He would be but a brute, a fiend. And yet every one would 
act thus, if he should revere and conform to the policy of the Japa- 
nese. Doubtless the emperor would rather his subjects, who had been 
driven by storm far into the ocean, should perish there than that 
strangers should visit his dominions. Captain C. was right in saying, 
as he did, '* that he never would see them drown or starve, but should 
rescue them and feed them." He acted rightly, and he did his duty 
only, when he took up and carried those poor men to their homes. 
So in the case of the Morrison. But being unarmed she was fired on. 
And had the Manhattan been unarmed she might have been treated 
with like severity. The conduct of the government in both cases 
was hostile and incompatible with reason and those just principles 
which ou^ht to regulate international intercourse. The time is not 
probably very remote when such conduct will be rebuked, and its 
directors be held answerable for their inhuman cruelty. What if a 
French or an English admiral should anchor in the bay of Y6do, with 
a dozen sail, would a triple cordon be thrown around the squadron? 
Would all intercourse with the shore be denied? For ourselves, we 
see no reason why the Japanese waters should not be visited by the 
government vessels of western nations and treaties of amity and com- 
merce formed at once with the emperor. 

Had the nations of Christendom, ten or twenty years ago, entered 
on negotiations with the Chinese, and in a proper manner, the ex- 
penses and the horrors of the late war might, probably would, have 
been saved. So with regard to Japan. It will be well if early and 
honorable negotiations are entered on and so conducted as to pre- 
vent ** a Japanese war." 

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1846. Report of the Dispensary at Amoy, 181 

Art, IV. Report of the Dispensary at Amoy, from the \st of 
February 1844, to \st of July 1845. By J. C. Hepburn, m. d. 

Medical labors amongst the people of this pla<*e were first commenced by 
Dr. W. H. Camming, about the middle of June 184% not quite a year after 
the taking of Amoy. He opened a Dispensary on Kdlongsd in the house 
of Rev. D. Abeel, where it was continued about a year and a half, until the 
last of January, 1844. It was not long afVer its establishment before it became 
pretty well known, and people from most of the neighbouring cities and villa- 
ges came to it for relief from their maladies. A large number of patients was 
accordingly prescribed for. The gospel was also preached to them by Mr. 
Abeel, and religious books distributed.* On several accounts Kiilongst'i was 
not considered to be a suitable place for the Dispensary, as well as tlie other 
missionary operations, principally because it was too much out of the way, 
and occasionally difficult of access. Amoy was a much more desirable place. 
A location there was accordingly sought for, but from the timorous spirit of 
the Chinese, and their unwillingness to rent, a suitable house was not obtaiur 
ed until the beginning of this year. Having made the necessary alterations and 
repairs, we removed our medicines, 6i.c^ over the latter part of January^ 
8ince that time the number of persons who have applied for relief has been 
much greater than before, and the Dispensary in every way more useful. The 
religious services have also been better attended. Besides daily conversatioq 
with the people, we have had regular service on Sabbath morning, which has 
been kept up with but few interruptions. At this meeting tliere is generally 
an attendance of from 60 to 100 persons, most of them patients. We have 
always aimed to make the Dispensing of medicines to the sick go hand in 
hand witli religious instructions, which we consider to be tlie great object of 
our labours. 

Our patients are generally persons of the lower classes of society, consis? 
ting of petty tradesmen, farmers, mechanics, coolies, and boatmen. Few of 
the middle or upper classes of society have applied to us for medical aid t 
this appears to be more especially the case with the citizens of Amoy. Well 
dressed strangers from a distance, attracted perhaps by curiosity, i^ot unfre- 
quently visit us. 

In relation to the following list of cases it may be well to state, that it 
comprises only those which were actually prescribed for. Those which we 
considered incurable, or which could not be relieved without better atten- 
dance than the circunstances admitted of, we invariably rejected, as well also 
as many of those who lived at a distance, and who could not promise a regu- 
lar attendance. But notwithstanding t))c care to admit those only who promi- 
fftl to atlcnd ro«jiilar]y»we were often deceived, so that ^. (urge proportion of 
tJie fa.>.':' rorordca came but once, many left whf?n tl»ey wore better, or well 

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R^ort of the Dispensary ai Amay. 


enough to return to their ayocations, and but few had the patience to attend 
until they were well. Out of the whole number of caaee recorded, we are 
doubtless within bounds when we say, that there were not 150 cured, though 
a large majority of them were more or less relieved. 

The cases recorded below were also with but few exceptions chronic, their 
duration being reckoned by months and years, and consequently required a 
long protracted treatment, which few had the patience to go through with. 

Our Hospital patients have been but few. They were those principally who 
had undergone a surgical operation, and who required our more particular 
care and attention. For their accomodation we have rented a separate 
building near the Dispensary. The rule which we have adopted is, that the 
room and the cost be supplied by us, while the patients find their own atten- 
dance and food. This they willingly comply with, and in only a few instances 
have. we been under the necessity of making any exception to it, which was in 
I of deep poverty, or where they had no friends to assist them. 

Conjunctivitis, . 
Palpebral Conjunctivitis, 
Comeitis, .... 
Blepharotis, .... 
Opacity of Cornea, 
Opacity of Cornea with Granula 
tien of Lids, . 

f ritis, 

Trichiasis^ . . . . 

Cataract, .... 

Synechia Anterior, . 


^ntropium, . 

Amaurosis, .... 

Ulcer of Cornea, . 

Vascular Cornea, 

Fistula Lachrymalis, 

Granular Conjunctivitis, 

Granulations over Cornea, 

GonorrhoBai Opthalmia, 

internal Opthalmia with Softening, 

Idelanosis, .... 

Paralysis of Upper Lid, . 

if iscellaneous affections of Eye, 

147| Aphonia, .... 

86^ Cough, (generally Bronchial,) 

68 Hmmoptisis, 

38 Bronchitis, 

9 Total, 



5Gastra1gia Simple, 
3Gastralgia with Pyrosis, . 

36 Pyrosis Simple, 



OtorrhcBa, . 
Otitis, . 


Angina Pectoris, 











Dysentery, 9 

3|ABcites, 12 

Jaundice, .... 9 



Phymosis Congenital, . ] 

2 Syphilis Primary, ... 13 

21 Syphilis Secondary and Tertiary, 77 

Blenorrhagia, . . . .14 

Orchitis, .... 5 

Varicocele, .... 1 

Hydrocele, .... 5 

Leuchorrhoea, ... 2 
Miscellaneous affections of 

Genital Organs, . 3 

Total, ... 120 

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Rrpori of the Dispensary at Amoy. 


Lichcu, . . , , 
Erysipelas, .... 
Prurigcj, .... 
Scabies, . . , . . 
Ecznnia, .... 
Herpes Zmter, 
Heped PhlyctenodeH, . 


EcUiynia, .... 

P.soriasis, .... 

Impetigo Oramilata, . 


Miscelianeous affections of Skin, 


Enlarjifed Mamma in a Boy of 
18 years old, 

Paronychia, .... 
Gangrene of Fin|;er from Con, 
tusion, .... 
Ganglion, .... 



Intermittent Fever, 

Gun shot Wour.'i, . 

Abscess Phlej^monous, 

Abscess Scrofulous, 





3 Polypus of Nose, 2 

3 Moiiceris, . , . , 3 

3 Lipoma of Back, I 

112 Phlegmon, .... 6 

nlBurn, .... 3 

1 Fistula in Ano, ... I 

liBubo, .... 3 

7' Dislocation of Lower Jaw, 1 

3 1 Sciatica, . . . , 1 

4 (Hip-joint Disease, ... 1 

ajOuychia, .... 1 


Ki Miscellaneous Medical Cases, 67 
j Miscellaneous Surgical Cases, 3;.» 

Affections of the Eye. . 571 

! Affections of Organs of Rospira- 
|i tion, .... 244 

I Affections of Organs of Diges- 
6 tion, .... 393 

Affections of Organs of Genera- 
1 tion, .... 120 

6 Affections of Skin, ... 175 

!.li3cellaneouB, . . . 359 








Surgical Optrationg. 
Pterygium, .... 

Trichiasis, . . . . 
Hydrocele radically, . 
Polypus of Nose, 
Meliceris, ... 
Lipoma of Back, 
Ar^putation of Finger, 







It cannot be expected that in such an institution as this, where ther6 is so 
much ignorance aiuongst the puu^nts, and so much i/regularity in their at- 
tendance, that any valuable therapeutical or pathological observations should 
be mode. Nor is our record of cases to be relied on as furnishing accurate 
information o*. the statistics of disease in this city. None but the most gen- 
eral conclusions can be drawn from it, and these only irt reference to that class 
of the people, amongst whom our labours were principally confined. 

Tlie af!ections of the eye, according to our observations, are much tlie 
most numerous, comprising nearly one-third of the whole nuinber of cases 
tre«ited by us. Their frequency is, however, satisfactorily accounted for, by 

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184 Report of the Dispensary at Amoy. April^ 

the fact that it is principally as an opthalmic institution tliat our Dispensary 
has acquired a reputation ; that our patients are mostly from that class ofper- 
sons who are most liable, from their manner of life^ to attacks of opthalmia » 
that when once the disease is contracted, it never has the benefit of judicious 
medical treatment, and is'seldon entirely cured ; it consequently continues 
in a chronic state, or if it gets better is continually liable to recur from slight 
causes. This indeed is the history of a large majority of our patients. The 
remedial agents upon which we most rely in the treatment of Chronic Con- 
jiiiictivitis, Blepharotis, Opacity and Vascularity of Cornea, are Nitrate of 
Silver and Sulphate of Copper. With the latter particularly we have beon 
much gratified. We use it in the form of ointment, 16 grs, of Sulph. Cop. 
to an ounce of Urd, diluted more or less to suit the case. 

About one in seven of our cases have been affections of the organs of re- 
spiration, most of them coughs, resulting from slight bronchial irritation ; 
these have generally been cured or much benefited by the use of Tartar em- 
etic or Ipecacuanha. Asthtna is a common complaint Several of our cases 
have been young Boys, of 12 or 15 years old. To what extent consumption 
ejcists ampn)?st the people here, we do not know. We have seen a number 
of cases. We conclude however that it is by no means so frequent as in 
England and America. 

Derangements of the digestive organs are the most frequent, next to 
those of the Eye. That form of it, generally known by the name of dyspe- 
psia, is much the most common. We have analysed and arranged it under 
the head of its most prominent symptoms. Why it should be so common 
amongst the Chinese is perhaps owing, principally, to their living so much 
on salted provisions, especially pickled vegetables and fish, as well as irreg- 
ularity in eating, opium smoking, and immoderate use of tea. Our method 
of treating tliese affections is simple, and in the large majority of cases ef- 
fectual ; indeed we seldom find our treatment entirely to fail It consists in 
the use of Black Pepper 10 parts. Rhubarb 11 parts, 3 ounces to be made 
into 400 pills, two pills to be taken about an hour before each meal, the dose 
io be gradually increased. * * 

Affections of the Skin are common, more so than an examination of our 
table would lead one to suppose, as it is only those cases which we have 
some prospect of relieving that we have admitted ; many cases we have, on 
this account, been compelled to rejecu 

The case of dislocation of lower jaw is one of interest, from the length 
of time in which tlie bone had been displaced. The patient wasrabout30 
years of age, and stated positively that it had been dislocated 24 days, which 
we were at first disposed to doubt, but had no reason to disbelieve. It was 
feduced in about 15 minutes, with a lever of wood and a cork fulcrum ; both 
sides were dislocated. The patient never came back after the reduction, 
iktuch to our regret 

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1840. Xotices of Fuhchau /w. IM 

Art. V. Notices o/Fuhchaufu, being an extract from the Journal 
of the Rev. George Smith, M* A, Oxon .% during an explora- 
tory visit and residence at the Jive consular ports of China, 
on behalf of the Church (of England) Missionary Society, 
On December 0th, 1845, I embarked at ChiiBan in a smal] schooner 
in ballast for Fiihchau fu, and on the 13th came to anchor under a 
small island, named *' Mi-tsu shin/^ a few miles from the entrance 
of the river Min. The next day, Sunday December 14th, two fisher- 
men came on board to volunteer their services as pilots, for which 
they claimed rather an exorbitant reward, but soon becoming more 
reasonable in their demands, the bargain was struck for the sum of 
five dollars, and they were duly installed at the helm. On their first 
coming on board, they crossed themselves repeatedly on the fore- 
head, cheeks and breast, afler most approved Roman Catholic fa- 
shion, which seemed to please not a little our Malabar steward and 
appeared to be generally understood by our Indn-Spsnish crew of 
Manilamen. Here the inconvenience of the different dialects soon 
began to show itself. The Canton linguist, who cculd al.«n gp V 
the mandarin dialect, tried in vain to get a reply to his question 
** how far it was to Fuhchau." But though f«r nearly ten minutes 
the phrase, alas! was named in every possible way, the parties were 
as far from understanding each other as at the commencement, the 
pilots, with a significant waving of the hand, begged him to desist 
from the useless effort. Subsequently, however, they appeared to be 
more successful, as, within half an hour afterwards, the linguist 
came with a request from them to the captain for a gl?ss of spirits, 
which they drank off in a manner that indicated a not unfrequcnt 
use of the beverage. Our captain, not being quite confident of their 
skill as pilots, gave orders to keep casting the lead and sounding 
the depth of water, which they appeared to take ill, waving their 
hands as if to deprecate our distrust. They succeeded in bringing 
us safely around the bank, which forms the principal danger in the 
navigation of the entrance to the river, till, passing over the bar, we 
at last entered the fine circul ir harbor formed by the projecting 
poinU of the main-land and two or three little islands, stretching 
before us, seven or eight miles, to the point where the river suddpniy 
narrows itself into a little channel about half a mile acrusb. Three 

VOL XV. NO. IV. 24 

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186 SotUcs of l^tihchau fu, April, 

opium ships were stationed here, outside the consular boundaries of 
the port, with about fif^y native junks close by; Immense flocks of 
wild fowl were to be seen in all directions. A few villages on the 
beach, with a few watch-towers on the sides of the hills and the 
bold mountain cliffs rising sternly in all their wild magnificence, and 
closing in the distant prospect, formed a fine specimen of the rug- 
ged and picturesque scenery which is the general characteristic of 
this iron-bnund coast. We had not anchored long, outside the Kin- 
pAi Pass, before the usual assemblage of Chinese boats came along- 
side, as avarice or curiosity prompted their owners. 

The next morning, leaving the schooner, I proceeded in a Euro- 
pean boat up the river about twenty miles to the city of Fuhchau. 
After entering the Kin-p.'^i Pass, we passed a large village named 
Kw.'^ntr^u, on the right, where there is a military station with a cus- 
tom-house establishment. 

The river at this point is about a mile across, being hemmed in by 
huge towering rocks on all sides, variegated and gilded with the 
sun's rays, so as to present almost every imaginable form, and glit- 
tering with the torrents and cascades rushing down the precipices 
after the recent rains. The combined influence of refraction and 
reflection raised every distant object above the horizon and gave it 
a double appearance, the lower part having an inverted form. A 
<«uccession of villages and watch-towers appeared on the right, till 
the river suddenly converging its channel forms a narrow pass, call- 
ed the Min-i^n, with columns of rocks on either side, piled up to 
the height of a thousand feet. Soon after it again widens, and at 
the Pagoda Island, the usual anchorage for vessels of large burden, 
it divides itself into two streams, the principal branch leading to the 
city, and the other taking a southern course, and again joining the 
main branch of the river Min about seven miles above Fuhchau, 
forming a large island of well cultivated land. Sailing up the chan- 
nel, with the lofty range of the Knsh'jn rising 3000 feet on the right, 
with a few villages below and some little rows of pines on the oppo- 
site shore, we arrived at last at the bar near the bend of the river, 
where the increasing number of junks and signs of busy activity 
indicate the approach to the provincial city. After half a mile's in- 
tricate winding conrse, between the native craft, many of which 
were from Ningpo, as their peculiar terms of salutation to a fo- 
reigner plainly indicated, we arrived in the densest part of the river- 
suburbs and went ashore close to the bridge which at this point 
crosses the river Min. 

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I84r. Noiices of Fukchnu /i?. 1B7 

The friendly kindness of a newly-formed acquaintance placed at 
my disposal, during my stay, the upper story in a small boarded 
house overhanging the river and situated on a small island of about 
a furlong in extent. In this my mattress was duly unfolded and 
spread after true oriental fashion, and I was soon inducted into my 
new dormitory. After a night of refreshing rest, the noises and 
Tociferating cries of my neighbors, the boatmen plying their busy 
vocation, effectually roused me at an early hour; and sallying forth 
in a little kind of gallery, I had a good opportunity of being a quiet 
spectator of the motley groups below. A large number of boats, 
serving as family residences to their humble owners, line each bank 
of the river for about a mile on either side, the principal clusters 
being stationed off and around the little island, which blocks up the 
main channel and divides it into two lesser streams, of which the 
larger flows on the north side. Each boat is decked out with a 
number of flower-pots and evergreens, according to the taste or the 
means of the proprietor, and presents a pleasing object from above. 
All the boat women wore head-dresses of natural flowers, and exhi- 
bited a neatness unusual in that class; The tops of the boats and 
roofs of the houses were covered with a white hoarfrost, which lasted 
more or less for several days, ice having gathered one or two mornings. 

The celebrated bridge of Fuhchau connects the litlle island with 
each shore of the river, and probably from the substantial and durable 
material, of which it is composed, is called the Wan shau kian or 
" Bridge often thousand ages." The larger bridge, on the northern 
side, consists of about forty arches, if immense slabs of granite thrown 
across at right angles with the piers, rightly merit that name. The 
lesser bridge, on the south, consists of nine similar arches. At high 
water, vessels of small burden can pass up the stream by lowering 
their masts. At low water a cascade pours forth through into the 
lower level of the river on the other side. This bridge is occupied 
by shops, something like London Bridge in olden times, and its 
narrow thoroughfare is generally crowded by all kinds of busy way- 
farers. Over this bridge I proceeded in a chair on my way to the 
British Consulate, between which and the little abode on the island 
I subsequently divic^dd my time during my stay at Fuhchau. A long 
suburb of nearly three miles, stretches thence to the southern gate of 
the city, consisting of a high street, and abounding with every variety 
of trades and handicrafts. Every part of it was thronged by the same 
noisy bawling crowds of people, in which were to be observed more 

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]88 Notices of Fuhchau fi. Apxa, 

pugnacious looks and more frequent signs of intemperance, depicted 
in their countenances^ than is commonly seen more to the north of 
China. The frequent jostling and blows from the chairbearers, in- 
separable from the crowded state of Chinese streets, were generally 
borne with their usual ci^lm philosophic indifierence. On a few 
occasions, however, I experienced no slight interruption from this 
cause, and my bearers got into trouble, being unceremoniously 
laid hold of to compensate the damage to various articles of domestic 
use, which they broke or upset, in their eagerness to press forward. 
One literary gentleman also, so far forgot the precepts of his philoso- 
phy, as to follow us for about a hundred yards, seizing every oppor- 
tunity of beating, most unmercifully, the head of one of the bearers, 
who had brought the chair in contact with his person. The looks of 
the people wear a cold and forbidding aspect, accompanied however 
by all the semblance of external respect. 

In this part, there was no rudely crowding about a stranger, no 
noisy ejaculations or remarks at the presence of a foreigner, and 
generally no troublesome out-breaks of curiosity. It could not be 
otherwise than evident, that the cogent restraints of law had latterly 
been put into requisition, to render a foreigner at ense among them, 
as the generally cowed looks and the total absence of northern smiles 
helped to prove. 

Onward however we proceeded, through the long single street, a 
fair specimen of Chinese streets in general, and varying as much in 
the respectability of the shops, as in the degrees of cleanliness. Here 
were to be seen the artizans of the various branches of native industry, 
plying their busy work, and vending the products of their labor in 
one and the same room, serving the triple object of workshop, ware- and counter. Here in one part were crowded together, in 
their narrow dwellings, amid the din of forges and hammers, little 
groups of wire-drawers, braziers, button-makers, and smiths with four 
men alternating their rapid blows on the sounding anvil. Here again 
were to be seen, image-makers, lamp-makers, cabiuetpmakers, carpen- 
ters, trunk-maker.«», wood-turners, curriers, shoermakers, tailors, gold 
and silver leaf beaters, umbrella-makers, cotton-beaters, grocers, drug- 
gists, jaderstone cutters, seal-engravers, and decorators, with the 
numerous arts which supply the necessities o? luxuries of Chinese 
life. Farther on were to be seen picture shops hung with the tawdry 
performances of native artists and caricatures of English admirals, 
colonels, ladies and steamboau. At every corner were Xo be seen 

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lB4tf. Xoticu of Fuhchau f6. 189 

portable kitchens, steainiDg away, and supplying to sundry hungry 
expectants the savoury materials of a hasty meal ; while for the more 
aristocratic a succession of cook-shops, wine-shops, tea-rooms pastry 
cooks and fruiterers lined the way. 

A little farther on, a crowd of gamblers disputed a few square feet 
of ground with the important holders of orange stands and venders 
of sugar-cane; while some precocious youths, ripe for speculation 
were trying chances at throwing lota for cakes and sugar-plums. 
Naturally associated with these came every now and then the well 
stored shops of pawn-brokers or the decent exterior of shroff bankers, 
with bunches of copper cash in elegant imitation-work depending 
from on high as the emblem of their calling. 

Frequent symptoms of foreign tastes and habits were to be seen in a 
number of butcher's shops^ fish-stalls, large haunches of dried mutton 
brought down from Sh&ngtung province in junks, and the various 
luxuries, such as betel-nut and beche-de-mer (or the sea slug) for 
which emigration to the Straits has given them a taste. Soon again 
we passed the nsual crowds of China shops, pipe-makers, tea-dealers, 
rice shops with the prices visibly affixed to the various samples and 
heaps; paper and tinfoil maunfacturers, weaving looms, a few 
curiosity shops, silk-dealers, trinket-makers, artificial flower decora^ 
tions, and lastly a few book shops, to indicate that amid the general 
eager activity to supply the wants of the outward man, science has 
had numerous votaries, and the mind could here receive its appropiate 
and intellectual food. Occasionally three or four Bonzes would 
saunter past, with listless looks, as having little to do with the busy 
cares or pleasures of the world around them, and whose sanctimo*- 
nious garb afforded no protection from the unceremonious jostling of 
the secular crowd. 

Now and then, a few corpulent gentlemen or anxious expectants 
of office, would hurry past, borne on the shoulders of their lees af» 
fluent countrymen ; while far lower down in the scale of humanity 
might be seen, every half mile, some two or three wretcted culprits 
bearing the heavy wooden collar as a penalty to the broken laws, 
and blowing at the scanty charcoal with which they sought to repel 
the pinching cold from their extremities or dozing and trying in 
vain to get the desired slumber. Father onward again the more 
fortunate possessors of liberty and freedom were assembled in some 
tea-rooms and sitting over their cups, to listen to some itinerant 
scholar, spouting for hire from a bench or declaiming from his bum* 
ble rostrum on some exciting subject of popular romance. 

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190 \oticesi of Puhi'hiw /«. April, 

Passing onward and at length emerging on the other side of the 
city-gate, through a large and massive breadth of the wall, we pro- 
ceeded, ader a sudden t'lrn to the left, along the inner side of the 
city wall rather less than a mile, till the thinly scattered houses, a 
fine sombre avenue of trees and a flag-staff with the British Union 
floating alofl on the over-hanging rocks, intimated our approach to 
the Wu-shih shin or ** the Black-stone hill," which first by a gentle 
acclivity and afterwards by a steep ascent over alternate path-ways 
and terraces brought me into full view of the romantic collection of 
detached temples and fanes, which form the site of the British Con- 
sulate. It would be difficult accurately to depict one's first impres- 
sions of this delightful residence, when after the disagreeably close 
and dirty streets alike ofthe suburbs and the city, the rural aspect 
of these isolated city pleasure grounds, with the large and beautiful 
clusters of banians, pines, and lichfs interspersed with ancestral 
tablet-balls and shrine?^ bursts upon the view and refreshes the 
w.eary eye with its novel and unexpected scenery. Here the largest 
temple is in course of fitting up as an English residence and is al- 
ready inhabited by the consul and his lady. The firmness of the 
late consul, Mr. T-ay, succeeded in effecting a removal of his official 
residence from the incommodious and unsuitable little hong which 
abutted on the river^ to its present salubrious and agreeable site. 

The exertions of the Chinese authorities and the annual payment 
of a few hundred dollars, as rent to the principal Bonze or abbot, 
were arguments which the priests could not bring themselves to 
resist; and now with a strange instance of that looseness of attach- 
ment to their religion, which more or less characterizes the whole 
nation, they behold with complacency their benefice and grounds 
changed into a foreign residence ; and the abbot himself, in the cha- 
racter of a kind of head gardener, may be seen every day busily and 
intently helping to superintend the requisite changes in house and 
lands. Even though taking the life of animals is a violation of a 
prominent article in the Budhistic creed, my old friend the abbot 
(for during my stay I had the honor of forming his acquaintance) 
xyill at all times readily afford his profiered services in procuring 
pheasants, geese, ducks and any kind of game. The liberality ofthe 
mandarins is also perceptible in one ofthe conditions they voluntarily, 
of their own accord, introduced into t}ieir agreement with the build- 
ing contractor, viz. that none ofthe masons or carpenters should 
<»yf r perform any work on the Sabbath day, or in any wise interfere 

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181(1. Xoliten o/ J'n/uhm fu. 101 

with the religious ol)servaiices of the Kiiglisii. in the same spirit, 
the mandarins, before paying the consul a visit, frequently sent to 
enquire whether it was the Sabbath day or not. 

The abbot also of a neighboring Taouist temple, with the same 
indifference to his tenets and absence of bigotry, for the considera- 
tion of a small monthly sum, has willingly admitted one of the 
officers of the Consulate as a tenant of a portion of the building. 

From the top of Wu-shih shan, about 300 feet above the sur- 
rounding level, a fine view is gained of the city and adjacent coun- 
try. Seated on a corner of one of the projecting rocks, with the 
huge bonlder stones lying around and aloi\j the perennial monuments 
of one of nature's most violent convulsions, in the wreck and ruins 
of antecedent ages, with only a few patches of herbage or fragments 
of bushes, the quiet solitude of the spot where I lingered contrasted 
strangely with the bu^y scenes below and the animated appearance 
of the country around. At my feet lay the populous city of Fuhchau, 
with its teeming masses of living idolatry, while, at a little distance 
beyond, the undulating plains, which begirt the city, retreated on 
either side till they met the range of lofty hills, rising from two to 
three thousand feet in height and closing it around in a circular 
bisin of natural formation. 0:i the east, north and west at the dis- 
tance of from four to seven miles, a slightly broken country termi- 
nates in the hills, forming a bold amphitheatre round the northern 
half of the city. On the south, the level ground, stretching far 
across the river to the average distance of about twelve miles, ta 
bounded by the mountainous range, which closes in the prospect. 

The river, with its meandering turbid waters, pursues itis rapi-i 
course from west to east, where the depression in the range shows 
the passage through the hills formed for its channel. With the ex- 
ception of this low ground, through which the Min flows on eithei 
side, the whole country around forms a hollow circular basin, with 
a diameter of about twenty miles. The beauty and novelty of the pro- 
spect are not to be equalled in any city of China open to foreigners^ 
except perhaps from the summit of the celebrated tower of Nincrpo. 
On either side below were to be seen the square battlements oi 
the city wall, in their devious and irregular circuit, carrying the 
eye over a dingy expanse of houses and streets, an abrupt hill on the 
extreme north side of the city surmounted with a large watch* 
tower, terminates the view. On the S. E. a hill, rising from the 
level of the streets, with it^ sides built up with interspersed d\rellin'^s 

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19;) Aa/iV« of' Fukckuu /li. April, 

and temples, rivalled in height the hill on which I was stationed. 
Two pagodas interposed between the two hills, forming prominent 
objects to the eye. Only a few buildings rose above the general 
level to diversify the mountainous sea of tile and roofs. One with 
the remarkable addition of a large European town-clock, displayed 
on high this product of foreign skill, a sign of the inroads on na- 
tional exclusivene^s. Others again with joss-poles of honor, or the 
bright red colour of their exterior, bespoke the various temples scat* 
tered over the place, or the residences of the great mandarins of the 
city. The fantastic form of the city watch-towers, and the more 
regular square form of the public granaries, imparted some little 
relief to the fatiguing similarity of objects. Adjacent to the city 
were to be seen only a few suburbs, and those chiefly with an agri- 
cultiiral population, except the long stra^^gHng street which ler.ds to 
N<int4i, and connects with the river. The serpentine canals with 
their p.irtially stagnant waters helping to drain the superabundant 
waters of the city, divide the country around into numberless varie- 
ties of form, while the fields which they separate are partly inundated, 
partly fallow, and partly covered with winter crops of vegetables. 
The city is dotted up and down with numerous trees, peeping forth 
with their verdant branches, having scarcely any vacant spots, and 
being well built up in all directions. 

Such is Fuhchau with its immense population, as the exciting 
impressions of that moment fixed its outline indelibly on my mind. 
The noise and din ascending from below, the trade-cries and bells 
from its crowded streets, the beating of gongs, drums and cymbals 
from the precincts of its temples, the noise of fireworks and crack- 
ers from the offerings of the devout mingling inharmoniously with 
the guns indicating the exit of mandarins from the city gate, the 
eonfused scream of the buzzard hawk careering in its circling flight 
above; the flocks of minas, crows and magpies fluttering on all sidefe; 
the noise of domestic animals, the barking of dogs, and the gambols 
of children, with the full tide of population, borne along in the busy 
hum of toil and trade, stole on my ear and convinced me of the 
reality of the animated masses which were mingling in the cares of 
life below. Only a few idle priests from the adjoining temples, 
some wandering beggars, some boys collecting fuel, or a few strangers 
from without came hither to catch a bird's eye view of the provincial 
capital, disturbed the solitudes and helped to awaken from the silent 
reveries of that mount of vision. 

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1846. Notices of Fuhchau fu. 193 

The next day I engaged a Chinese teacher, a native of the place 
and able to speak the mandarin dialect, in order to accompany me in 
my visits as an interpreter and to explain any objects that might arrest 
my attention so far as my limited knowledge of the mandarin dialect 
enabled me to receive his explanations. 

The time of my visit was an interesting period, as regarded the 
present state of the relations between the British consul and the local 
authorities. The late Mr. Lay, on his arrival, in the latter part of 
1844, to open the port, experienced considerable obstacles from the 
unwillingness of the mandarins to grant a suitable residence and the 
general symptoms of a disposition to slight his office. As it has been 
already intimated, persevering firmness and determined remonstrances 
had surmounted and overcome these temporary difficulties, and a 
growing spirit of liberality and respect towards foreigners had arisen. 
The removal of the consulate within the city, and a frequent inter- 
change of visits, had gradually produced a friendly understanding with 
the Chinese authorities which has been happily promoted by the 
present able and enlightened consul. 

Repeated proclamations were issued inculcating due respect towards 
foreign strangers, and denouncing punishment against offenders. 
Things proceeded rather favorably, till almost three month&Tprevious 
to the present time, when a gentleman, attached to the consulate as 
interpreter, as he was walking round the city wall in that part adjoin- 
ing the quarter inhabited by the dominant race of M&nchii Tartars, 
was assaulted by a number of men, who pelted him with stones and 
chased him from their quarter of the city, which in former times even 
the Chinese inhabitants themselves could not visit with impunity. 
This assault was made the subject of grave remonstrance with the 
authorities, and the threat was held out by the consul of the visit of a 
ship-of-war unless speedy reparation was made by the summary punish- 
ment of the offenders. Copies of the remonstrance were sent alike 
to the governor and Tartar general, the latter having exclusive 
jurisdiction over the Manchu part of the population, who form the 
garrison of the city. Though at first they afTccted to treat it as a 
light mutter, and issued a proclamation in which, with a slran|rc 
mildness of terms, they spoke angrily of tlio broach of giH>d manners 
conunitted on the occasion of the assault on a struntrer, the earnest 
detcrminution of the consul, and his protest against the mild I:m> 
guuge of the prociainalioii soon brought matters to u cri^i,s, and llie 
Tartar general, in the pdioNVbui uf hi ahrm at the puooiblc con- 

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104 Notices of Fuhchau f%L, April, 

sequences of a collision, arrested six Tartars for the offence, three 
of whom were bambooed and the other three underwent severer 
punishment of the k^ng, or wooden collar, for a month. The novel 
and unprecedented event of a Mdnchu Tartar wearing the kang, from 
which mode of punishment they had hitherto enjoyed a prescriptive 
immunity ; and the humiliating announcement attached as usual to 
the machine of the crime for which they were punished, and that 
too an assault committed on a new-comer and a stranger from barba- 
rous regions, were doubly mortifying to the pride of this arrogant 
class of inhabitants, as it was also a subject of universal chuckling 
and invidious exultation among the purely Chinese portion of the po- 
pulation. During the last few weeks there had arisen an evidently 
favourable posture of affairs for the better. During my stay I took 
frequent opportunities of testing the truth of this fact, and found al- 
most invariably a total absence of insult, and in the southern parts 
of the city, most frequented by foreigners, of nearly all the annoyances 
of curiosity. 

December 18th, I rode in a chair on the city wall round the whole 
circuit, it being altogether a distance of between eight and nine 
miles. Ascending at a breach, in the wall, close to the foot of the 
Wu-shih sh^n, we proceeded in a westerly direction, skirting the 
bottom of its beautiful little assemblage of shrubbery and avenues 
rising up the hill. A pleasing little parterre or avenue is here formed 
by the battlements on one side, and a little row of trees close to the 
wall on the other. The wall itself varies in height, but generally 
averages thirty feet on the north side. The causeway on the top 
is broad enough for a single carriage to drive in most places, and of 
tolerably regular and even construction though overgrown with grass 
along the edges. 

As Fuhchau is a garrison city, with the whole provincial posse of 
civil and military mandarins, there is a succession of watch-towers 
every two or three hundred yards, with two or three cannon resting 
on carriages without wheels, and pointing outwards into the adjacent 
country. From the clumsiness of this contrivance they are capable 
only of being moved a little way on either side, and can only be 
brought to bear point blank on any object or mark. This unwieldy 
nature of their guns was one of their causes of failure in the late 
war. Several of the attendants or sentries came round me, as I 
e?wiinniipd ihese parts, and betrayed some distrust at seeing my note- 
hook. Some of them were rather luquicious, but their eloquence was 

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1846. Notice.> of Pukrhau fu. 195 

lost oil me, txs I could only comprehend one of their questions, whe* 
thcr the cannon of my honourable country were made of iron or 

Here some beautiful trees, of large and giant growth in the fields 
below, fringed the outer portion of wall, with a few ponds covered 
with the lotus flower, which in the summer must present a beautiful 
object with its floating bosom of variegated colors, supplying also 
an article of food to the people. On the inner side, some pieces of 
stagnant water, flanking at a little distance the long range of public 
granaries stored with provisions against seasons of dearth, filled up 
the space, till we arrived at what at first had the appearance of a city 
gate, but which proved to be the Si-shui kw4n, or " Western water- 
barrier.'' A long cannon here guards a windlas drawing up or let- 
ting down (as occasion might require) the huge fender of a large 
water-course below, which lets out the drains and sewers of the city, 
but is closed in time of inundations, the water in the suburbs at 
such times rising far above the level of the city inside. The wes- 
tern gate of the city came next, with large pillars forming a spacious 
colonnade above and supporting a wateh-tower which looks down on 
a busy suburban street of limited extent. From this point outside 
the walls, there extends, in a parallel course for several furlongs, a 
large sheet of water called the Si hu, or '* Western lake," with a series 
of unpretending but unique buildings, lining its margin. A slight 
rising of ground closes it in on the further side, with a larger kind 
of temple, and a small bridge or two, with fishing nets dispersed along 
its surface at intervals. 

On our arrival at the north gate, about a mile and a half farther 
on, the keeper walked round with me eyeing my note-book, making 
himself rather oflicious, but evidently distrustful. Soon after the 
wall begins to ascend the lofty hill on the north included within the 
walls, and surmounted by the large watch-tower which forms one of 
the first and most prominent objects to the visitor approaching the 
city. It is double storied throughout and is called by the name of 
Yd lau. It overlooks the city and surrounding country, and has 
seven large stone furnaces or fire-places outside, serving as beacons 
in case of fire or the approach of an enemy. Immediately outside 
the wall is a precipice of 200 feet, almost verging to a perpendicular 
Iteight, and wooded lower down with irregular patches of trees. 
Beyond this rugged hill there are no suburbs, the country being bare 
afid bold, but beginning to be cultivated at a little distance. On the 

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190 Notices of Fahchaii fv. April, 

inside sonic fine villas interspersed among gardens and orchards of 
fruit trees and also bnnians with some fine towering cedars rising 
above odoriferous coppices of dwarf shrubs, with doves flying about, 
point out the quiet retreat which wealth here alTords to its proprietors 
from the crowded part of the city. Lower down the hill, as the wall 
bends towards the east, the isolated sites of the houses and dwellings, 
which are here of a better kind, pi)iut out the aristocratic part of the 
town. The densely inhabited part of the city soon begins with the 
Ktodn-ti midu which is a sorry kind of building. The gate called 
Ckdng'lau mun, with its three lofty stories, a dark passage through heaps 
of rubbish and a rope manufactory within, conducted us to the vici- 
nity of the Mdnchu Tartar population. Here the keeper followed 
us some distance, and some Mdnchus passed by, evidently subdued by 
the recollection of recent events and not at all disposed to interrupt 
my progress. Others soon followed, till passing another large water 
barrier gate, with its two Manchu keepers, I now found myself on the 
long forbidden soil which none but Tartar steps were free to tread. 
** Procul esie profani" The keepers looked very stern, but gradually 
relaxed their knit brows and scowling looks as I distributed a few 
books among them, which they received with affected smiles but 
soon resumed their anxious disconcerted air. I determined so far to 
humour their mingled disappointment and consternation as to put 
out of sight my memorandum book, which they eyed with evident 
suspicion and dislike. 

Several Tartars now flocked past, scowling in spite of themselves 
and hardly daring to look me in the face. Some with a fierce air 
would hurry by my chair without lifling their eyes towards me, with 
something of the same kind of manner, as we might suppose a dog, 
which has narrowly escaped hanging for worrying, would pass by 
the next flock of sheep he met in his path. As I had declined the 
offer of an attendant from the consulate, many questions passed be- 
tween the keeper and my teacher, the latter seeming no ways afraid 
and fully sensible of foreign protection. A keeper ran on before to 
the west gale to prevent every possibility of popular ebullition, and 
to report with anxious looks my approach. I could not therefore 
be surprised at the general turn out at the Tang muriy or '* Bath 
gate,'' where a few tracts soon produced polite bowings and a polite 
reception from the officer in charge. The whole of the adjacent 
p.-rts to this gate and the Tung mnn, or East gate, which is situated 
near, is occu]>ied by Tartars, a number of whom were seen practis- 

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1S4G. Notices of Puhthau fit. 197 

ing at shooting with the bow at a target, in a military exercise 
ground below, and who stopped to have a view of the unexpected 
visitor as I passed. A M^uchu of higher rank sent three attendants 
to see me safe to the next gate. They could all speak the mandarin 
dialect, hut when speaking amongst themselves employed the M^nchii 
tongue, which abounded with most extraordinary screams and into- 
nations, and sounded the reverse of musical. They were mostly 
dressed as soldiers with red caps and high boots though it is said 
that some of them unite with their military calling some trade or 
other occupation. There was to be seen no cringing amongst thom, 
all appearing to be a haughty and arrogant class, whom a slight pro- 
vocation would excite. Nor were my bearers of the laughing talka- 
tive kind, to be met with in the more northern ports, but in a silent 
and serious mood they trudged onward, willing to meet every wish, 
but not enjoying a salient flow of spirits. After passing some 
marshy ground in which were to be perceived a few tombs or rather 
coffins thatched over, and skirted by a wretched class of habitations, 
we arrived at another of the water-barrier gates, where the increase^ 
ing civility of the few remaining Tartars I passed, seemed to inr 
dicate a desire to efface the remembrance of their late ruffianry amid 
a profusion of nods and bowing, though probably the remembrance 
of the k4ng had no slight influence in prompting these civilities. 

The /iCiu-sin sMn, or " Hill of the nine genii," here commences, 
causing an ascent in the course of the city wall and having houses 
projecting forth from little rocks along its side to the summit, whiclf 
here rises opposite to the Wa-$hih shdn and shares with it the southern 
side of the city. It has numerous inscriptions carved on its rocky 
columns, and commands a fine view of the river in its course towardu 
the sea between the towering barrier of hills, which wall in the 
cultivated valley on either side. The Kfodn-yin midu, or ** temple of 
the goddess of mercy", the Pek tah, or ** White pagoda," of seven 
stories with bushy shrubs issuing forth from crevices on the top and 
around its sides, and the Shih tahy or " Stone pagoda," another dingy 
half dilapidated building of seven stories with its carved branching 
roofs, rising one above another, and at present closed against visitors, 
on account of a recent accident, fill up the space between the foot of 
the hills and the Nan nuin, or " South gate, adjoining to which are 
the busy parts of the city and the mercantile portion of the population 
on account of its connection with the populous river suburb of N.intui. 
Half n mile farther brought us to the spot, by which we had ascended 

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198 Notices of Fuhchau /li. April, 

the wall on our outset, whence we soon reached the Wu-shih shdn 
afler an absence of nearly three hours. 

One impression left by this circuitous visit, was the remarkable 
paucity of temples and sacred buildings, as well as the general absence 
of those houses with handsome and grand exterior which are so fre- 
quently seen at Ningpo. Another observation which struck me, was 
the total absence of tombs and coffins, scarcely twenty of any kind 
being to be seen in the whole circuit. The pleasing eflfect also of 
the trees interspersed with the roofs of houses, would lead a visitor to 
form too favorable an idea of the city, till an actual visit to its by- 
streets and dirty lanes should dissipate every evanescent impression of 
the kind. The trees also are not of that dwarfish stunted kind met 
elsewhere along the coast of China, but resemble more the general 
character of the species found in Europe in the size of their growth 
at least if not in the precise identity of the kind. 

The next few days were occupied in an excursion in a boat, a few 
miles up the river to another large bridge, which crosses the Min, in 
visiting a few of the temples adjacent the consulate hill, and in 
perambulating the different streets of the city. 

On one of the latter excursions I proceeded from the south gate 
northward into the heart of the city, through the principal street called 
the Ndn mun kidi, or " South gate street." In this part the people 
were remarkably well-behaved in imposing restraints on their curiosity. 
Though they would throng around every shop into which 1 entered, 
they would always retreat on either side, so as to form a passage for 
tne, on my exit, without being obtrusive or excessive in their eagerness 
to watch my proceedings. These little crowds seldom exceeded a 
tiundred persons, and were very quiet and civil in their deportment. 
As I walked along, there was no assemblage, nor any decided symp- 
toms of curiosity, except an attentive survey of my dress and person 
«ts they passed. The shops are here of a superior kind, especially 
those which vend European and other foreign articles, watch-makers 
occupying a few of them and having a fair display of clocks, time- 
pieces and watches of native and foreign manufacture. In this main 
street, and especially in one of the principal cross streets, turning to 
the left through the viceroy's palace yard, there are numerous curiosity 
shops, well supplied with old bronze vases, images, jade-stone orna- 
ments and carved wood, for which they ask generally most exorbitant 

As I approached the center of the city, the crowds in these parts. 

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iei(i. Noticfta of Vuhrhau J'tl \W 

less familiarized with foreign fcalures, grew more Inmblesome, ami 
once or twice the sound of '*/<«« Icau'' '* foreign dog," struck my 
ear. Once hearing this sound proceed from a youth close to my side, 
I fixed my eye on him, to intimate that 1 understood the phrase, on 
which he skulked away into the crowd, sometimes summoning up a 
laugh and repeating aloud the offensive expression, which he saw I 
fully appreciated. I made a remark to the teacher concerning their 
liability to punishment by the mandarins for this rude conduct. 
Unfortunately he mistook my menning, a mistake more justly chargea- 
ble on my limited vocabulary of Chinese words, than on his dulness 
of comprehension, and I soon had the mortification of finding myself 
at the entrance of a " police-court," to which he was conducting me 
to lodge a complaint before the magistrate. I happily found out the 
mistake, as he was knocking at the door and trying to open the barred 
entrance, in time to request him to desist from the attempt. On our 
exit, the crowd, who were rapidly increasing, raised a volley of cheers, 
whether of exultation at supposing us baffled or of approbation at our 
not persisting in our complaint, it was not certain. I heard however 
no more of the expression; the only offensive terms which saluted 
us during the rest of the walk, being the local expression fan jin^ 
*' foreigner." 

Passing under the lofty building, which crosses the way, and is 
surmounted by the public clock, with its European dial, we were fol- 
lowed by an increasing crowd, chiefly of boys, to the large suite of 
courts, forming the rhing-wang midu, where the sounds becoming 
louder and the people a little more boisterous, a police runner attached- 
himself to me, from one of the public offices. This new-comer was 
apparently very anxious to prevent my being annoyed, not allowing 
the crowds of boys and idlers who followed to approach within 
twenty yards, till being tired the latter gradually fell away, or left 
their places to be .supplied by the idlers of the next street, through- 
which we passed. He also from time to time offered me oranges^i 
betel-nut and paid other similar attentions. 

Bending our course through a narrow defile of lanes, abounding 
with filth, and various odours, towards the eastern quarter of the 
city, T determined on paying a visit to the M^nchu Tartars. On ray 
way the people became increasingly curious, and when I entered a 
shop to rest, the policeman stationed himself at the door to prevent 
any pressure, returning inside at intervals to offer me a pipe of 
tobacco, or to volunteer some similar civilities. At last I entered tliQ 

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iOO Notices oj Puhthauju. Avkw., 

sacred ground of the M^nchus, where none but the conquering raco. 
are permitted to reside, and into which till recently no Chinese were 
bold enough to venture. Men, women and children of every age 
and condition, turned out to see me as I passed down their streets, 
with looks which betokened mingled surprise and dissatisfaction. 
They generally appeared to be of a more solid build of frame and 
sUdlworth growth, and to be of a higher stature than the pure Chi- 
nese. They all appeared exceedingly anxious not to give any um- 
brage or ground of offence. The elder portion of them kept waving 
their hands or using their lungs to deter any of the younger people 
from following our steps; and at one of the police stations they 
made them all turn back and desist from following. As wc a|>- 
proached the Tartar general's palace, my teacher and police-guide 
wanted to turn off by a direct bend down a narrow street, till I uer- 
sisted in proceeding through the range of spacious courts in Mfui- 
chu streets on the opposite side, where a Manchij officer attached 
himself to me, as an additional escort, till we arrived at the east gate, 
where we turned to the northward and pursued our way over the 
military exercise ground inside the wall. Here about fifty Mdnchus 
followed, all wery civil, shewing me the lions of the neighbourhoods 
They first took me to a W spring, strongly impregnated with 
sulphur, of which I tasted a little, but which they prevented my 
drinking, saying that their horses were brought tliither to water. 
They led the way in a small body to the Tang mUn, or '' Ifot Bath 
gate," through which they conducted me into a little suburb, where 
tHie Mdnchus and Chinese inhabitants are mingled together. We 
soon arrived at the public hot baths, where for a fee of two copper 
cash, the inhabitants possess the privilege of an ablution in these 
medical springs, to which some persons ascribe a more general 
absence of those cutaneous diseases, which they fancy to be more 
common elsewhere than at Fuhchau. Here the first object which 
I beheld was about twenty men in a round circular bath of not more 
than six feet in diameter, all immersed up to their chins in the steam- 
ing fluid and packed as closely as faggots. A shout of laughter 
unusual among the serious gloomy people of Kuhchau procecdeil 
from these twenty heads, trunkless as far as my eye was concerned, 
moving on the surface of the water. Three or four naked men were 
anxiously sitting as expectants on the edge, till one of the twenty 
emerging out of the bath, made room for another to pack himself 
down among the bathers. One or two others might be seen auoiu- 

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1846. Notices of Ftthchau fu. liOl 

ting their bare bodies with liaimeut or plaster, having apparently 
been using the bath to cure their sores. 

A little further on, was another bath, with its twenty Chinese 
packed in a shallow well, and a few others drinking at another well, 
under the same roof or enclosure. At a few yards distance was 
another well partitioned off to some distance and guarded from 
bathers, where the water was carried off in buckets, and persons 
were only permitted to drink. The water was exceedingly hot even 
in the cup, but had no taste of medioiiial impregnation. 

In the meantime my new conductors grew very friendly and by 
degrees became very cheerful. They asked me my honourable sur- 
name, and requested me to write it on the sand. After which they 
wished to know what o/Hce I filled, and the time of my arrival ; what 
ray teacher told them, I could not understand, but had reason to 
think, from what passed on a similar occasion, that in spite of 
ray statements to him, he greatly magnified my office, at the expense 
of truth, and sought thereby to augment his own importance. 

The Minchus are said to number about 3000; but according to 
their own accounts, on this occasion, they had no accurate means 
of knowing their precise numbers but computed them to amount, 
with women and children, to about 8000. They have the cha- 
racter of being a turbulent and haughty race and sometimes very 
troublesome to the Chinese officers, from whose jurisdiction they 
are generally exempt, being subject to officers of their own race. 
They still retain the pride of conquest, after the lapse of two cen- 
turies ; and as they never amalgamate with the Chinese and are not 
very numerous throughout the empire, a revolution is more than 
probable when any general grievance shall rouse the spirit of the 
nation and a leader be found able and willing to head a general revolt 
against their dynasty. Their yoke is said to be at times very gall- 
ing and humiliating ; but as the dominant race have very wisely 
consented from the beginning to share the government with the 
vanquished race, and as the system of literary degrees theoretically 
opens preferment to all without distinction of caste,, the probable 
nearness or remoteness of the period of their emancipation from 
Tartar rule is an enigma of very difficult solution, and at best can 
form only a subject of very doubtful conjecture to foreigners, the 
best informed of whom are but little acquainted with the real social 
and political condition of this peculiar people beyond a few general 
impressions founded on a very imperfect induction of facts. 

VOL. XV. NO. IV, 20 

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5!0-2 Xotias of ruhkau fu AprH., 

The emperor appears to share a large portion of their loyalty, as a 
good man and just ruler; and only a few of the Chinese, connected 
with foreigners, even dare to whisper the treasonable language of 
dislike towards the existing government. Popular opinion is powerful 
in China, and though there are no regular channels of manifesting 
its power, in the absence of a representative government, it cannot 
safely be outraged. A grand national disaster alone appears likely 
seriously to endanger the stability of the present dynasty, and had not 
the treaty of Nanking arrested the career of invading conquest, the 
capture of Peking might ere now have driven the reigning dynasty 
back to their native dominions of INHnchuria, and China Proper be 
just emerging from the widely spread disasters of a general anarchy. 
The viceroy and Tartar general in Fuhchau hold equal rank, but are 
seldom on cordial or friendly terms, the boundaries of their equal 
and divided authority frequently operating as the cause of misunder- 

Returning into the heart of the city, by a different route, I passed 
the Tartar general's palace again, till diverging farther towards the 
west, I reached the viceroy's palace. Here I called a sedan chair 
from a neighbouring stand in the street, and after another half hour 
found myself at the foot of the Wushih shan, where the Chinese 
servants, ati ached to the consulate, with their office as retainers of the 
great English nation embroidered in large characters on the bosom 
of their dress, as they strutted about in the apparent consciousness 
of British protection, were living proofs of the mighty inroads which 
have here been made on the exclusive policy of the present reign. On 
various other occasions 1 revisited the central and western parts of 
the city, occasionally sitting down in the shop of a tradesman, all of 
whom, as well as the people generally, who could form the slightest 
claim to an acquaintance, were very civil and seemed to possess the 
same friendly disposition prevalent among the Chinese in other parts 
accessible to foreigners. The most unfriendly part of their conduct 
was the absurdly exorbitant terms which they asked for the most 
trifling articles of native curiosity or use. One man came down to 
my price with great humour; as T remonstrated with him on his asking 
Chinese and foreigners different prices, and repeated the trite proverb 
that ** All the people comprised within the four seas are brethren." 

During my daily strolls on the Wn-shih sli^n, I had continual 
opportunities of an insight into the various chnrncter and pursuits of 
the people, who saunter to these parts as the Hvde Park of Fuhchau 

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1846. Notices of I\hchau fu. 203 

On one occasion T enjoyed the hospitality of the abbot or a T4uistic 
temple, called the Tdu shau Kwdn, a venerable old man of seventy- 
five years of age, with long flowing white beard, who with his brother 
priests was very friendly and polite. One of them afterwards re- 
joined me alone, and after reading a few moments a Christian book, 
as if to shew the universal skepticism of his mind or the unimportant 
character of such subjects, he gave utterance to the latitudinarian 
remark that all religions were in principle the same. A few Bonzes 
also followed me some distance in order to procure some books which 
they received with their usual protestations of gratitude. 

Daily instances occured of the real indifference of both sects, alike 
to their respective superstitions and the total absence of any alarm 
at the possible diminution of their influence by the dissemination of 
Christian tenets in these publications. 

In the same locality, and within a few minutes of time, a Chinese, 
a Roman Catholic by hereditary profession, after receiving a tract 
drew forth a medal suspended from his bosom and inscribed with 
the images of Joseph, the Virgin, and John the Baptist, the sight of 
which (he said) recalled to his mind the good things he read in his 
holy books. From other sources, I gained the information that there 
had been a recent persecution of the Roman Catholics in the neigh- 
bourhood, originating in their refusal to subscribe to the building or 
repair of some heathen temple. A Spanish padre, named Justa d* A- 
guilar, has been residing for a year at Fuhchau, under the terms 
of the recent edict of universal toleration. He wears a Chinese 
costume, but is said to be a person of but little energy of body or 
mind and to be greatly discouraged at the prospects of Roman Cath- 
olicism in the city, saying that the people are so apathetic, that he 
despairs of any converts from among them. In the north of the 
province of Fuhkien, at about a hundred miles distance, there is a 
Popish bishop, a Spaniard of ninety years of age, who has been sixty 
years in the country. There is also a Popish college, and the Romish 
converts are said to be more numerous than the pagan inhabitants 
in those parts, so as to be too powerful to become the victims of any 
persecution. It is understood that in the course of conversation, the 
British consul took occasion to remonstrate with the acting governor 
of the province, on the subject of the invidious distinctions and ex- 
clusive spirit which were supposed to pervade the second edict of 
Kiying. apparently limiting ihejirst edict of toleration to the professors 
of the Roman Catholic religion. In his reply, he deprecated the idea 

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204 Notices of Puhchau fii. April, 

of such differences being known at Peking, and stated that the 
emperor in the full spirit of equal privileges to the French and Eng- 
lish nations would grant free and perfect toleration to the religion 
generally of western nations. He also intimated that, though at Peking 
they knew no difference between Roman Catholics and Protestants, 
he himself knew the difference and preferred the Protestants as less 
disposed to political intrigues. 

The native authorities appear to be well acquainted with the 
movements of the Spanish padre, but have thus far acted with libera- 
lity, promptly checking the maltreatment of his converts, when the 
real facts of the case had been duly stated to them in explanation. 

Mohammedanism also is not without its representatives in the city, 
six priests beiug resident at Fuhchau, who soon gain intelligence of 
the arrival of any Mussulmen, in the crews of foreign vessels, and 
visit any new comer, in order to sell some of their sacred writings. 
There are also between twenty and thirty Mohammedan fakirs, or 
religious beggars, who subsist on the superstitions or rather the fears 
of the people, as popular report states them to be the special favor- 
ites of a Mongol Tartar, a member of the highest board of the state, 
and who from Peking would denounce punishment on any person 
slighting the beggars. Whether this be true or not, there is no 
doubt of its being serviceable to one class of those wretched objects, 
who are so numerous in this and other Chinese cities. 

December 29th. This being the period of the new moon, the 
twelfth of the current Chinese year, there were the usual exciting 
scenes of the season, which gave an additional appearance of bustle 
to the streets. Parties of mendicant Bonzes were to be seen strolling 
through the streets in slow movement, chanting some religious ditty, 
while one or two of their number visited the neighboring shops to 
make a collection, waiting sometimes for five minutes till the trades- 
man, busily occupied with his customers, deigned to take any notice 
of the priest, who was generally dismissed with a few copper cash. 
Close by, two men of more than ordinary irascibility of tempera- 
ment were most fiercely dealing blows at each other's person, but 
were held back by the surrounding crowd, so that little harm was 
done by the excited pugilists. Being with difficulty separated, they 
rushed towards each other again, and levelled their aim with redou- 
bled fury, but again drawn back they had the satisfaction of bea- 
ting the air. It was pleasing to oi«serve the contrast in their anxiety 
to prevent any further collision between the belligerents with the 

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1S46. Noticts of Fuhchm fH. 205 

disgraceful scenes prevalent in more civilized countries on such 
occasions. The shop-keepers rushed out of their shops, and for the 
time it appeared to be every man's business to divide the combatants 
and lead them in different directions. 

The system of dividing the city into wards, and making the re« 
spective householders of each responsible to government for a breach 
of the peace, is here productive of the best effects, not only in the 
prevention of disturbances generally, but also in securing good treat- 
ment to any stranger who visits the city from European vessels. 

At night the music in all directions indicated the unusual num- 
ber of weddings at this auspicious season, followed by numerous 
bridal processions on the few succeeding days. Now and then also 
a newly promoted siHtsdi might be seen, making a formal visit in a 
chair with pipers and retinue to his friends and relatives, and re- 
joicing in his new-born dignity. On the evening of the new moon 
might also be observed whole streets of inhabitants, soon after sun- 
set, bringing forth from their houses little heaps of paper, inscribed 
with Chinese writing, which they devoutly burnt before the door, 
thus preventing any possible desecration of the Chinese character. 
The smoking embers might be traced in succession for some dis- 
tance as a mark of the universality of the custom. The poor delin- 
quenta^ who wore the wooden collar as a punishment for their of- 
fences, and who seemed to outnumber all that I had ever seen in 
every other part of China put together, seemed also at this time to 
enjoy some little alleviation of their sufferings in the kind attention* 
of their friends. Some aged man might be observed, whose appearance 
might indicate him as the parent of the criminal, feeding with the 
tenderness of paternal solicitude some full grown offender, who 
enjoyed either by connivance or permission of the police his share 
in the convivial festivities of the season. Occasionally a son of ten* 
der years might be seen performing the office of filial piety in remov- 
ing the accumulated filth and vermin from the person of his father, 
while the criminal himself seemed to have taxed his powers of in- 
vention in discovering modes of compensating the inconvenience of 
the projecting plank, separating between his upper and nether ex- 
tremities, by tooth-picks and ear-picks two feet in length, which, with 
extended and carefully poised arm, he would endeavor to insert over 
the wooden incumbrance into its appropriate place of reception. 
Soon aAer sunset a policeman arrives to unlock the chain which 
fastens the kiing to the wall, aud the culprit is marched, for the 

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206 Notices of Fuhckau fii. April, 

night, to the common prison, till on the following day he is again 
conducted forth to public gaze and exposure. 

The oflfences for which they suflfered this slow and attenuating 
torture were generally thefl. It was difficult to decide whether this 
wretched class of men were more to be pitied for their sufferings, or 
the squalid class of beggars, who may be seen in all the degrees of 
want and misery from the state of partial nakedness and tattered 
garbs to that of extreme destitution, shrivelled limbs and consump- 
tive pale-stricken countenance, loitering in the streets for the casual 
alms of the benevolent, or lying by the way-side in the helplessness 
of pining sickness and disease. One poor wretch was pushing him- 
self along in a kind of box, with his lower extremities eaten away by 
disease, one of his feet withered and dried being stuck on a peg in 
front, a hideous spectacle, to obtain the earnestly sought relief of the 
busy wayfarers. A Minchu military mandarin passing by in his 
chair, and attended by his lictors, in all the stateliness and pride of 
wealth, was a strong contrast with the widely prevalent destitution 
of the beggar population. 

During the latter part of my stay at Fuhchau, I remained generally 
in the suburb of Nantii on the island between the two bridges, which 
here connect it with the shore. The principal part of this river 
suburb is situated on the opposite or southern side of the river, and 
contains, a population of about 20,000, a great portion of whom 
consist of boatmen, sailors and natives of Ningpo, and other distant 
places, who come to the city in trading junks. This part abounds 
with fruit, fish and vegetables, the last of which are brought for sale 
by a fine healthy looking race of country-women, whose hardy frames 
and active steps contrast strangely with the limping gait and stunted 
growth of the female population of the city, among whom the practice 
of cramping the feet by bandages from early infancy, though not 
universal as in the north, is very general, few being exempt except the 
Tartar ladies, the boat-women, and the very lowest order of fe^males, 
who h^re may be seen bearing burdens and working with the activity 
of men. Many of these women perform the work of coolies, and may 
be seen hurrying along the streets with bare feet or light shoes made 
of straw. They wear a kind of hair-pin, of large size generally, except 
in the case of the poorest, made of silver, and are on the whole the 
finest and most robust race of women to be seen in China, compensa- 
ting in some degree for the general absence of good looks from the 
other sex 

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1846. iXo^ices of Fuhchau /i/. 207 

Some of the inhabitants of Nant^i have an ingenious way of earn- 
ing their livelihood by training cormorants to dive into the river and 
bring up fish from the bottom. Generally about the time of low water 
a boatman may be seen near the arches of the bridge, with four or 
five cormorants perched on the boat. At a given signal from the 
owner, one of these birds bounds from the boat into the stream, and 
after looking about for a few moments, dives to the bottom, becoming 
invisible sometimes for two minutes, when it rises generally at forty 
or fidy yards distance, to breathe the air. After another minute tho 
bird descends again into the stream below and repeats the process, 
till it brings a fish to the surface, struggling in its beak, which is a 
signal to the boatman to paddle his little vessel to the spot, when he 
casts a net into the river and hauls bird and fish on board. The 
bird, conscious of its desert, flaps its wings and by various odd mo- 
tions seeks the usual reward of a piece of fish or other food for its 
success. Sometimes two cormorants are fishing at the same time, 
being oflen for some minutes apparently lost. The fisherman how- 
ever easily follows them, his little boat consisting of nearly half a 
dozen bamboo poles, which form a very light kind of raft, sufficient 
for himself and the birds, and is easily paddled with a single oar. 
During the time I watched their operations, they caught three or 
four fish, one of which was almost more than the captor could ma- 
nage, and weighed down its bill below the stream, as it floated towards 
the raft. It is said that a ring, placed round the lower portion of 
the throat of these fishing cormorants, disables them from swallowing 
their prey before the boatman arrives to the rescue. 

On Dec. 31st, I made a visit to the country bordering on Ndntdi 
to the south by a hill, which rises abruptly to about 200 feet and 
affords a good view of the city at three miles distance. After passing 
through some broken ground, covered at intervals with clumps of 
trees, I found myself among thousands of tombs of every size, from 
the small mound which covered the earthly remains of the beggar, 
to the spacious well paved monument which denoted the wealth and 
consequence of its occupant. Some of the smaller ones were covered 
with a hard kind of plaster, and resembled a mere mound of earth 
as in western countries. The larger kind of mausoleum, from its 
trefoil shape, resembled the last letter of the Greek alphabet, the 
omega and the end of all things. A long sandy hill of undulating 
surface, dotted with a few plantations of cypress and pines formed 
the general burial ground of the city, with a plain of considerables 

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M% A'WxVci of lahchuu Ju, Ai'kil, 

extent, reaching over a cultivated line of country to tlie ditstant hills. 
In one of the temples, on the hill of NantAi, I witne8f?C(l a curious 
specimen of the power of priestcraft, which still retains its hold on 
a portion of the people. In a building consisting of two or three 
courts, dedicated to the god of literature, but entrusted to a few 
Tauistic priests, a Chinese had come to obtain deliverance from 
domestic grief. The cause of his application was the sickness and 
expected death of his wife. The husband, dressed out in his finest 
clothes and loaded with a profusion of offerings, stood before a plat- 
form in anxious expectation, while a priest went through a variety of 
evolutions, tossings and tumblings on the floor to procure a good 
omen. With his head bound in a red handkerchief or turban, and a 
quantity of burning paper in his hands, he vigorously danced with 
impassioned gestures around the table, laden with fruits and cakes, 
while two attendants, beating a gong and drum, kept time with his 
performance. At one time he prayed in softly-altered tones. Scx>n 
again he employed scolding accents to the deity he invoked. One 
nioment he would endeavor to coax away the angry spirit. At an- 
other he would flog and terrify it away, by whipping the air most 
lustily. A tier half an hour's practice, noise and persevering somer- 
sets on the ground, he rose and placed a hair-pin in the hair of the 
anxious hu.sband, after binding it in the peculiar tufl of his sect. 
Some more paper was burnt, outside the temple, the priest ceased 
from his flagellations, the husband bowed down a number of times 
before an idol, and after paying the usual fees to the priest re^ 
turned, apparently satisfied, to the scene of his domestic affliction. 

A more general and detailed description of the character of the 
city and its population, the disposition of the present local autho- 
rities and the degree of its eligbility as a missionary station, will 
close, the more diffusive account of Fuhchau, contained in the pre- 
ceding pages. 

Fuhchau, |g j\^ , the second largest of the five porta open to 
foreign trade, is situated in 26" 7' north lat., and in 1 19** 15' east 
long. The amount of its population, in the absence of all authentic 
statistics, can at best be only a subject of uncertain conjecture. Its 
apparent extent of space, covered with houses, is about twice the 
size of Ningpo, three times that of Sh.ingh^i, and nearly five times 
that of Amoy. The lowest estimate I have heard, reckoned it to 
contain a population of more than half a million. I should myself 
be inclined to place it at about 600,000, a number which will uul 

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1 846. Noiieii of Fuhehau f(L. 309 

be considered excenirei when we remember its eight and a half 
miles circuit of walls, and the small proportion of space unoccupied 
with buildings. Though it is the capital of Fahkien province, it is 
a city, on the testimony of the high officers of the local government, 
of little trade with the interior, and of decreasing commercial im* 
portance. Nor is the extent of its commerce with the other ports, 
along the coast of China, of any considerable importance, its trade 
with maratime parts being checked by the hordes of pirates, who, 
more or less for centuries, have been the scourge of an unwarlike 
people and the terror of a weak government. 

The increasing diminution of inland trade, according to the state- 
ments of some of the most respectable native traders, is mainly at- 
tributable to the restraints on legitimate commerce and native in* 
dustry imposed by the annual drain of sycee bullion from the coun* 
try, through the payments in specie for opium smuggled along the 
coast. Two millions of dollars worth of the drug are said to be 
annually imparted into the city, principally from Cbinchew 140 
miles to the south, in former times, but latterly also from the newly 
established depot for the smuggling vessels, at the mouth of the river 
Hin, jnst beyond the consular limits of the port. At the present 
time a co :siderable portion of the opium finds its way from Fuhchau 
to other places in ths interior, while from four to eight chests are 
daily retailed in the city. One half of the population are supposed 
to be addicted to the indulgence, and even the lowest coolies and 
beggars will deny themselves a portion of th3 substantial necessaries 
of life, at times, in order to enjoy the prizsd luxury. Upwards of 
one hundred smoking houses, with the exterior of private dwellings, 
and duly fitted up with all the conveniences and apparatus for smok* 
ing, arc spread over the city ; and the fact of their being frequently 
situated near the residences of the mandarins, and being generally 
resorted to by the police and military, can leave no doubt of the 
perfect notoriety of their existence. A fear of the personal con- 
sequences to themselves of any collision with foreigners, lurking 
suspicion of the English government as being covertly connected 
with the system, a sense of weakness as a government, and inability 
to put dowa by force the well-manned and wel!-2rmed vessels stv 
lioned at the smuggling depots, together with the not improbable 
harvest of bribes, and secret duties which they are able to reap from 
(hei.* connivaiice, operate conjointly in fostering and upholding an 
<!vil .vhich by the general stagnation of native trade and scarcity of 
VOL. xr. NO. IV, 27 

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210 Notices of Puhchau fu. April, 

the va]ual)1e metals constantly oozing out from the country, is fast 
approaching a crisis imvolving alike the fate of whole cities along 
the coast, the general financial prosperity of the empire, and, what 
may be a more powerful argument to those who have it in their 
power to arrest the evil, the closing up from sheer decay of national 
resources of one of the most promising outlets for the manufactures 
of the west. 

With all these restrictions, there is a large amount of dealings 
with other places, in the various minor necessaries of life. From 
the neighboring province of Ki'^ngsf there is an import of Chinaware ; 
from the more distant province of Sh^nsi, skins and furs are sup- 
plied ; from Shantung, Tientsin, and other places along the coast, 
vegetables and drugs are brought in junks; from Ningpo cotton 
cloth is also imported. The tribute-bearinfif junks from the Liuchiu 
islands, import also dried fish, 6ns, false birds' nests, wine, beche- 
de-mer, and ingots of gold to an annual value of 10,000 dollars. 
From the country in the north-eastern parts of the province are 
brought the staple commodities of tea, tea-oil, rice, bamboo roots, 
fragrant wood, and ox-hides. From the southern parts of the pro- 
vince, and more especially from the vicinity of A moy and Chinchew, 
there is an overland transit of rattans, pepper, long-cloth, woolens, 
beche-de-mer, sharks' fitis, birds' nests, sandal and other scented 
wood, ginseng, sugar, quicksilver, and the general articles of Straits* 
produce, imported from foreign countries into these southern ports 
by their more adventurous inhabitants, and furnishing a lucrative 
transport trade across the more isolated and retired capital of the 
province. In return for these imports, there is an export trade from 
Fuhchau of bamboos, teas, spars, oranges, paper and tinfoil for 
idolatrous offerings. The number of large junks is inconsiderable, 
scarcely amounting to a hundred, and these mostly from Ningpo. 
The lesser junks come down the river, which is navigable for nearly 
200 mile.s to the north-western extremity of the province. They are 
provided with long oars at the stern, and sometimes also at the bow, 
to supply the place of rudders, and are generally managed by a man 
placed on a little galley across the vessel, to provide against the 
power of the stream which abounds with rapids, and is on this ac- 
count of rhther dangerous navigation. 

The monetary system prevalent at Fuhchau indicates an ad- 
vanced state of commerce and civilization. There are resjular issues 
of jjroniiiistjry bills, or notes, varying in amount from 4110 copper 

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1840. ISotices of Puhchau fu. 211 

cash to the sum of 1000 dollars, which supply all the advantages, 
with as little as possible of the daugers of a bank-note circulation. 

Some of these promissory bills are now before me, and by the blue, 
red, and black colors, which are blended together, present a rather 
gay appearance of signatures and indorsings. The name of the is- 
suing mercantile firm, i^nd a quantity of characters traced around 
the page, with blanks for the insertion of dates, amount and signa- 
tures, form the original impression from an ink of a bright blue color. 
The year of the reiging emperor, the month and day of issue, with 
ingeniously wrought ciphers for the reception of signatures, and the 
prevention of forgeries are of a deep red. The entry of the sum, 
together with the names of the issuing parties, and receivers, stand 
forth in large black characters. On the opposite side of the bill 
are the names of the various indorsers, through whose hands the bill 
has passed, in order to facilitate the detection of forgeries, but not 
in any wise to render the indorsers further liable. The credit of 
the firm is generally good, and bankruptcies seldom occur. A 
small fee or percentage of a few cash is charged on the issue, and 
also at the discounting of the bills by the firm. The people value 
these as much as silver, and when I have paid chair-bearers their 
hire, they have preferred a bill of this kind for 500 cash to the pay- 
ment of copper, on account of its lightness and the certainty of be- 
ing paid by the firm in true coin of the realm. 

Of the prospects of a foreign trade with Europe I am but little 
q'lalified to form an opinion. As however the place is not rich in 
products, tea brought from the upper parts of the province is the 
only article of trade likely ever to become an important item of ex- 
p )rt. The province of Fuhkien is the great black tea district of the 
empire, and the famous hills of B jhca (Wui) are situated only 150 
miles to the northwest of Fuhchau. It does not therefore seem to 
bs an unreasonable ground of hope that with the arrival of British 
capital at the port, the tea-merchants should prefer bringing their 
teas by a more direct and less expensive route to Fuhchau to the 
difH^uIt, tedious and expensive overland route of more than six hun- 
dred miles to Canton. A cargo of tea may be brought in boats in 
four days down the stream to Fuhchau, while the expensive route 
over the mountainous country to Canton would occupy almost as 
many weeks. The growers also are said to be desirous of bringing 
their teas to Fuhchau and exchanging them in barter for European 
goods. Some of them, during the last season, brought down a large 

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912 N<dices of Fuhchau /A. April. 

cargo, of which the only resident foreign merchants purchased 600 
chests, in return for which thej willingly took half the purchase in 
British manufactures. 

The principal obstacles appear to be the general unwillingness of 
the Chinese to abandon their old habits of trade, (an obstacle in the 
present instance in progress of removal) and the reluctance of the 
foreign merchants, to incre.ise the number and expense of thatr 
agencies at the different ports, by dividing their establishments be- 
tween any other places than the two principal marts of Canton and 
Shanghai. Up to the present time only seven foreign vessels have 
entered the port since the opening of the trade, of which three v/cre 

The people bear the character of being unusually apathetic, and 
without the generous spirit of enterprise which preeminently dis" 
tinguishes the Fuhkien race above the rest of Chir.a. Inhabiting a 
provincial capital shut up alike by its isolated situation, the diflicult 
navigation of its river, and the inroads of m^.rine freebooters, from 
extensive intercourse with the exterior, and by tha favoring bounty 
of Providence, possessing in itself most of the resources necessary to 
supply the ordinary demands of nature, the people have ever been 
indisposed to emigrate and have^ had little experience of foreign 
nations. They are generally serious, grave and almost sullen in 
their deportment towards Europeans. This may be only a tempo- 
rary feeling, as the stringent regulations, relative to the treatment of 
foreigners, have in all probability cowed and estranged them. The 
few who are brought into connection with foreigners, show as much 
respect as is to be commonly seen in any city of China. If from want 
of a better acquaintance, they arc at present less cordial and more cold 
in their feelings, they are at the same time less addicted to imp3r* 
tinent familiarity and forwardness of manner, than in other parts 
where foreigners are better known. There is an evident existence 
of growing improvement in the popular mind, which, unless exposed 
of the unfavorable influences of that reckless ili-treatment and pro- 
fligacy of conduct which too frequently mark the advancing tide 
of our extended commerce, will doubtlesb erelong be imbued with 
feelings of general friendliness and respect. 

The numerous sedan-chairs, with two and sometimes with four 
bearers, which impede the way at every hundred yards, are a fair 
proof of the existence of considerable wealth in the city, though by 
far the greater part of the population, as in other Chinese cities, are 

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1846. Sluices of Fuhchau fu, 213 

immersed in the lowest poverty, earning, in compliance with the 
sternest conditions of human nature, a scanty subsistence by the 
sweat of their brow. 

The neighboring villages are entirely agricultural, scattered over 
the plain to the encircling hills, those situated on either bank of the 
river towards the sea being addicted to frequent acts of piracy and 
lawlessness. The people living in the city pursue the various 
trades and handicrafts, which with lower work of coolies and labor- 
ers give employment to the whole population. Some of the artizans 
are in advance of other places, bsing indebted to foreign skill for 
the acquisition of those arts from which they derive a livelihood. 
I have met with nearly a dozen watch-makers' shops with watches 
and clocks of various degrees of excellence, of which they freely 
confessed that those of most delicate construction were imported 
into Canton from foreign countries, and that the more common 
speci.nacns sold to their countrymen were made by themselves in 
imitation of foreign musters. On the sale of a time-piece a slip of 
paper is given to the purchaser, containing in Chinese a printed ex- 
planation of the European figures on the dial. I have seen one of 
these watch-makers take to pieces a lever watch with the greatest 
despatch and pronounce promptly on the cause of stoppage. In the 
willing testimony that they pay to the superior skill of foreigners in 
products of this kind, they are not at all behind any portion of their 
countrymen. Judging from the frequent exhibition of foreign 
scenes in their picture shops, they know something of the warlike 
disposition of the English. A total exemption of the people from 
the disasters of the late war, and not improbable efforts of the vice- 
roy to conceal from them, as in the case of the famous bulletins of 
Napoleon afler the battle of Trafalgar, the humiliating defeats and 
capture of two important cities within his jurisdiction, may reasonsr 
bly be supposed to render the inhabitants generally less acquainted 
with the real power and superiority of the English than at the other 
ports. The mandarins themselves however know the real position 
of affairs, and in the strong contrast which their proclamations 
respecting civility to foreigners form with the irresolute tone adopt- 
ed at Canton, we hail a favorable omen of their sincerity and con- 
tinued friendly relations with foreigners. 

Though the question how far Fuhchau is a literary place, is one 
difficult for a casual visiter to investigate, the following facts, 
supplied to me by an intelligent Chinese with whom I became ae- 

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214 Notices of Fuhckau fii, April, 

qiininted during my stay, will show th<it it enjoys no mean reputa- 
tion in this respect. Previous to my arrival the public examinations 
of the siutsai, or students of the first degree, and processions of 
successful scholars, had excited a temporary interest. It appears 
that of the siutsiii degree conferred twice in every three years, there 
are about 8000 in the whole province of Fuhkien, of which 2000 
belong to Fuhchau. Of the kujin degree, conferred once in the 
sime period of time, there are are about iOOO throughout the pro- 
vince, of whom 360 belong to the capital. Again of the tsinisz\ of 
whom only about 360 are made at each quinquennial examination at 
Peking, from the eighteen provinces of the empire, and beyond 
which step of literary distinction promotion is so rare that only thirty 
persons are raised to the highest degree of Hanlin at each triennial 
examination from the whole of China, there are estimated to be 200 
in the province of Fuhkien, 60 of whom belong to the city. In Fuh- 
chau there are also 5000 literary students, who have not yet gained 
a degree, and who earn their livelihood by tuition and similar pur- 
suits, a few also being employed in the public government offices in 
subordinate stations. The sints^i are said to obtain promotion to 
political offices, if supported by the influence of private wealth. 
The kiijin, without such influence, have generally to wait ten or 
twelve years. The tsintsz' immediately gain apppointments as the 
sure reward of their rare distinctioa. A system of social equality 
which thus holds out to the offspring of the meanest Chinese peasant 
the hope of becoming the instrument of family aggrandizement and 
which naturally summons the predilections of all in its favor, may 
he deemed without doubt as divulging the real secret of their na- 
tional cohesiveness and duration through so vast and unprecedented 
a period of time^ amid the frequent change of their dynasties and ruin 
of surrounding empires. Though their classic literature, except as 
a means of distinction and as a road to political preferment exercises 
no very powerful influence on religion strictly so called, nor imposes 
any form of religious belief, but rather inculcates the wisdom of 
abandoning such subjects of uncertain speculation, yet it is easy to 
perceive that such a system of philosophical atheism as here has 
entwined itself around all their national associations and has become 
deeply imbedded in the very soul of the thinking inhabitants, will to 
the propagation of the gospel oppose a gigantic obstacle, against 
which it will be needful to bring all the advantages which a patient 
study of tlicir own classics combined with the literature of the west 

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184«. Noticrs of i'^iihchau fit. 2i5 

cnn confer on those liiimhie and persevering men, to wlioni bclon«js 
the high privilege of extending the kingdom of Christ among this 
morHlIy and spiritnalJy unenlightened nation. 

It has been before intimated that there is a remarkble scarcity of 
large and handsome temples in the city. There is however one of 
some little attractions to visitors (ibout halfway between the south 
and west gates, close outside the city wall, and nearly opposite to 
the consulate hill. There is also a i^imous Budhistic monastery, 
called the Yung-tmicn ski about half way up the K'lshdn range, 
about eight miles in a south western direction from Fnhchau. There 
are about 100 priests on the endowment, of whom about GO are 
generally resident in the temple. There arc several intelligent nieu 
among their number. 

The disposition of the present local authorities is said to be on 
the whole liberal and incre:isingly favorable to foreigners. The 
tsung tuh, governor-general or viceroy, of the united provinces of 
Fuhkien and Chehkic'ing, at the present time is named LiH Yunko, 
who though he had the reputation of being, during the war, very 
fierce in his hostility to the British and the unflinching advocate of 
the harshest measures towards the barbarians, has now mitigated 
his hatred, and cultivates a friendly intercourse with the British 
consul, proving himself in all matters of business a man of high 
integrity. The Tartar general, or tsidng-kian, is not so happy a speci- 
men of humanity, being a little bigotted man, in bad health, of a 
proud and selfish spirit. The tmitni, who is also at present the 
acting governor of the province, is Sii Kiyii, formerly chief judge 
of Canton, a man of liberal views, and remarkably well versed in 
the geography and politics of the west. The hdi-hwttn, or superin- 
tendent of customs, is Ilo LungwA, colonel in the Tartar army, a 
jovial, frank and well disposed man, but of no great ability, who 
lately held a svmilar office at Amoy. 

Of the subordinate officers of government the most prominent ia 
the Min hien, one of the district magistrates, who held office form- 
erly at Canton, and has brought thence a taint of the old anti-Euro- 
pean feeling, which sometimes manifests itself in the flippancy of 
his conduct and demeanor even when mingling in free and uncon* 
strained intercourse with foreigners. 

They all occupy official residences in the city, ill-looking uncom- 
fortable places, approached by a series of open space.s, court within 
court, supplied with furniture of a poor kind, sheltered only by wind- 

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St6 Xotius of FuhcKau fii. April, 

ows of paper from the inclemency of the blasts. Their families 
generally reside at a distance, to avoid the inconvenience and expense 
of the continual removals consequent upon translation or promotion 
to other ofiicial appointments. In the festive mirth and freedom of 
manner which distinguish their private social intercourse; they evince 
great natural confidence and appear to be on the best of terms with 
each other. 

The city gates are closed soon aflet sunset, and so rigid are the 
regulations of a garrison city, that not even the Tartar general can 
be admitted into the city aAer they are once closed. Of all these 
officers of tlic local government the acting governor of the province 
far exceeds the rest in the varied extent of his information an'] libe- 
rality of his views. In the reference that has already been maJe to 
him in the case of the full toleration of foreign religions, it has been 
seen that he is far in advance of the generality of his countrymen. 
In his intercourse with the British consul, he has alluded to the more 
prominent events of modern European history, and shown his general 
acquaintance with the whole cycle of European polities; as for in- 
stance, the difficulty of governing Ireland on account of popery, the 
revolt of Belgium from Holland, the separation from Britain and 
Spain of their colonies in North and South America, the ambitious 
career of Napoleon, and the closing victory of Waterloo. He also 
seems to have heard of the excitement in England consequent on 
the discussion of the Maynooth grant. For hours together he will 
converse on geography, and has pasted the Chinese names over an 
expensive American At!r.s presented to him by one of his subordinate 
offficers from Canton ; in addition to which he will soon elso possess 
ajglobe promised him by tiia consul. The consul's lady, at his request, 
drew for him a map of the world, colored respectively according to 
the divisions into British, French and Russian territory. Shortly 
after the receipt of it, he sent a note inquiring the reason why Af- 
ghanistan had been omitted, and whether it had become amalgamated 
with Persia or was no longer an independent kingdom. 

The mandarins generally appear in conversation to recognise the 
superior skill of foreigners, one of them, the admiral, declininnr to 
receive a visit of ceremony on board his junk, saying it was nothing 
after a British ship of war. On the whole when we remember the im- 
pediments encountered on the first opening of the port, and the 
studied indifference and neglect exhibited by the Chinese authorities 
Ht first, the state of mutual feeling which has been brought about bj 

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1840. Notices oj ruhckau fu. 217 

the combined influence of courtesy and firmness, on ihe part of the 
late as well as the present consul, is a satisfactory indication not 
only of the growing liberality of the mandarins, but also of that which 
must be desired by every Christian philanthropist, the permanency 
of our friendly and pacific relatioiis with China. 

As regards the residence of individual foreigners, there is no rea- 
son to believe that any great difficulty will be experienced in renting 
commodious houses. The partial difliculty, which exists at present, 
arises more from a desire of extortion, a want of friendliness and 
a general distrust of foreigners than from fear of the authorities, or 
deep-rooted aversion in the minds of the people. Large and expensive 
houses may be obtained without much difficulty even at the present 
time. A missionary, unmarried in the first instunce, or if married un- 
accompanied for the first few mouths by his family, might easily 
find a lodging in some of the temples within the city, either on the 
Wushih shin or on the no less agreeable and salubrious site of the 
Kiusln sh4n, till his increasing acquaintance with the local dialect 
and the increasing confidence of the people should prepare the way 
also for the residence of missionary families. 

This leads me to the last and most important point of view in which 
Fuhchau is to be regarded, viz : the nature and degree of its eligibility 
as a missionary station. To most minds the obvious disadvantage of its 
present inaccessibility will readily present itself. To this must be 
added the fact that the people have never yet been impressed with 
the superior power or civilization of foreigners. There is also a 
spirit of suspicious distrust naturally prevalent among the inhabitants 
towards a race of strangers hitherto unknown. And lastly the local 
dialect, partaking of all the difficulties of the Fuhkien dialect in other 
parts, is here considered to be doubly barbarous and difficult of ac- 
quirement. All these difficulties, however, are either temporary or 
surmountable by those general habits of energy and perseverance 
indispensably necessary for usefulness in every part of a country so 
peculiar as China. 

On the other hand we behold in Fuhchau claims of no ordinary 
kind. With a population of more than half a million of idolaters, and 
as the capital of a province opening important channels of intercourse 
with surrounding places, it occupies a prominence, inferior only to 
Canton, among the newly opened ports of China. It is free from the 
deteriorating effects of an extensive foreign commerce, and the irrita- 
ting effects of the late war, never having witnessed the advance of 
invading armies before their peaceful homes. 

VOL XV NO. IV 28 ^ T 

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218 Notices of Fuhchau fii, April, 

The disposition of the authorities and the apathetic indifference of 
the people alike encourage the belief, that there exists no such jealousy 
of proselytism as is likely to throw interruptions or annoyances in the 
way of Protestant missionaries. What gives to Fuhchau its highest 
and paramount claim, is the fact that while every system of supersti- 
tion has here its living representatives, Protestant Christianity is alone 
unrepresented in this vast city, and while every point along the coast 
accessible to foreigners has been occupied by missionary laborers, 
the populous capital of Fuhkien is destitute of a single evangelist of 
the pure and unadulterated faith of the gospel. And lastly, as regards 
security of residence, the writer of these pages feels assured that if past 
experience permitted him to indulge the hope of ever attaining such 
a measure of physical strength, in this climate, as to become an efficient 
missionary laborer in this part of the Lord's vineyard, there is no 
city in China in which he would cherish greater confidence in the 
absence of persecution and immunity from interruption than in the 
city of Fuhchau. 

Here then a new sphere of usefulness lies open, where no institution 
of caste operates to divide man from man ; where no priesthood wields 
a general influence over the fears or respect of the people ; where no 
form of religion strictly so called threatens to oppose our progress ; 
where the principal obstacles with which we shall have to contend, are 
those national traits of apathy, indifference and sensuality, which 
everywhere, alas ! are deeply rooted in the nature of fallen man and 
form the chief barrier to the reception of pure and vital Christianity. 

As to the probability of missionary laborers speedily entering this 
port, nothing appears at present to promise such a result. The writer 
states however his hope (and at present he is authorized in cherishing 
nothing more than a hope) that the Church Missionary Society will 
make an effort to commence a mission at Fuhchau, and decide on this 
as one of their contemplated stations on the coast of China. The 
present difficulty is the want of men with those mental, moral and 
physical qualifications essential to eminent usefulness in a missionary 
field abounding with such peculiar difficulties as China. May the great 
Lord of the harvest speedily send forth such laborers into his vineyad. 

On January 7th, 1846, 1 embarked on board IL M. brig-of-war the 
Wolverine, and weighing anchor the following day, arrived at Amoy 
on Sunday the 10th. 

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1840. Dtslruction of Uu pre/tcly office. '219 

Art. VL Destruction of the prefecV s office^ reported to theefnperor 
in a memorial from the governor*^ encral and governor of Canton, 
KiYiNG, governor-general, ^c. &c., and Hw4ng governor of Canton, 
&c., hereby present a respcetful memorial on the subject of certain 
vagabonds having availed themselves of other originating causes to 
assemble the populace, enter directly into the office of the prefect and 
create troubles, and of their having been driven out and dispersed ; 
praying farther, that the prefect may be temporarily removed from 
his post, — on which memorial they, with up-cast looks, implore the 
sacred glance. 

We would respectfully represent that on the 15th January, 1846, 
at the time of setting the watch, we suddenly learned that a number 
of persons had collected together in the office of the prefect of Kw4ng- 
chau, clamoring in the great hall and filling up the place. Just as 
we were giving orders to investigate into the matter, we received a 
report, corroborative of the above, from the local authorities, within 
whose jurisdiction the place lies; whereupon we, in conjunction with 
and superintending the other high provincial officers, gave orders to 
the civil and military authorities to despatch a large number of soldiers 
and police to proceed to the spot and suppress the tumult and also 
search out and apprehend the rioters. Immediately thereon, fire 
being observed to break out in the interior of the office, the officers 
and soldiers hurried thither to extinguish it, and the vagabonds availed 
themselves of^he opportunity to run off. Several of the dwelling 
apartments were burnt down, when the fire was put out without hav- 
ing extended further. On an inspection being made no deficiency 
was found of the silver stored in the treasury, neither were any of 
the records in the writer's rooms missing. 

On making a sincere investigation into this case, we find that the 
radical cause of the commencement of the affair was as follows. The 
prefect, having in the afternoon of the same day gone out of his office 
on public business, was met where the road passes the place called 
Shw^ng-raun Te (Bottom of the double-gate) by Wdng Aping, one 
of the common people, carrying a load of pickled edibles. On one 
of the attendant police runners trying to impede him, he would not 
obey, and thus a mutual wrangling ensued. The prefect then person- 
ally reprimanded him, but lie, as before, disputed with him also, 

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320 Destruction of the prefects ofice. April, 

whereupon he was laid down upon the ground and on the decision 
of the prefect the punishment of beating with the bamboo was inflicted 
upon him, after which he was led by them back to the office. At 
that time, however the inhabitants of the street, fearing that Wdng 
Aping being a tradesman would when taken to the magistrates be 
involved in trouble, upwards of ten of them followed him into the 
office, earnestly beseeching that he might be liberated. As the place 
in question was but a very short distance from the office of the prefect 
and as it was, morever, a bustling place of traffic and general thor- 
oughfare, many of the people who were passing followed to look on, 
until it had in some measure the appearance of a crowd. The prefect, 
in conjunction with the district magistrate of Pwinyii, then addressed 
his commands to them from the great hall and set Wdng Aping at 
liberty, whereupon the inhabitants of the street immediately retired 
out of the office. Suddenly, however, a great number of vagabonds, 
whose names were unknown, cried out loudly that, " the prefect had 
secretly conveyed barbarians into his office," they therefore desired 
to make a search for them and. it had a very tumultuous appearance. 
The prefect and the district magistrate explained the matter clearly, 
but the vagabonds relying on their number would not yield obedience, 
but rushed straight into the office, the police runners of the prefect 
not having power to stop them; the furniture was broken and destroy- 
ed and some apartments burnt down. Subsequently we received 
report from the local military authorities and the district magistrate, 
stating that they had apprehended Kui Afah and some others of the 
vagabonds, and praying us to depute an officer to try them. 

After making an investigation it is our opinion, that the prefect, 
having the duty incumbent on him of keeping the country in due 
order, his inflicting the punishment of beating with the bamboo on 
disobedient people when he meets them must be a constantly occur- 
ring aflair, and there is therefore no reason why the public indigna- 
tion should be excited by it. As to the inhabitants of the street 
following Wang Aping to the magistrate's and praying that he might 
be liberated because they feared he would be involved in trouble 
when taken there, this conduct also pertains to the common feelings 
of human nature, and as they retired out of the office we can perceive 
that they by no means assembled the multitude and created the distur- 

But the conduct of (he great number of vagabonds, who suddenly 
Altered the office and in a disorderly manner caused trouble, was 

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1846. Extracts from the Peking Gazettes. 221 

exceedingly unlawful. Kfii Afah and some otliers of them have 
already been apprehended and brought up to be examined, but as yet 
we have got no true depositions. It is highly proper that measures 
be taken to search out and apprehend the ringleaders and the more 
important of the criminals, a searching examination be clearly and 
truly conducted, and the utmost exertions made to bring them to 
punbhment ; we have therefore given orders to the local, civil, and 
military officers to institute a secret search, and that they must seek 
to apprehend the criminals and hand them over for prosecution ; 
besides which it is our duty to pray that Liu Tsiri, the prefect of 
Kwangchau be temporarily removed from his post. We have at the 
same time deputed, by letter, Liu K^iyih, as acting prefect, to take 
charge of the official business of the said prefecture and be expressly 
responsible for it. 

As in duty bound we now send up a reverential memorial, prostrate 
entreating Your Majesty's sacred glance thereon and the manifesta- 
tion of your instructions in the matter. 

P. S. Although we have a copy of the original memorial, we have preferred 
borrowing a translation from the Hongkong Register rather than to write out 
a new one. The above appears, as a translation, over the initials of J. A. T. M . 
The requests of their excellencies have been granted by the Emperor. 

Art. Vn. Extracts from the Peking OnzetteSy Nos, 1 to A for the 
twenty^sixtk year of the reign of his imperial majesty Tdukwdng 
A. D. 1846. 
FoRMRRLY the Peking Gazette was called King ehau, 'Transcript 
from the Capital,' it having been composed of extracts copied from 
documents in the courts of Peking and circulated in manuscript.? 
official through the provinces. The numbers now before us are called 
King PdUy JS ^, or 'Metropolitan Reporter,* and were printed 
with moveable wooden type. 

No. 1 extends from January 17th to 22d, and contains twenty? 
one articles, most of them being imperial edicts, giving minor apr 
pointments both civil and military. There are reports also of law- 
suits and of the degradation and dismissal of sundry officers. 

No. 2 extends from January 23d to 26th, and, in addition to the 
ordinary details, it gives the following. No snow having fallen 
in fhe capital durinjr the winter, the emperor sent down his will^ 

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^H'Z Extracts from the Peking Gazettes ^ April, 

directing that altars should be erected and prayers made. Snow 
soon fell. Moved hy this favor, and the snow being but liglit, on 
the 23d of January other altars were to be erected — one to the gods 
of heaven, one to the gods of earth, and one to the gods of the clos- 
ing year; — three of the emperor's own sons were to repair, one to 
each altar, there to offer prayers and sacrifices ; while his august 
majesty was to proceed to offer incense in one of the principal tem- 
ples. Kindred kings were to go and do the same in other temples. 

Mismanagement of the imperial household and delays in the col- 
lection of the revenue give occasion for the emperor to animadvert 
on the conduct of sundry officers in the capital. 

No. 3, extending from January 27th to the 31st, and containing 
24 pages, opens with requests from the officers in charge of the 
great canals, asking for money to sustain those works. These 
requests, having been referred to the Board of Works, were subse- 
quently granted. 

Mis majesty has been pleased to intimate that on the 3d of April 
he will set out on a tour from the Yuen-ming Yuen ; on the 7th, 
will visit the Western Mausoleum ; and, on the 10th, having finished 
the riles due to his departed ancestors^ will proceed to the Southern 
Park ; and on the 15th return to his " Round-bright Gardens," the 
Yuen-ming Yuen. 

In this number there is a sort of programm for the various festivi- 
ties and civil and religious services of new-year. On the last even- 
ing of the old year, January 26th, the emperor's sons and others 
sat down to an imperial banquet. Many of the great ministers were 
also entertained at the palace. Among the persons appointed to 
perform religious services were kings and princes, one of whom was 
ofBudhistic faith. Among the divinities, to whom honors were to 
be paid, are the gods of thunder, the gods of wind, the gods of fire, 
the gods of the clouds, etc. And among the places where these 
were to be paid is kih'loh'Shi'kdi'Wdn'fuh4au^ "j^ ^& -Itfp Bt ^ 
ii^ 1$ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ten-thousand Budhas of the world's most 
happy age. 

No. 4, February 1st to 5th, contains, among other edicts, the fol- 

•owing -.^fihW^^BEB^ii'im^mZA 

Id ^ij^ ^-| 'j*^ ^ 3E' »• ®- "our younger brother Tun tsin-w^ng 
Mien-kAi being without an heir, let our august fif^h son, Yih-tsuncr 

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1S4G. Journal of Occurrences. 2'2'i 

be given lu Iiiin fur au heir, and let him be invested with the title of 

Tun kioan-wangJ* 

This number contains, also the names of persons to wlioni the 

emperor had granted presents, notices of feasts, &c., and makes 

mention also of tribute from Corea. 

P. S. Our extracts from the Gazettes come down to March 3d. These nuticcK 
will be continued in future numbers. 

AiiT. VIII. Journal of occurrences^ : scarcity/ of prain ; rain and 
thunder storms; hail; deaths by lightning ; Kiying^s inter vino 
with governor Davis; imperial presents ; review of troops ; pub^ 
lie executions ; commodore Biddle and the U. 8, A. Legation : 
new consul at Shanghai; the fvc ports.; Marcao; death of Mrs. 
Sixty years ago, in the reign of Kienlung, there was a famine, oc- 
casioned by drought, in the southern provinces of China. As the 
Chinese compute time by cycles of sixty, and as the year 1846 would 
correspond to the one in whicli the famine previously occurred, cer- 
tain gainseekers undertook to predict that there would be a similar 
calamity during the current season. The consequcpce was, a rise 
in the price of grain, which for weeks continued to advance, though 
the markets were well stored. At length, on the 26th day of the 
12th month of the 25th year of T^ukwfing, (January 23d 1846,) a 
proclamation came out from the governor-general and governor exg- 
posing, and animr^dverting on, the conduct of those gainseekers, in 
their endeavors to impede the free trade in grain and thereby en- 
hancing its price and consequently distressing the people. Their 
excellencies showed that the circumstances of the case now differ 
widely from those of the same year in the preceding cycle. Then 
there had been drought, but now there have been rains. The pro- 
clamation had the desired effect; and the rains having been seasona- 
ble, the price of grain has been and is likely to continue moderate. 
2. Rain and thunder storms, during the first part of the month, 
were frequent, and some of them severe. These continued rains 
have afforded to the husbandman, especially to the growers of rice, 
additional assurances of a fruitful season. 

^. /f(fi/ foil on ihc 1st, and on one or two subsequent days : some 
of the hail-stonos wrro half the size of an ounce hall. 

4 In »»nc oflhobc slurms, (wo Chinar were killed htf Nghtning, 

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•i*il Juuniat of OcLumnct^- Ai'iiiL, 

and others severely shocked. This occurred in the western suburbs, 
ill a house perhaps a mile from the foreign factories. 

5. On the 3d an interview took place, near the Bogue, between 
their excellencies Kfying and governor Davis, having reference, we 
suppose, to the evacuation of Chusan and the opening of the city 
gates. Ihenling, one of the heroes of the late war, has been ap- 
pointed to receive back the keys of Tingh^i on the evacuation of 
the island. 

6. The emperor has recently sent down numerous tokens of 
favor, and a score or more of these have fallen upon Kfying. 

7. His excellency is now absent from the city, on a tour for the 
inspection of the military. He is expected back early next month. 

8. Public executions are occaaionly reported in the '' court 
circular,'' so called. Twelve criminals " were finished," on the 
19th, at the potters-field near the imperial landing place. 

9. Commodore James Biddle, late acting commissioner at Canton 
on behalf of the government of the U. S. A., lefl the provincial city 
on the 15th instant, transferring to the Rev. P. Parker M. D. 
Secretary and Chinese interpreter to the mission, the charge of the 
affairs of the Legation, tis Chargi d^ affairs of the U. S. ad interim. 

10. Henry Griswold Wolcott, esq., has been appointed acting 
consul of the United States of America at Shdngh^i. 

11. At all the five ports, public affairs in general continue in as 
favorable a state as could well be expected. At Shanghii some 
temporary embarrassment has been caused by the failure of Alum 
and King-wo. There are rumors of some disturbances at Fuhchau, 
but of their nature and extent we are not informed. The Hongkong 
Register says there is no reason to doubt that the houses of several 
of the Englsih residents have been attacked. From Ningpo and 
Amoy we have no very recent dates. The long expected Areatus 
has arrived at Hongkong with a cargo of ice from Boston and some 
** Yankee apples." Of the cargo of ice for Canton we have no cer- 
tain intelligence. 

12 By the last steamer, which reached Hongkong on the ISth, a 
new governor, H. G. senhor Amaral, arrived on his wuy to Macao. 
We are glad to know that, at last, Macao is to be a free port for 
all kinds of goeds, ** arms, gunpowder, and orchilla" only excepted. 

13. Dicd^ on the 22d of December 1845, off Dover, in the Eng- 
lish Channel, Jane Abbey, wife of Dr. Benjamin Hobson of the 
London Missionary Society and of the Medical Missionary Society'?; 
Hospital, Hongkong 

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Vol. XV.— Mat, 1846.— No. 5. 

Akt. I. Notices of the city of Fuhchau fu , from the News of the 
Worlds with remarks on the navigation of the river Min, by 
captain Richard Coilinson, r. n. (From the China Mail.) 
Tins city lies thirty miles from the mouth of the river, in a valley 
on its right bank. The scenery of the Min from its embouchure to 
Fuhchau has been compared to that of the Rhine, with which, in- 
deed, it has some features of resemblance. The banks aregeneraJly 
steep and abrupt, and though upon the whole rather bare, in many 
places villages are seen half embosomed in trees, and tlie land above 
and around is terraced even to the summits of the hills, and under 
careful cultivation. A good deal of active bustle and improvement 
was perceptible as we approached the bridge. Numerous junks were 
lying in the river, their shapes and devices bespeaking the different 
ports to which they belonged, from the high poop and clumsy bulk 
of the Sh.^nghdi barks, to the low, long craA, dispatched from Ningpo, 
and watting for a cargo of black tea, &.c. Shore boats, filled with 
idle gazers, plied round us in great numbers, generally worked only 
by women — ruddy, healthy, and merry-looking — by the aid of an oar 
at the stern and one at the bow, from 25 to 30 feet in length, serving 
as rudders. The city is not visible from the anchorage. A low sub- 
urb on both sides of the water, consisting of wooden and very dilapi- 
dated looking- houses, does not give a very favorable idea of the pro- 
vincial capital. To the left some low hills advance nearly to the 
water's edge, fringed with pines and fir-trees, and interspersed with 
fcniple^ and gravestones. To the right, in front and behind, a girdle 

VOL. XV. NO. V, ^9 

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226 Notices of the City of Fuhchau fu. May, 

of high hills defines the boundaries of an ample valley, through which, 
during the raius, the river rolls a rapid and turbid volume of water, 
often flooding, even for days, the whole of the surrounding country. 

All Chinese cities bear a striking resemblance to each other, and 
have been often described. The same narrow and dirty streets, en- 
cumbered with projecting stalls, stoves, and cooking apparatus. The 
shops with th.eir open fronts, perpendicular sign-boards painted, gild, 
ed, and inscribed with the picturesque written character — their gau- 
dy lanterns swinging above, and their fantastic wares set out in due 
order, enliven and improve the picture. These are at Fuhchau the 
same as elsewhere in China. The suburb extends in one long street 
for nearly three miles before the nearest city gate is gained; and, as 
our chair-bearers had received no explicit directions to make haste, 
they left us abundant leisure for observation. Much had been said 
at Hongkong of the hostility of the people, and their disposition to 
insult and annoy foreigners; therefore I watched them narrowly. I 
could detect but three expressions in their countenances or gestures, 
idle curiosity, stupid and stolid wonder, utter indifference and apa- 
thy ; here and there among the children I marked derision or fear. 
I saw no bad feeling exhibited, but certainly no evidence of anything 
cordial or friendly, and idle curiosity, though unmixed with intention- 
al impertinence, when carried to extremities, is but a bearish habit 
which they take every occasion to gratify, careless of the annoyance 
or inconvenience to the object. As every shop contains from ten to 
twenty occupants, a crowd is collected in a Chinese city with greater 
ease perhaps than in any other part of the world. The whole of the sub- 
urb was crowded with peasants and porters of both sexes, bringing 
fish, flesh, and fowl to market. Fish and vegetables largely predomi- 
nated. When a misfortune, grave or trifling, occurs to a Chinese 
in the streets, the invariable eiTact is to excite a laugh at his ex- 
pense. This is carried to a singular extent. A friend of mine the 
other day saw his Chinese servant enter his room with a broad grin 
on his countenance, as if he had some delightful news to relate, and in- 
formed his master that a fellow-servant had hanged himself. "What 
could have induced him?" "Spose wanche catch bury." That is, he 
supposed the man wanted to get decently buried at his master's ex- 
pense ! Their indifference to life, their want of all sympathy with 
human suffering, is so great as to striko the most careless observer. 

I rate the Chiness intellectually very low ; and a thousand years 
of stagnation, in complete ignorance of even the elements of modern 
civilization, and the higher kinds of knowledge, I think warrant the 

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1S40. of the City of Fuhchau fa. 227 

judgment. Yet the women, especially 1 remarked, had many of 
them well-formed heads and foreheads, such as the European often 
cannot boast. Though possessed of little beauty, they have a mild 
intelligent cast of countenance, far superior in character to that of 
their lords and masters. They look eminently modest too, both in 
dress and manner ; for though in those accustomed to hard work the 
legs are bared to the upper part of the knee, the neck is closely veil- 
eJ to the throat, and the b:ist enveloped in a loose vest drawn in 
tightly at the natural waist, while a white or blue apron and wide 
trousers reaching to the knee, complete a dress both modest and ap- 

The men of the lower classes in Fuhchau neither step so freely, nor 
carry themselves so well as the women. In soldier's phrase, they 
want *' setting-up " terribly ; neither do they possess any of the mild 
intelligence of what may truly be said to be their better halves. There 
is something louche in their gestures (I have not an English equiva- 
lent), and they stand or move along round-shouldered or half-bent. 
In expres:sion, they are frequently either stupid or impudent, with no 
pretensions to manly beauty, nor, generally, to vigor of form. A 
grade higher, as they m )ve, or are carried along in chairs, muffled 
up in long gowns and hanging sleeves, their vests fitting round the 
lower part of the throat, a shaven face and head above, with one 
patch of hair and lo.ig pendent tail, they look as if dressed for the 

The Chinese coolies do a great deal of hard work, yet they do 
not seem to be well-grown, muscular, athletic men. I doubt whether 
the day's work of an English porter would not kill any three of them. 
Their muscles seem flaccid and soft ; their chests are neither deep 
not broad, and the whole body is but indifferently set upon the legs. 
They appeared generally out of condition ; either too spare for 
strength or too fat for exertion, the latter condition being almost 
exclusively confined to the shop-keepers. The Tartars are generally 
a taller and more athletic race. 

The (ish was in considerable variety, but even in this natural 
product they do not seem to possess many kinds of good or delicate 
flavor. They have several kinds of inferior shell-fish, and a huge- 
looking crab that presents anything but an inviting aspect. The 
turtle is tolerably plentiful. I believe the Chinese, par gout, do 
not attach importance to the freshness of fish; indeed, if I may judge 
by the odours of their fish-market, much the contrary. Even in the 
fish they preserve, the salt is applied when we consider the fish spoiled* 

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228 Notices of the City of Fuhehau fi. Mat, 

Of meat, some kids and goats, some beef of indilTerent appearance, 
and large quantities of pork, seemed to be in request ; the last, as I 
aflerwards tested, was excellent and of very delicate flavor. I did 
not observe dogs or cats, alive or dead, for sale ; but fat sows and 
their progeny, with mangy dogs, dispute the pathway in prodigious 
numbers. The poorer classes feed chiefly in the streets, clustering 
round gateways, where sheds or stalls are kept by itinerant cooks. 
Rice is, of course, the principal food, stewed with a little fish, and 
dashed with garlic. It is amusing to see these chair-bearers and 
coolies squatted on their hams and curiously poised upon their feet, 
instead of resting on that part of the person we are apt to think des- 
tined for sitting accommodation (for this is their favorite position, 
especially if they can perch in this attitude on the top of a table or 
high stool), their knees to their chests their basins and chopsticks to 
their mouths, shovelling in the rice porridge in the most dexterous 
manner, and with such gusto that one is much inclined to think it can 
be no such bad thing after all. The Chinese are, indeed, to a man, 
good cooks, and well know how to extract the nutritive and glutinous 
elements out of all that comes under their hands. 

We passed a succession of coppers-smiths, hammering some excellent, 
looking metal into all kinds, and some very odd kinds, of pots, pans, 
incense urns, and dishes. Then came a succession of ironmongers, 
hammering the red-hot bars with hearty good will, and fashioning 
the very roughest tools and implements. Another minute and we 
were in a rag fair, the Monmouth-street of Fuhehau. Second-hand 
robes, jackets, and caps hung up in all varieties of condition — nearly 
new, shabby, and threadbare. Then foMowed a long succession of 
lantern shops, the lanterns being often of fantastic and yet elegant 
forms and very delicate materials, oiled paper, transparent silk, or 
silvery tale covering the slight bamboo frame, bedizened with paint, 
varnish, and gilding in wonderful profusion, and adorned with figures, 
painted as only the Chinese can paint themselves, absurd, grotesque, 
out of drawing, most expressively inexpressive in countenance, and 
marvellously like the great originals. Of furniture shops there was 
abundance, with beds, tables, chairs, inceoae-stands, and wonderful 
book-cases that would puzzle the most ingenious to set up any two 
authors on the same level. Then came sedan-shops, providing both 
the flimsy bamboo chair of the lower classes, and the portly well- 
made cloth-covered vehicle of the magistrate, basket-shop, bamboo 
workshops, druggists, cook-shops, curiosity-shops, china-shops, with 
which theeye sent a rapid glance back through hong within hong, piled 

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1840. Notices of the City af Fuhchau /t2. 239 

with ihia handsome ware. Silkroercers and drapers passed in review; 
there are generally five or six of the same kind together, and these 
recur often throughout the streets, preserving such a family likeness, 
that to distinguish them again by their exteriors would be as difficult 
a task as the puzzled robber found it to point out the house of Alt 
Baba among eight or ten marked precisely alike. 

Withdrawing one's eye from the interior to examine the exterior 
of these shops and habitations, a curious subject of inquiry presents 
itself, — how the whole is put together so that walls and roof do not 
fall asunder entirely — they oflen do in part^ — and wuy one wall does 
not go backward and another come forward, seeing that they have 
long ceased, if indeed they ever pretended, to stand straight, and are 
perfectly independent of all support ? Paint and gilding in China 
do the office of charity in covering a multitude of sins. It is well 
known that in a Chinese house paint and oyster shells supply the 
place of glass windows ; be it also understood that it is not consi- 
dered always essential that a door be made to shut or a window to 
open, and, indeed, a medium between an approach to a fit between 
window and frame seems rather to be preferred. Their paint they 
lay on with the hand with a little piece of twisted cotton ; this may 
have the effect of working it into the grain, but otherwise does not 
look very efficient. 

We, in building, have some narrow prejudice about the sightliness, 
not to say the importance of perpendicular, horizontal, and parallel 
lines. These are rather beneath the notice of a Chinese workman, 
or beyond his reach of art. In building a house at Fuhchau, I per- 
ceive the fashion is as follows : the foundation is made by a shallow 
trench, wherein are ranged a few rough-hewn stones, something in 
the Cyclopiac fashion, not laid as wedges, but filling in angles, and 
so mutually supporting each other ; four or more pillars of wood are 
then set upon, not into the mud, of which the floor is to be made, 
standing each on a small slab of stone, thicker or thinner, if any 
dissimilarity in the length of the several pillar must be made up ; 
four crossbeams make the framework on which the roof is to be laid, 
being of raflers and loose tiles; lastly, rise the walls of mud, sometimes 
sparingly assisted with bricks, but with little or no mortar. The 
walls having little or no connection with the roof or the pillars, do 
not feel themselves at all constrained to follow the same line, but 
incline inward or outward, as is most convenient. The roof, if a 
little top-heavy, as it generally is, gives a jaunty air to the pillars, 
and, to lend the additional suppoit which seems so much neededi 

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230 Navigation of the Min, May, 

large sloping beams or buttresses are driven into the earth at each 
side of the house, which thus appears to stand like a drunken man, 
not on its own feet, but by the aid of considerate friends. Nothing 
is more common than to see a perfectly new house propped by these 
supports. Having proceeded thus far, the work in which they really 
delight begins. The pillars, ceiling, and roof are daubed with red 
paint, the walls very respectably plastered, and, if the purse and 
taste of the proprietor permit, gilded tablets inscribed with the old 
. Chinese character, gay flowers, and grotesque monsters in paint or 
alto-relievo, cover the walls of cornices; little temples, niches for 
josses, and grottoes, being added if space will allow, and thus, in 
Chinese estimation, is completed an admirable and substantial house. 
The mandarins in Fuhchau are not better lodged than the shop-kee- 
pers; though much has been written of abodes of luxury and habits 
of indulgence, the foundation for such tales is only to be found in 
two or three of the wealthy Canton merchants' villas, who have im- 
bibed some ideas of luxury and refinement from their intercourse 
with Europeans. A mandarin's residence is a perfect Chinese puz- 
zle of gateways, courtyards, lanes, temples, and shops, often cover- 
ing several acres of ground, yet without a single comfortable room. 
News of the World, July Ath, 1845. 

Navigation of the Min, 

The White Dog group will afford shelter to vessels in the northeast mon- 
tioon ; but by far the best place for making the entrance to the river is from 
Changchi nhan and Matsu shan. On the west side of the latter, vessels 
will find shelter in either monsoon ; and as they will have only seven miles 
to go to reach the bar, they will be better enabled to choose tlieir time. 
These islands, viz: the White Dog group, Matsu shan, Chanchi shan, 
together with the Sea Dog, form admirable leading marks for making the 
const, and are thus described by capt Kellett : — 

The JFhite Doga.-—'' The White Do.-ra, called by the Chinese Pik-kiucn 
consist of two large and one smaller islet To the northeasi one and a half 
mile is a rock upon which the sea breaks ; anchorage for ships of any 
draught may be had under the western island in tlie northcsi monsoon ; as 
the water decreases gradually towards the island, large vessels may ap- 
proach as convenient, bearing in mind that there is 18 feet rise and fall." 

H. M. S. Cornwallis anchored here for five days with strong northeasterly 
winds, and rode easy. The bearings from her anchorage were as follows : 
West point of northwest island N. A W. ^ 
Village - - - - N N E. V in 8 fathoms. 
Smallest island - - - E. i S. ) 

One cable off the western point of village bay, on the south side of west 
fdaud, is a rock which shows at half tide. The channel between tlic islands 

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IbJC). Nun.naium of //it 3fut. 2M 

is siifb. The aouliiwcst cn«l of west island is in lat. 25' 5>^' 1 " N., mwl Ion. 
119" 57 E. The summit of the island, which is nearly level, is b'M foi.t 
above the sen. Fresh water may be obtained in sinall quanlitios. VessoN 
bound for the Min should start from here with the ebb tide. Pilots may be 
obUiined ; but it must be borne in mind that the Biiitanfr was run on bhore 
by one of them cither throu«;rh ifrnorance or willfulness. 

Matsu shim B^i jji[J I M — Matsu shdn lies due north of the western 
White Dog, and between the two (N. \V E. from the latter) is the Sea Doff, 
a precipitous black rock about CO foct liigh, with reefs about it : S. 3:2° VV. 
from it 1.45 mile is a reef with only eigrht feet over it at low water ; wlien 
upon it, tlie summit of Mitsu shan bears N. 14' W. Between the Sea Dovr 
and Matsu shan are two other rocks which are never covered ; and upon the 
eastern side of Matsu shan is an islet with reefs extendina^ two cables east- 
erly. Anchoranre (as has been obscn'ed) will be found in both monsoons 
on the western side of Matsu shan ; but in tlie southwest monsoon vessels 
must choose such a beitii as will enable them to run round the nortliwest 
point of tlie island and find shelter in the bay upon tlie north side, in the 
event of Uie breeze from that quarter freshening into a gale. Fresh water 
can be obtained in both bays. 

Changchi shin ^ ||^ |1|. Changchi shan lies northeast three miles 
from Matsu shan; on it are two remarkable paaks, the highest is elevated 
lOi^O feet above the sea, and is in lat 2(5" 14' N., and long. 120* 1.7 E. 
The bay on the south side of this island affords good shelter in the northeast 
monsoon. Vessels entering from the northward may round the southeastern 
horn of its close, and anchor within the point in six fathoms. Junks or fish- 
ing boats may be had here to communicate with tlie Min. 

ErUrance to the rivtr Min. To tlie eastward of the north horn of the 
channel at tlie entrance of the river is a reef which shows only at low watei, 
the bearings from it are: MaUu shan peak N. 54° E., Sea Dog N. 88' E., 
White Dog peak S. 45^° E., Sand peak S. 59' W., Sharp Peak N. 7V W., 
and Recs Rock is in line with the Southern Peak on Square Peak Island. 

Rees Rock is low and difficult for a stransfer to get hold of, unless fro'n 
the masthead. There Hre, however, other leading marks, which, unless the 
hills are obscured, will form good marks lo enable a seamen to ascertain his 
position. On the north side of the river is a remarkable sharp peak ; and 
a square (or double peak) on the south ; nearer than the latter Round Island 
will be seen, and to tlie southward of it a sharp sandy peak, bearing about 
S. f)8' VV. This latter is the only peak that can be mistaken for the sharp 
peak on the norlli side, and tlie bearing of the White Dogs will at once 
obviate tiio mistake, if referred to. The channel between the breakers is 
two miles across at the entrance; nearly in mid channel is a knoll which 
at some seasons has only nine feet over it, and at other periods thirteen feet 
The leading mark in, to pass upon the north side of it, is to bring Reio 
Rock in line witli S<iuare J'eak, bearing N. 81° W. At present however, 
(Ib4(),) the channel south of it has more water, and is to be preferred, tlio 

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232 iVamgaiion of the Minn, May, 

leading mark for which is to bring Rees Rock in one witli tlie first point 
under and to the right of Square Peal^ bearing WN W. Having entered, 
steer so as to pass one mile north of Rees Rock ; the breakers will show on 
each side of tl|e channel if it be near low water and there is any swell; by 
skirting the northern side the deepest water will be found, and it is necessa- 
ry to take great care that the vessel is not set across the channel, as the 
tide rushes across with great force between the sand banks, the ebb setting 
to tlie northward and the flood southerly. 

The course from Rees Rock is N. G8* W., and in going up keep the islets 
(called the Brothers) on the face of Hakian^ri in one, which will carry you 
in mid channel until you are abreast Sharp Peak point, when a NW. by W. 
course may be shaped for Temple Point which is upon the north bank of the 
river, and will be known by the trees and Joss-house upon it In the chan- 
nel, without Rees Rock, the depth of water is 2^ and 3 fathoms ; between 
Rees Rock and Sharp Peak point there is a hole with five and six fathoms 
where vessels may stop a tide and find tolerable shelter; Sharp Peak point 
should not be passed nearer than a cable ; the bay west of it is shoal, and 
under the peak the two fathoms line extends nearly one mile from the shore. 
The mud also extends southeasterly from Hdkianga nearly 1^ mile. Ves- 
sels beating in this passage must therefore keep the lead going. From the 
West Brother the mud extend westerly one mile, and upon its north edge is 
a patch of rocks which are covefed at quarter flood. The West Brother 
bears from them S. 74' E., and the Temple N. 12* E. 

South 17* W. from the Temple 3^ cables is a knoll with 2^ fathoms on it 
Sharp Peak seen over the lower part of Woga Point will place you on it. 
F*rom the Temple to Kin-pai mun is not quite two miles W. by S. At the 
entrance of the passage are two islets ; pass between them and keep over 
towards the south shore to avoid a rock which lies W. by S. ^ S. from tlie 
northern bl6t The channel is not quite two cables wide, and should only 
be attempted at slack tide, as the chau-chau water renders a vessel un- 

To the westward of Kin-pai pomt is a rock having 13 feet over it at low 
water; the bearings upon it are Kin-p^i point N. 66" E., fort on the north 
shore N. 33* E., ferry house S. 48* W., highest hill over Kin-p&i point S. 
30* E. Kin-pai point in one with the north end of Passage Island (the north- 
ern islet at the entrance) bearing N. 56* EL will place you south of it, which 
is the best side to pass, as the channel this side is 1^ cable wide, while 
between the rock and the tail of the spit to the westward, the distance is 
only half a cable. Having passed the point keep the southern shore close 
on board to avoid the middle ground, the channel hereabouts being some- 
times under two cables ; when abreast of the ferry house which is 1^ mile 
above Kin-pai, and on the right or southern bank, edge over to the northern 
shore, passing Wedge Islet at the cable's length ; there are two rocky points 
above it which are covered at high water, and extend a cable from the 
Embankment The rock and sudden turn in the Kin-pai pass, render the 

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1846. Naoigatum of the Min. 233 

navigation exceedingly awkward ; bat if vessels wait for the last quarter 
flood they will be enabled to run up on the northern shore. 

Above the feriy house and the same side of the river is Tree Point, the 
shore on that side between them being shoal too; a half tide rock bears 
from the Tree Point N. 9* W. 4^ cables, when on it the ferry house is in 
the line with Kin-p4i point This reach runs southwest by south and north- 
east by north, at the distance of six miles from Kin-pii, the river narrows 
again to 3^ cables, the hills raising abruptly on either side. 

The town of Min-gan Qm ^ is on the left bank of the river one mile 
within the strait; the river continues narrow for three miles and the depth 
of water being generaUy above twenty fathoms, vessels, unless with a lead- 
ing wind, should keep a boat ahead as the tide is apt to set you on either 
shore. Rather more than half a mile above Min-gan and on the same side 
of the river, is an islet crowned with a fort: at the upper end of the narrows, 
are two islets upon the right bank; in going up leave them upon your port 
hand, passing close to the northern point of the outside one, which is steep 
too, but there is a sunken rock on which the Spiteful struck tliree quarter S. 
of a cable from its northwestern shore ; WNW. from the island two cables is 
a shoal patch of nine feet at low water. 

Having passed the island, keep along the right bank, gradually hauling 
up for the Pagoda of Losingtah ; S. IT £. from it rather more than two 
cables is a sunken rock which shows at low water spring tides ; to avoid 
which, round the Pagoda Point close, and come to opposite the sandy bay 
above the Pagoda. The river is only navigable for vessels three quarter S. of 
a mile above the Pagoda. There is a sand bank half a mile to the northeast 
of the Pagoda and three quarter S. of a cable from the shore. 

The navigation of the river might be greatly facilitated and at a small 
expense. The following are what appear to me necessary : 

IsL — An iron basket high enough to be seen at all times of tide on the 
reef to the eastward of the north Horn at the entrance. 3d. A buoy on the 
knoll at the entrance. Sd. Rees Rock to be raised higher, and a mark on 
the land under Square Peak (which may easily be made by the paint or 
white wash) which brought in line with the rock will lead vessels through 
the channel to the southward of the knoll and obviate the necessity of com- 
pass bearings. 

Richard CoLLinsoit, Coptoin. 

VOL. XV. NO. V. 30 r^ T 

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*234 Srrm^tf on Cltristian J//^^•lo«5. May 

Art. II. An address on the subject of Christian Missions: being 
two sermons preached in the Colonial Church, at Hongkong, 
on Snndai/, March 29th, 1846. By the Rev. Gkorge Smith, 
M. A. Oxon : missionary of the Church (of England) Missionary 
Society, and formerly minister of Goole, Yorkshire.* 

CREATURE. Mark 16:15. 

The subject of Christian missions which I am about to bring 
before your attention, my brethren, is one of great dignity and im- 
portance. It cannot have failed to strike most of us, that an unrea- 
sonable amount of ignorance and prejudice exists in respect to this 
subject ; and that few really comprehend or form a proper estimate of 
their own obligations in reference thereto. As most of the errors 
prevalent on the matter arise frequently from misconception, but still 
more generally, alas! it is to be feared, from that utter indifference 
to religion which is the prominent feature of the carnal mind; I trust 
that it will not be deemed inconsistent with that office and character, 
which more especially I represent before you, to devote this, probably 
thelast, Sabbath of my temporary ministrations among this communi- 
ty, to the claims of that great work, in which I feel it to be an honor 
to hav«? been permitted to bear a very humble part. 

Without further prefatory remarks, I shall introduce yon at once, 
to the five propositions, which I hope to be able to establish; and 
which, if fairly demonstrated, should produce in you a proportionate 
sense of responsibility. It is proposed to demonstrate: 

I. The missionary work, viewed on the common principles of 
reason, partakes of the highest order of benevolence. 

H. It has the special sanction of Scripture and the positive com- 
mand of our Lord himself. 

III. The ordinary means employed are primitive and apostolic. 

I V. The eftects of Christian missions in later times have been 
identical with those in apostolic times, in proportion to the faithful- 
ness of Christians and the amount of instrumentality used. 

V The ordinary objections to the missionary work no more affect 
• t^ claim to our approval and support than they do the claims of 
Christianity itself to our belief 

The first sermon concluded wilh the 3d division. A few intervening 
icnttnces, neci'ssary to the connection oftho 1\vo discourses, havt- been omit- 
t?J. \n printin«^, us uucbscntiul to the continuily of the ^elRTai auhjcct. 

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1646. akrmon on Christian Missions. 235 

I. My first proposition, then, asserts that the missionary work, 
viewed an the common principles of reason, partakes of the highest 
order of benevoUnu. 

If it be true that Christianity bears with it, in its train, all the 
important advantages of civilization and its attendant blessings of 
liberty, freedom, and peace : jf the tendencies of our holy religion are 
to increase and promote the temporal well-being of man, to bring 
forth the captive from the dungeon, to loosen the fetters of slavery, 
to abolish the horrors of warfare, to bind the whole human family in 
one golden cord of philanthrophy and love : if the indirect influence 
of the gospel on the external frame-work of society, in every land to 
which its blessed reign extends, is to elevate the character and ame- 
liorate the condition of its people, to curb the licentiousness of power, 
to soften and relax the selfishness of wealth, to raise woman from 
those depths of inferiority and social wrongs to which brutal lust 
would degrade her, — to spread the blessings of civil and religious 
freedom through the world : if, more than this, and as immeasurably 
higher in the estimate and comparison as heaven exceeds earth, 
eternity outlasts time, and the soul surpasses the body, the reception 
of these good tidings of the gospel into the soul of the sinner, infuses 
peace and joy under a sense of the pardoning love of God on high ; 
if it can cause the heart of the afflicted believer in Jesus to bound 
with emotions of gladness at the prospect of eternal glory; if it can 
reconcile the poor to the happiness of their lot as being rich in hea- 
venly things ; if it can fill the soul of the persecuted and unfortunate of 
this world with contentment and peaceful resignation to God's will ; 
if it can melt the soul of the blasphemer, turn the heart of the perse- 
cutor, purify the conscience of the lust-stricken debauchee, soften the 
malice of the murderer, and bring the most discordant social elements 
to harmony and peace, so that the blessed state allegorized by the 
prophet Isaiah (11 : 6.) is brought to pass, '' The wolf also shall dwell 
with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the 
calf and young lion and the futling together, and a little child shall 
lead them." If, more than this, it can enable the Christian, racked 
with pain and in the dread agony of death, to utter, in the full con- 
fidenc|g of hope and trust in the Redeemer's love, the words of triumph 
over the last enemy himself, ** Oh death where is thy rtiiig! Oli 
grave where is thy victory," then, brethren, I ask whether the diffu- 
sion of such a blessed principle c>f happiness through the world is not 
rational and good ? I ask whether those, who in (it)d's pr»)\ idenc(- 
have been called to leave the land oflhoir naiivily, in ordnr to propa- 

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236 8trnum an Christian Missians. May, 

gate this divine system and to hasten forward the consummation of 
this glorious plan of salvation, are not engaged in a work indispensably 
good and essentially benevolent ? If it be true that Christianity, in 
proportion to the degree of its reception and influence, carries with 
it all these blessings for time and eternity which have been enumerated 
(and the Bible infallibly declares, and the history of the church 
proves, and the experience of every real Christian firmly attests the 
truth of our assumption,) then, I ask, whether it does not follow that 
the missionary work may in the sublimity of its objects fairly com- 
pete with the highest schemes of philanthropy, and whether the truth 
of my proposition is not unquestionably established in your conviction, 
that, **the missionary work, viewed an the common principles of 
reason^ partakes of the highest order of benevolence ?" 

II. fiut not only is the excellency of the missionary work demons- 
trable on the common principles of reason ; not only are we led to see 
how rational it is that those, who profess to have discovered such a 
blessed principle of temporal and eternal happiness, should make 
efforts to extend a participation in its benefits both at home and abroad 
(for this is the true missionary principle); but we have the plain, 
positive and explicit command of Scripture on the subject. We are 
not left to mere conjecture or deductions of reason on so important 
a question. No doubt is lefV of its being agreeable to God's will. 

The second proposition may be easily proved, that, *' the missio- 
nary work has the special sanction of Scripture and the positive comr 
mand of our Lord himself^* 

The passage of Scripture chosen as my text commands this duty, 
of making an aggressive effort to diffuse the gospel in all lands, as 
plainly as words can convey meaning : " Go ye into all the world 
and preach the gospel to every creature.'' Equally extensive and 
explicit are the words of the parallel passage contained in Matthew's 
gospel (28: 19), *' Go ye therefore and teach all nations." It was 
the first command of the risen Saviour to his assembled apostles, 
afler he had triumphed over the power of death and burst the fetters 
of corruption, that those who profess to love him, should show their 
gratitude to him, by laboring to extend his kingdom and reign 
through the world. If we mark the extent of the command teach 
all nations, or as the word in the original Greek strictly denotes 
'*make disciples'' of all nations, we shall see that the duty is coex- 
tensive with the wants of the whole unchristianized world, and (in- 
asinucli as no duty is commanded in Scripture which is impossible 
iu the performance,) thai in this passage, as in numerous other pas- 

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1846. Sermon an Christian Mtssians. 237 

sages of Scripture, there is an earnest and a pUclge of the future and 
final triumph of the gospel over error and superstition. 

Now this command, to " preach the goepel to ererj creature," " to 
go and make disciples of all nations/' roust have heen intended bj 
onr Lord to apply either to the apostles in their own persons exelu* 
stvely, or to the whole Christian church in all ages, represented in the 
persons of the apostles then assembled in our Lord's presence after 
his resurrection. That the command was not intended merely to 
«pply to the apostles alone is evident from two considerations. 

Ist F^om the terms of the command, ** preach the gospel to every 
ertaiure" *'go and teach" (or make disciples of) *' all nations " 
The impossibilty of the eleven surviving apostles strictly fulfilling, 
in their own persons, so extensive and universal a command, as that 
of evangelising the whole human race, will at once present itself to 
every mind. Added to which many extensive regions of the world 
were unknown in the age of the apostles and have only been explored 
and brought to knowledge by the discoveries of a comparatively 
recent period. That the command was not meant to apply to the 
apostles in their own persons alone, will be evident also, 

2d]y. From the promise annexed to it, in Matthew's gospel, " Lo I 
am with you alway even unto the end of the world." Here a promise, 
of our Lord's presence to the end of time, is made conditional on the 
fulfillment of this command. But the apostles, after laboring in 
different parts of the pagan world in preaching the gospel, fell, one 
aAer another, chiefly the victims of persecution, and within sixty or 
seventy years after the resurrection of our Lord, they had all died 
and entered into their rest. In what way then is the promise to be 
fulfilled, " Lo I am with you alway even unto the end of the world." 
It is to be fulfilled in the gracious presence of our Lord with the 
(yhristian church, as aggregate of all the true followers of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, in every age to the end of time, of whom the apostles, 
who then stood in the presence of our Lord, were the representatives. 
It conveys a gracious intimation to God's people in all ages, that in 
proportion as they obey this injunction of their risen Lord, in extend- 
ing the influence of his gospel among the benighted millions of the 
heathen world abroad and the masses of baptized heathenism at home, 
in bearing the good tidings of a Saviour's love to every creature in 
every land where the destructive ravages of sin have extended, their 
exalted Redeemer will be with them, comforting them with assurances 
of his love, supporting them by the communications of his grace, and 
finally conducting them to heaven. It conveys a command that every 

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238 Sermon on Christian Missions, May, 

particular Christian church, as a branch of the universal company 
of God's spiritual children, should have its representatives in pagan 
lands to carry through the world the glorious testimony of a sacrifice 
and ransom provided for sin. 

And to this is annexed the promise that, in proportion as this com- 
mand is obeyed, and the gospel is proclaimed in its purity and power 
without intermixture of the superstitious corruptions of man's devising 
or the pride of ecclesiastical ambition, the blessing and presence of 
our Lord should remain with that church, preserving it from error 
and making it, in the copious effusion of the gracious influences of 
his spirit, '* like a watered garden and like a spring of water whose 
waters fail not." 

III. And this leads me to the third proposition, which asserts 
thatf in the missionary work, the ordinary means employed are pri' 
niHive and apostolic. 

In order to ascertain how far in the prosecution of this glorious 
end, we are treading in the steps of the apostles, and following (as 
far as may be) the order of means so blessed in the diffusion of Chris- 
tianity in primitive times, it is necessary that we should gather from 
Scripture the conduct and proceedings of the early Christians, in this 
matter. It is necessary to inquire how they understood the command 
of Christ, and how they set themselves to obey it. It will then be easy 
to perceive whether the means now ordinarily employed in the prac- 
tical machinery of Christian missions bear such a resemblance to the 
early church, as to encourage the hope that we may see similar results 
flow from the missionary enterprise. We read in the beginning of 
Acts, 8 : that when the persecution, attending the martyrdom of 
Stephen, was the occasion of dispersing, from Jerusalem through the 
surrounding region, the first Christian disciples, this apparently dis- 
couraging event was overruled by God to the furtherance and exten- 
sion of the gospel. In the words of the sacred historian, *' they that 
were scattered abroad went everywhere preaching the word." The 
various parts of the Holy Land thus heard the message of the gospel. 
The first preachers of Christianity gradually extended their labors 
to other lands; but even here their own countrymen, after the flesh, 
were in every case for a time the first objects of their solicitude, in 
accordance with the spirit of the command of our Lord, contained 
in Luke, (24:47,) **that repentance and remission ofsins should bo 
preached in his name among all nations, be^inninff at Jerusalem.'' 
But every nation and people, as well as every individual, hayo their 
Jay of grace and their season of repentance. 

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184G. Sermon on Christian Missions- i39 

When the message of reconciliation is rejected, and they wilfully 
close their eyes to the light of God's truth, their religious privileges, 
as a nation, are withdrawn, and conferred on other nations less 
favored than themselves. The continued unbelief and impenitence 
of the Jews led to the call of the surrounding gentiles to the privi- 
leges of the gospel. In Acts, 13: 45,46,47, we read, " But when 
the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy and spake 
against those things which were spoken by Paul contradicting and 
blaspheming: then Paul and Bar^iabas waxed bold and said, it 
was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to 
you, but seeing ye put it from you and judge yourselves unworthy of 
everlasting life, lo we turn to the gentiles, for so hath the Lord com- 
manded us." — On another occasion also (Acts 18: 6,) it is related, 
**And when they (the Jews) opposed themselves and blasphemed, 
he shook his raiment and said unto thorn, your blood be upon your 
own heads: I am clean, from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles." 
From this time, the evangelists, sent forth from the infant churches 
of Palestine, proceeded en their labors of love to the surrounding 
heathen. Men of every variety of condition in life, and mental 
acquirements, from the illiterate fisherman on the Lake of Galilee, 
Matthew the publican called from his lucrative post at the receipt of 
custom, Aquila the tent-maker, Luke the beloved physician, to Paul 
the learned, versed in all the depths of Rabbinical lore, and ** brought 
up at the feet of Gamaliel," were led to consecrate their bodies and 
minds to the preaching of Christ crucified, the spirit of God in their 
own hearts and the choice of the churches sealing externally their 
call to the work, alike attesting their divine commission. 

It might have been objected t/ien, as it is sometimes objected nofc, 
that a wide aeld of usefulness lay before tliGm among their country- 
men in their native land ; that they should first labor till the fruits of 
Christianity were more apparent among the Jewsj and then, when all 
Judea had become Christian, they should go forth to other lands. 
But not so thought the early disciples, acting under the direction of 
the spirit of God. Asia, Macedonia, Greece, Rome and surround-* 
ing countries, attested the zeal of their missionary labors. The athe- 
istic philosophy of Athens, the debauched luxury of Corinth, and the 
pride of imperial Rome, shared with the " Barbarian and the Scy- 
thian " the holy sympathy of the apostles. Supported at one time 
by the contributions of Christian churches, at another time by their 
own manual labor, they gave tlieinselves to this one thing of difTui^in^ 
the kuowled;;e of their Redeemer. A continual iutercuurbe vvu^; 

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340 Sermofi on Christian Missions » Mav, 

maintained between the itinerant evangelists and their constituency 
in Judea. (Acts, 15: 4.) "And when they were come to Jerusalem, 
they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders, 
and they declared all things that God had done with them." 

In this rapid and imperfect sketch, all who are acquainted with 
the details of missionary institutions will perceive an exact model of 
the present plans and operations ordinarily employed for the exten- 
sion of the gospel. Doubtless many anomalies exist from the altered 
character of the times and the changed relation of the church, es- 
pecially in the case of our own church, as established by law in 
connection with the state. In all the grand outlines, however, there 
is a perfect resemblance. Many Christians at home feel strongly 
the duty of the church obeying the Lord's command, '* go and teach 
all nations.'' From the necessity of the case, and the complicated 
relations of life, few only can personally engage in the work. As- 
sociations are formed for the collection of the necessary funds, and 
the acquisition of the necessary information respecting heathen coun- 
tries. The openings of providence are prayerfully watched and 
observed. Laborers are required to enter on the missionary field. 
Men, in whose piety, zeal, judgment and ability, they have reason to 
confide as suitable qualifications for the work, are sent forth as their 
representatives in conformity with the ecclesiastical rules of the 
church to which they belong. The word of God is translated into 
heathen tongues, suitable tracts are prepared, instruction is impr.rted, 
and the preaching of the gospel is as soon as possible commenced. 
Correspondence is maintained between the church at home and their 
missionary representatives in heathen lands. They aid them with 
their prayers ; they follow them with their good wishes ; they sympa- 
thise in their discouragement ; they rejoice in their success. And 
amid all the painful instances of liability to error, the weakness of 
man, and the inconsistencies of some who are neveriheless sincere 
in their work, and who, (if the truth were known and we could be- 
hold them in their closet in their secret approaches unto God), con- 
fess their short comings and deplore their unprofitableness with 
acuter sorrow than the most vindictive calumny could inflict, who^ 
I ask, will venture to afiirm that such a work, such an enterprise, 
such a system of missionary agency, is not substantially in accor- 
dance with the will of a merciful God, and will refuse to concede 
that in the present endeavors for the extension of the Redeemer's 
Kinjrdoni, the ordinary means employed are primitive and apostolic ? 

IV. The ejects of Christian missions in later times have been 

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1846. Sermon on Christian Missions* 34 1 

ideniical with those in aposj^Uc times^ in proportion to the faithful' 
ness of Christians^ end the amount of instrumentality used. 

In estimating the effects of Christian missions in later times, .and 
comparing them with those in apostolic times, we mast remember 
thai in some important particulars we are placed in a different posi- 
tion. The age of the apostles was an age of miracles. Receiving at 
the feast of Pentecost the miraculous knowledge of the languages of 
all the nations to which they were sent, and enjoying the miraculous 
power of healing diseases, the extraordinary powers with which the 
first apostles were vested Mrere adapted to the obstacles with which 
they had to cope. They bore with them infallible credentials, by 
which the divine character of the religion they proclaimed might be 
tested and established in the mind of the most sceptical inquirer. But 
the age of miracles has now ceased, with those peculiar circumstances 
which rendered such extraordinary powers, in the infinite wisdom of 
God, essential to the diffusion, reception, progress and triumph of 
the new reli£;ion. 

A moment's consideration will show how widely different are the 
circumstances of the Christian church in its present efforts to extend 
Christianity throcgh the world, and how right it is to modify and 
correct our estimate and expectation of the comparative results of 
apostolic and modern missionary labors by a reference to the relative 
advantages of each period. So rapid were the early triumphs of the 
gospel that before three centuries had elapsed, from the resurrection 
of our Lord, the banner of the cross waved triumphantly firom the 
battlements of the imperial city, and the conversion of the emperor 
Const antine was the means of establishing the persecuted religion. 

But here the onward career of Christianity, going forth *' conquer- 
ing and to conquer,'' was slackened and retarded only because the 
missionary pulse of the Christian church had begun to beat less 
vigorously. The secularizing influence of pomp and power soon 
deprived the church of its aggressive force; and the primitive zeal, 
which in the hardihood of its native mountains had stood unmoved 
by the storms and frosts of persecution, now dwindled away into a 
tender exotic, on the mild soil of imperial favor. Under the in- 
fluence of the moral blight, which during the darkness of the middle 
ages checked the progress of the truth, and banished true religion 
from the most glorious scenes of its early triumphs ; when the growth 
of sacerdotul ambition, the intermixture of pagan rites, and the progress 
of internal corruption, had combined with the desolating advances 
of Mohammedanism in arresting the career of Christianity ; when 

VOL. XV. NO. v. 31 r^ T 

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242 Sermon on Christian Sfissiotis, May, 

spiritual Chritianity was well-nigh absorbed in the all-consuming 
floods of formalism and priestcraft; when missionary zeal had, in the 
degeneracy of the age, been lowered into the mere desire of extending 
the boundaries of a sovereign pontiff, enthroned on the seven hills of 
Rome, and selling, by an assumed right of heaven, the grant of king- 
doms, of pardons, and indulgences ; when the few churches, which 
remained faithful to the truth, held forth the lamp of the gospel, 
amid the flames of papal persecution and the darkness of surrounding 
error ; during this long and dreary interval, all the efforts of the faith- 
ful followers of Jesus Christ, were consumed in defending their 
position from the influence of surrounding contamination. The 
missionary principle, as glorious and as important as ever, was directed 
into other channels, and the faintest efforts for the extension of spi- 
ritual Christianity were crushed in their incipient birth. 

Afler that memorable event in the history of the human mind and 
of the Christian church, when the energies of men rose against that 
spiritual despotism which fettered the soul in the trammels of priest- 
craft and demanded the surrender of private judgment into the hand 
of an ambitious and self-styled infallible church; — ^the attention of 
the newly emancipated band of martyrs to the truth was necessarily 
occupied in defending their new-born liberty from the assaults of the 
Papacy. Like the newly returned Jewish exiles from Babylon, they 
raised the bulwarks of Protestantism, with the implements of labor 
in one hand, and with the sword in the other, to guard against the 
insidious advances of an everwatchful foe. The mind, the talent, 
the learning of Christendom were employed in controversy with the 
Popedom. Three centuries of opposition and internal disorder 
delayed the genuine development of Protestant strength. 

The last century, though it witnessed during the early part of its 
course, much of returning torpor and deadness, was nevertheless 
towards its close a period of rallying. Then the long-dormant powers 
of missionary zeal, burst forth into new and unwonted activity. Then 
followed those missionary institutions, and that spirit of missionary 
enterprise, which have been the glory of the present century. Then 
the different churches of Christ, like so many different regiments of 
one common army, — differ though they might in the color of their 
facings, in the devices on their banners, — marched forth on one com- 
iQon crusade, against one common enemy, accoutred in the same 
armor of God, obeying the same Ciptain-Savior, inspired by kindred 
joys, and rejoicing in one common hope of victory. 

The beginning of the present cealury was then the grand epoch 

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\MG. Svrmon on Christian Missions, S43 

of Protestant missions. Bearing in mind the absence of miraculous 
powers from the church, and remembering the very partial extent to 
which professing Christians have been roused to the duty of Christian 
missions, we sha!! soon perceive that the wonder is not that so little 
of successful results has followed ; but that with so small and contract- 
ed a measure of effort, so large and extensive a measure of effects has 
been realized. I would ask you to bear in mind the obstacles which 
in our Anglo-Indian empire so long hindered the endeavors of missi- 
onaries, and by an ill-founded apprehension of the danger of missions 
to the stability of British dominion, checked, discouraged, and prevent- 
ed the developement of missionary exertions. I would remind you of the 
jealousy of the slave-proprietor, fearing the influence of gospel civili- 
zation on his living goods and chattels. I would remind you of the 
retarding influence produced by the frequent immoralities of the 
subjects of Christian nations. I would remind you of the cold and 
suspicious distrust which persons in influence and power, so long 
breathed on the missionary work. And then, I would ask you to 
examine the partial results that have been already achieved in spite 
of all these combined obstacles ; and then inquire whether in propor- 
tion to the faithfulness of Christians and their obedience to the part- 
ing command of our Lord, the effects of recent missionary efforts do 
not exhibit a measure of success, exceeding the most sanguine hopes 
that could reasonably be entertained ; and as far as a similar measure 
of means authorizes us in looking for a similar measure of results, 
whether, the effects of Christian missions in later times have not 
been identical with those in apostolic times in proportion to the faith- 
fulness of Christians, and the amount of instrumentality used? 

Within this brief period of exertion, the apparatus and the machi- 
nery of missionary work have been raised. The mighty engine of 
Christian philanthropy has been set in motion. Large portions of the 
heathen world hav^ been explored and occupied. The languages, 
the customs and the history of many heathen lands have been investi- 
gated. The word of God, in whole or iri part, has within the present 
half-century, been translated into above a hundred languages. Civi- 
lization has been spread over numerous spots of pagan darkness. 
The cannibal of the past generation has become the peaceful member 
of a Christian community. The ordinances of religion are valued ; 
the law of God is obeyed ; moral improvement has rapidly advanced, 
in lands previously unvisited by the gospel; commerce has followed 
in the steps of Christianity ; new codes of law have been enacted 
on the model of Christian states. And while the reacting benefits of 

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*244 Strnion on Christian Missions. Mav, 

Christian missions at home have been felt in the abolition of slavery 
from British dominions; the novel spectacle has been witnessed 
abroad of individuals, not only reclaimed from the errors of Brah- 
minism, Mohammedanism, Budhism, and African Feticisim, but also 
set apart by the hands of bishops of our church to the honored work 
of ministers of Christ and instructors of their fellow countryir.en. I 
need but mention one fact in connection with this part of my ^>ubject, 
that in that one society of the two great missionary institutions of 
the church of England, with which I am myself connected, the 
number of clerical laborers, who have been themselves either heathen 
or are the sons of heathen, amounts to nearly one twelfth part of the 
whole number of clerical laborers sent out from Europe. This is 
exclusive of about a thousand laymen, who once heathen themselves* 
or the children of heathen, are now engaged as teachers of various 
kinds in the diflferent parts of the missionary field. Besides there are 
nearly ten thousand communicants, who after diligent observation 
and vigorous Christian discipline, are admitted to the Lord's supper, 
there to commemorate the dying love of that Lord and Redeemer, 
who has " made of one blood all the nations of the earth." 

V. The ordinary objections to the missionary work, no more affect 
its claim to our approved and support, than they do the claims of 
Christianity itself to our belief 

The ingenuity of worldly men is often misspent in discovering 
excuses for neglecting so obvious a duty, and depreciating so bene- 
volent an enterprise. Various objections are current in the mouths 
of those who yet frequent the house of prayer, and offer up the peti. 
tion of our Liturgy '* that God's way may be known on earth. His 
saving health among all nations." And yet it is seMom remembered 
that these very objections, if valid against the work of missions, 
strike also nt the very foundations of Christianity, and that those 
who use these objections, ought, instead of being nominally believers 
in Christianity, boldly to proclaim the scepticism of their mind and 
their disbelief in the divine origin of Christianity itself. 

1. It is objected against Christian missions, that so small a portion 
of the world has been Christianized, compared with the large extent 
to which heathenism prevails. The argument of such objectors seems 
to be something as follows ;~ a specimen of the fallacious reasoning, 
which sensible men sometimes employ in religion, but which they 
would be ashamed of employing in their secular concerns. — " A 
great moral disease infects the whole human race, Christianit) is the 
divinely-appointed remedy for this universal malady. This moral 

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1840. Sermon on Christian Missions. 245 

remedy has been extended only through a small part of the world. 
The portions of the globe, yet unvisited by this blessed remedy, are 
vast and extensive, compared with the few parts that have received 
its healing efiects. The magnitude and extent of the evil are more 
than we can combat. Therefore let us sit still ; let us no longer use 
efforts to diffuse this panacea for the evils of sin, let us patiently 
remain inactive and indifferent. We have hitherto effected little, we 
can effect but little, in diffusing this remedy: we are discouraged at 
the ravages of sin, and the partial knowledge of its remedy. Let us 
leave to God to effect by the intervention of a special miracle, the 
interests of His own truth. Henceforth let us do nothing : let things 
take their course, we are not responsible ! " 

Now it is not perceived by such objectors that this practical con* 
elusion, this principle of action, or rather this principle of inaction, 
this indifference, is quite appropriate in the infidel, who rejects the 
Bible, and believes Christianity an imposture. But that such lan- 
guag eshould ever proceed from the lips of a rational man, professedly 
convinced of the divine origin of Christianity, is strange, is humilia- 
ting, is a roeU.ncholy specimen of the real infidelity of heart of many, 
who iind it convenient to their position in society to maintain the 
external semblance of conformity to the usages and forms of tho 
Christian religion. How such language can be held by those who 
profess to receive Christianity themselves, and yet deprecate the 
efforts for its extension ; and that too on the strange plea, which 
should operate rather as an urgent demand for its propagation, I have 
difficulty in reconciling with my views of what is rational. I can 
understand how the wide expanse of unreclaimed heathenism should 
furnish an additional stimulus and incentive to missionary exertion, 
I cannot conceive how the very facts respecting the world's condition, 
which speak so strongly the need for increased missionary activity, 
should be pleaded in extenuation of a spirit of indifference, yea of 
hostility to Christian missions. 

The only reply necessary to be made to such, is that the objection 
lies not against the missionary cause, but against Christianity itself. 
It militates not against a particular duty of the Christian code, but 
against the whole system of the Christian religion. The objection 
is not that of the diffident Christian, but of the secret infidel. 

An explanation is found in the Bible, an ignorance of which is 
generally the source of the errors even on the fundamental truths of 
Christianity, which are too prevalent amongst us. The apostolic age 
witnos^sed a special outpouring of the Holy Ghost on the heathen 

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246 Sermon on Christian 3iissions. Mat, 

nations, at the rejection of the Jewish nation. A still more glorious 
effusion of the spirit on the heathen world is destined to mark the 
period of the restoration of the Jews to the Christian church in later 
times. The comparative effects of the rejection and restoration of 
the Jews form an important and affecting portion in the apostle Paul's 
train of argument on- Romans 11: 12, 15. rerses : *' Now if the fall 
of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the 
riches of the gentiles, how much more their fulness? For if the 
casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the 
receiving of them be but life from the dead V* 

In the meantime, the duty of Christians is plain. We labor to 
obey the command, " preach the gospel to every creature," content 
and encouraged with the present weasure of missionary success, but 
waiting in humble expectancy, and with continual prayer, for a more 
glorious period of revival from on high, when the full shower of the 
divine blessing shall descend on our work, and when in the common 
joy of God's kingdom, " they that be wise shall shine as the brightness 
of the firmament, and they that turn many to righteousness as the 
fitars forever and ever." Daniel 12 : 3. 

We have a divine remedy for the evils of sin made known to us 
in the gospel. Having ourselves, through grace enjoyed its efficacy, 
we have a command from Christ to make known its precious know- 
Jedge. This duty we must perform and leave the issue in God's hands. 
Duty is ours, events are God's. In the hands of Omnipotence we 
are content to leave them, knowing that there is a time when every 
cloud of mystery shall be cleared away, and God shall have the full 
giory. To the finite powers of man, many of God's dispensations are 
above comprehension. The words of our Lord to his disciples are 
appropriate. " What ye know not now, ye shall know hereafter." 

2. It is also objected against Protestant missions that the mission- 
aries of the various forms of superstition and corrupt religion, evince 
greater zeal and attain greater success in making converts, and 
hence a spurious liberality reacts against the efforts to diffuse spi* 
ritual Christianity. Deeply convinced of the groundlessness of this 
assertion, and having had opportunities, in various parts of the coast 
of China, to see something of the real character of such conversions 
to nominal Christianity, I would merely content myself with denying 
both the premises and the conclusion, with protesting against both 
the fact and the inference. It is not, however, necessary to my 
argument thai I should do so. It is only for me to show, that true 
or untrue, such objections no more affect the enterprise in which we 

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1846. Sermon on Christian Misaions. 247 

are engaged, than they do our belief in Christianity itself. In the 
time of our Lord, the corrupters of religion showed a praise-worthy 
zeal, worthy a better cause. Our Lord declared of the formalists of 
that day ; *' Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye 
compass sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he is made, 
ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves." 

Fully inclined to pay a tribute to the self-denying zeal of every 
body of men professedly engaged in the effort to diffuse Christianity ; 
fully disposed to exhibit towards them all the kindly interchanges of 
friendly intercourse; fully believing in those energetic men, who 
with chivalrous ardor are engaged in the endeavor to extend the 
borders of their church's domination ; yet I cannot disabuse my own 
mind of the insufficiency of a religious system so debased by the 
intermixture of human devices. I cannot forget that a hatred of the 
error is compatible with love for the erring. I cannot forget that 
men are often happily inconsistent with, and superior to, the evil 
principles of their system. I cannot forget that our Lord made a 
declaration, leading us fully to expect that the propagators of pure 
Christianity will sometimes appear to be surpassed by the zealous 
propagators of a less pure faith, when he said, "The children of 
this world are wiser in their generation than the children of light." 

3. But it is also objected, that "sincerity is every thing : let a man 
sincerely follow out his own system; all will be well at last; and 
therefore we have no right to disturb men in their religious belief. 
Christianity is good for the Christian; Mohammedanism for the Mo- 
hammedan; Budhism for the Budhist; and Brahmanism for the 

Again I repeat, such objections arc not valid against the missio- 
nary work alone ; but equally, nay primarily, affect our belief in Chris- 
tianity itself. It is an humiliating fact, that language so indicative 
of latitudinarian indifference to all creeds, sentiments affording such 
palpable evidence of universal scepti'^ism of mind, should ever find a 
place in the thoughts of those who presume to bear on their lips the 
name of the adorable Redeemer of mankind 1 Such language is 
convenient language for the compromising and the wavering. It is 
consistent language for the immoral and profane. It is direct blaS' 
phemy in the mouth of the professing Christian. What! The blessed 
Lord of heaven and earth, himself incarnate, taking man's nature in 
conjunction with the divine, in order to pay the ransom for the sins 
of the whole world, and open a way of reconciliation with the Fa- 
ther ; that so, the previously conflicting attributes mercy and justice 

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248 Strmon on Christian Missions. Mav, 

might be recouciJed together ; that God might be at ihe same time 
just and the jiistiBer of the ungodly ; and to be virtually told, and 
that too by a professed believer in the Bible, that this divinely-ac- 
complished sacrifice was unnecessary, is unessential to the present and 
eternal happiness of man; that Mohammedanism, Budhism, Hin- 
duism are equally good. Oh ! Much-to-be*pitied roan, who can utter 
such language ! Oh 1 Much-to-be-pitied darkness of spiritual vision, 
that can thus trifle with the soul's salvation, and the atonement of 
the son of God ! Not so thought the apostles of old, when, making 
no truce with error, when, sparing not even the ritual observances 
of the Jews themselves, they declared in the face of the civilization 
of the Reman world and the pantheon of Grecian philosophy, 
" Neither is there salvation in any other ; for there is none other 
name under heaven given among men, whereby we roust be saved.'' 
Acts, 4: 12. 

In conclusion, my dear brethren, apart from everything of a con- 
troversial character, I would earnestly endeavor to impress upon 
each one of you the amount of individual responsibility incumbent on 
you in the furtherance of the missionary work. By your influence 
and your exr.mple, though personally unengaged in the work, you 
possess the power, you lie under the positive obligation, of lending 
your help in extending the power of Christianity around you. Tiie 
gospel recognises no middle course, no state of neutrality. Either you 
are friends, or you are opponents. '' He that is not with me (says 
our ^.ord; is against me ; and he that gathereth not' with me scattereth 
abroad." Matt. 12: 30. 

Be very careful, then, lest you hinder this work, by your mistaken 
prejudices, by your personal hostility, or by your unchristian lives 
before the heathen. Give not currency, by your outrages on Chris- 
tian decorum, to the opinion that foreigners have no religion. He 
who now addresses you, has spoken boldly his sentiments to you, as 
to men of candid minds and honest convictions. Six years ago, in 
the quiet retirement of a village pastoral charge, he brought these 
things before the minds of his humble flock. In his subsequent 
position in a more populous and important sphere of ministerial useful- 
ness, the claims of the missionary work became a topic of increasing 
interest. The way of providence presented itself for a more direct 
and personal engagement in the work, in the proposal made to him 
to come out as one of the first missionary laborers of the Church of 
England to the newly opened ports of China. In this work he has 
been permitted to act only as an explorer and a pioneer j and he has 

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\tiUh ^SvrMim Off (JIu^Mun Missam> -il^ 

lo devolve oil other stronger and better men, the lionoralile privilege 
of laboring permanently in thin field. In this, probably his last, 
addre»«i to this a5>scmbly, he would state his firm, unchnnged, and 
unalterable attachment to this cause; his belief in its divine excel- 
lence; and his confidence in its future triumph. The occasional want 
of judgment, the indiscreet enthusiasm, or even the unvvorthincss of 
missionary laborers, would no niore weaken his conviction of the 
excellence of the work, and his attachment to the cause, than it can 
shake his belief in Christianity itself, lie remembers that in the 
ancient church, the cowardice of Mark led him to avoid the hardships 
of the service in which he was engaged. He calls to mind the conten- 
tion between Paul and Barnabas, which led to their separation in 
their missionary tour. He remejnbcrs that there was a Peter who 
dissembled ; that there was a Diotrephes, '* who loved to have the 
preeminence;'' that there was a Demas, who loved the "present 
world." lie recollects the various untoward events in the Acts of 
the Apostles, which seemingly delayed the progress of the gospel. 
But this did not prevent the gracious developcment of this divine 
sy.stem of religion, and the triumph of Christian truth, independent 
alike of the weakness of its advocates and the virulence of its oppon- 
ents. "Let us judge nothhig before the time." To his own master 
each servant is accountable. Let rather our undivided attention be 
given to the salvation of our own souls; and having found mercy 
ourselves, let us not grudge the extension of this boon toothers. 

The time is short. Eternity is at hand. Let us not, like unprofit- 
able and unfaithful servants, hide our respective talents in the ground. 
Soon we shall have entered that state of being where wealth can 
purchase no advantage to its proprietor ; where rank can procure no 
privilege for its |>ossessor ; where only one mark of division shall exist, 
that which separates the godly from the ungodly ; where, the prin- 
ciple of ditTerence which here diotinguishcs the Christian from the 
impenitent and unbelieving, ^ihdl be iunnilcly widened find cxtendcH 

VOL. Jry MO 3^ 

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FMtcr of Bishop Besi May, 

Ari. III. LtUer of bishop Besiy apostolic vicar of Shdntutig 
to the Directors of the Work (in Italy), Dated Nanking, May 
ISM, 1843. IVanslated from the French in Ann, de la Foi of 
Sep. 1844. By A. P. 

Messieurs, — About the close of 1840, I was connected with the 
mission in the southern part of Ilukw^ncr, a country then agitated 
with a violent persecution, when 1 received from Rome the order to 
accept the apostolic vicarage of Shantung, and the administration 
of the diocese of Nanking. A sense of my own insutiiciency wouhl 
have led me to decline so responsible a situation, if the brief of his 
Holiness had permitted the liberty of a refusal ; but he directed me 
to bow the head without resistance and to obey without delay. I 
then set off, in the midst of a rigorous winter, to traverse Honan 
and Sh^ provinces, to go and receive from the hands of the bi- 
shop of Shensi episcopal ordination. I arrived at the residence of 
this venerable prelate after a long and perilous journey of fifly days. 
The ceremony of consecration being terminated, I resumed my 
journey ; and visited in passing the provinces of Hon^n and Chihli ; 
and had the consolation of reaching my flock in time to celebrate 
with them the passover. 

It is sweet to me to speak to you in praise of these good neophytes 
who received me with a holy effusion of the heart. They had never 
seen a bishop and they were far off froiu thinking that the Holy See, 
in its paternal and attentive solicitude for them, had deigned to 
send to them, for their guide, a pastor who had been elevated to the 
dignity of a pontiff. 

The province of Shantung is celebrated, in the annals of China, 
for giving birth to many grand philosophers of the empire, reputed 
here to be the first snges of the world: such are Confucius, Mencius, 
Tsang-tsz' and others of distinction. They show the tomb of Con- 
fucius in the vilhge of Kiuii-fau, a little distance from the city of 
Wan-hien. It is a majestic monument, surrounded by a forest of 
oaks, which affords to the numerous visiters a profound retirement, 
well calculated to nourish in the ininds of the Chinese that religious 
enthusiasm which they always have had towards Confucius. 

A mountain, which is said to be the most elevated in China, and 
which for this reason is called the T^i sli:ln (or large mountain) is 
tlie rendevouc: for all the devout idolutcrj of this piovincc. There 

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lR4n LiHrr of B'ishop Basi 2;U 

is not one of the iiidirrenoiis sects but have theii idols and pagodas, 
Ko that the mountain is covered tronn the base to the summit ; the 
bonzes in great numl>ers chant day and night their hymns to their 
gods, and practice a thousand superstitions which attract from all 
parts of this vast empire crowds of pilgrims. During the first three 
months of the year, especially, the ways which conduct to this moun- 
tain are encumbered with long caravans, who come to accomplish 
their vows or to solicit health and riches from their favorite god or 
else to seek the favor of being rc-boru in a fortunate condition. I 
encountered, one day, in one of my apostolic journies, a chariot 
tilled with old women, who followed after me, with a certain holy- 
day apparel, in the road leading to this celebrated mountain. T.hey 
descended to a hotel whither I had just preceded them. I had the 
curiosity to ask who were these women ; what motive impelled them 
to travel at so advanced an age and in such a style. They answered 
ine that they were of the sect, chanfr^chai; that this title was given to 
them, because they had never tasted meat or fish all the days of their 
lives; that, perceiving their end to approach (the youngest was 78 
years and the oldest 90) they had come from the south of Hon.'tUf 
i. e. more than three hundred miles, to remind their god that they 
had religiously observed this abstinence, and to solicit as a recom- 
pt^use to their privation a happy transmigration for their souls. 
Poor women! In these complaints from the bottom of their hearts, 
1 thought that one day their austerities would accuse the indulgence 
of a great number of Christians. 

In Sh^mtung, the soil, althoui^h white and dusty, is very fertile, 
and is adapted to many kinds of culture; the millet, which is the 
ordinary food of the people, beans, fruits of all kinds, and cotton 
grow better than anywhere else in China. . But the misfortune is 
that the rains are but rare, and this often causes crops to fail, and 
obliges the inhabitants to pass into the other provinces or to pur- 
chase their provisions at a very dear price to enable them to sustain 
a most miserable life. There are but few springs, and the wells 
which they dig are soon emptied, or the water becomes such as can- 
not be drunk on account of its bitterness. These are only a few of 
the many things in relation to the physical aspect of Sh'mtung. 
It has a superficies, according to Wyle, of 50,800 square miles, and 
its total population according to the same Engli;^h authority is 

To consider it as a mission, this province is, without contradiction, 
the poorest and most abandoned of the empire. It hardly counts 

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252 Letter of Bishop Besi. Mav, 

four thousand Christians, scattered hither and thither, and at so great 
distances as not to be able to afford a mutual support, or to receive 
frequent visits from the missionary ; they are all very indigent, and, 
for the most part, are constantly persecuted by the gentiles of 
Shintung, whose natural haughtiness and ferocity does not resemble 
in anything the gener-al character of the Chinese. 

In many districts the priest can only show himself in the night. 
There is not, it is said, more than six or seven public oratories; if 
they can be called by that name, which are not able to be distin- 
guished by the heathen, but that they have been built by the neo- 
phytes at their common expense ; and such oratories ! in Europe you 
would not use them for pig-sties! Nevertheless in the bosom of 
these shades, in the silence which is incited by the proscriptions, 
we celebrate the divine mysteries. 

Far be the thought from me to accuse the zeal of my Christians. 
The deprivation of their chapels arises from their poverty, not the 
smallness of their faith : they fear moreover that an ornamented 
sanctuary would only serve to awaken the enmity of their enemies, 
always ready to make the smallest pretext the excuse for oppression. 
These chapels are all built of earth and straw : they have shapeless 
holes for doors and windows ; and if it happens to rain, the church 
IS entirely inundated. Judge of the interior : in the middle, a table 
which formerly might have been good for something, but at present 
used and worm-eaten it scarcely stands on its feet ; upon this table, 
the altar is surmounted by two sticks in the shape of a cross, on 
each side, a porringer out of service sustains, in default of chande- 
liers, two wax tapers blackened by the dirt and time'; this is all the 
furniture of the church. Instead of a floor there is the earth, un- 
equal and dusty, upon which our Christians spread a little straw 
on which to put their knees. Such, Messrs. are the cathedrals of 
Shantung! Such the views each time I have met my flock in 
their humble inclosurc. 

For an example of more profound poverty I must refer to my an- 
cient mission in Hukwkng, where I exercised the holy ministry Ave 
years. Then I traversed the high chains [of mountains in] Patong- 
hien. Good God ! what indigence has been exposed to my view ! 
IIow deplorable the lot of those mountaineers who live upon the 
bare and naked rocks, that would better serve as the haunts of the 
deer than the habitations of men ! Separated the one from the other 
by three or four days journey, the neophytes, not numbering more 
than five hundred, arc able only at long inter val.s to receive the visits 

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18J(i, fAUr of ni>hop Btsi '-2'»3 

of the priesl. To nrrive lliere it is neccspary li» lo^p abysses, to cscji- 
lade, by the aid of the hands? and feet, height;) of snch declivity, that 
if a false step is made, or a root which you thonght would afford a 
secure footing yields to your pressure, or a stone accidentally detach- 
ed by the gui<le who precedes you, (if indeed you can gel a guide to 
go on so perilous a journey,) would precipitate you down the preci- 
pices. Then, when dripping with perspiration and panting with 
fatigue, we arrive about evening at the cabin which is to afford us 
shelter, our host has nothing to give you but water and a little salt 
to season the rice which we have brought with us , and it is even 
necessary to wait till the master of the house goes to the neighbor- 
ing forest to bring fuel to cook our frugal repast. Our bed was 
the bare earth, happy when wc could get a h.U)dful of straw, not to 
soften our couch, but to preserve from the dampness. For the re- 
mainder, while we sleep with thoughts of God, we enjoyed a calm 
and profound repose. 

The of these Christians who live upon these rocks are 
simple cabins: the roof of straw, and indeed the interior partitions 
also a heap of stones for the table, and the bare earth suffices f<ir 
repose. But notwithstanding the privations they suffer for the faith^ 
their choice is to be preferred. For instead of the riches of this 
world, they have treasures of virtue; and they are to the missionary, 
whom they regard as an angel of God, a rich source of aiTection and 
consolation. And in these their thatched cottages, consecrated by 
an humble resignation, I have enjoyed an inexpressible enjoyment, 
unknown, I believe in the palaces of the rich. 

My people of Shc^intung are not reduced to this excess of dis- 
tress, but still they are not in peace. I have already said that the 
dispositions of the heathen are hostile to them ; this has recently 
been made manifest. 

I had conceived the project of building, in a borough situateii 
twelve furlongs from the city of Wu-ching hicn a more becoming 
building in which to celebrate the holy mysteries. The knowledge 
I had of the locality, the eagerness of the Christians to second my 
wishes, all led me to think that the chapel might be erected without 
exciting a storm. They erected in a few days an oratory, small 
indeed, and so poor that hatred itself, it was thought, would not re- 
mark it. This was of no account. One of the moat fanatical i>f 
the iilolater- judged it a good occatiion to calumniate us; and he 
Ciiuld not let it pHSs. In Ins deniniciation to the oflTicer fie Repre- 
sented us as d^nJ;erou^^ coiiBpiralors we havr, said lie, more- than 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

254 LvlUr of Bis/top Brsi May, 

five tlumsaiul int^ii preparing arms and casting cannon to besiege 
Peking; that eiglit Europeans directed the enterprise; that more 
than eighty magazines were filled with all kinds of provisions; that in 
subterranean workshops they were manufacturing everything that 
WHS necessary for the ecpiipments of a formidable army, d^c. 

The author of the accusation, fearing that if he presented it himself 
he would be taken in the snare he was spreading for us, threw it dur- 
ing the night into the court of the palace, where it cast all into 
anxiety. Forthwith the oflicers sent emissaries secretly to inquire of 
the plot. At this time, the Christians, not dreaming of the suspi- 
cions that hovered over them, and delighted with having at length a 
new cluirch, had assembled all day for prayer and religious obser- 
vances, under the guidance of my excellent friend. Father Louis de 
Castellazzo. They were engaged in security in this pious exercise 
when the spies arrived. They, ap{)lying their ear to the door and 
hearing within a confused noise, without further examination, ran 
and announced to the mandarin that the denunciation was too well 
founded, that they had seen the general rendevous of the conspira- 
tors and that their number was not less than five thousand (5000). 
It was well known that the neophytes did not exceed in the village 
three hundred. 

At this news the fright of the mandarin rose to its height. He 
imagined that he already saw the city besieged ; he had the gates 
shut for three days, and without so much as publishing the reason 
of this extraordinary measure; and all this time he was employed in 
secret preparations to go and block up the rebels in their supposed 
fortress. At the moment of his marching into the country, he 
wished to provide, in case of an attack upon the city, for the security 
of that which was most precious, by conveying his family and trea- 
sures out of the province; but as it is proverbially said, that he who 
casts himself into the water cannot but be wet, thus this same night 
his wife and children fell into the hands of brigands and were com- 
pletely despoiled. 

This was the day of Corpus Christi : the soldiers disguised were 
come, without noise, to cut off the access to the village. The go- 
vernor followed them with four military odicers and a whole army 
of satellites. My friend had scarcely time to escape at the moment 
the troops, animated by the voice of their chiefs, made the assault, 
overthrew and pillaged the houses upon their passage, searching for 
the arsenal of the rebels in the midst of this paltry village without 
defenders. A pious female^ who endeavored to save from profanation 

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r^iofiu) ol>jocU ol \v()r«lii|), had licr arm pierced by a .stroke of a lance. 
They were soon forced lo cud the coiuhai for want of enemies. 
Then commenced llie diligent search. They summoned a country- 
man to deliver up the canons, ihc firelocks, the arrows, the sahres, 
the powder, dtc, which the rebels had stored up, it was said, in 
subterranean magazines; it was more easy to iisk for them than to 
cliscover them. Their eflorts, joined to those of the soldiers, were 
able to discover nothing else, than some books of |>raycrs, some sa- 
cred ornaments, my vestments, my pastoral wooden staff, with a 
certain number of crosses and other religious objects. These were 
to the conipieror the unequalled tro[diies for which a city was thrown 
into a state of siege, an arn)y sent into the country, and misery 
brought to an inolleuhivc population. 

The governor perceived that he had been duped : he was filled 
with fury against those who had so cruelly played the fool with him ! 
And his anger was not able to prevent the ridicule and odium that 
would attach to the expedition. Moreover the affair was noised 
abroad ; it was necessary for the niandarin to give the setpiel under 
the penalty of appearing to compromise his responsibility. It be- 
came necessary to collect the different objects of religion, to enchain 
twenty-four Christians and four females, &c., placing them in the 
centre to return to the city, which he entered in the night in order 
to conceal his shame. 

On the morrow he sat on the tribunal and had the prisoners be- 
fore him: **I went to your village, he said to them, to search for 
rebels and not for Christians; but as you have fallen into my hands 
1 must judge you according to our laws." lie then took one of the 
seized books, and read in a loud voi<'.e several passages from it, and 
commented on them with a surprising medley of admiration, *Mn 
truth," said he to them, "your reilgion teaches nothing reprehensible, 
in my province (that is of Fuhkien), there arc Christians, and, I avow 
that they injure no person, nevertheless, as it is a sect prohibited by 
the emperor, I command you to abjure it." *' We arc not able to 
do it," answered the neophytes. '* Disown God and Mary his holy 
mother," (I am ignorant whether he was serious, or whether he 
spoke thus to mock) *' her, who is called in this book the mother 
of mercy, and you shall surely obtain your pardon." The Christians 
refused with the same tirnniess. Then they sent the females back 
to their houses, without requiring them to undergo the torture. 

All the rigors of the matter fell upcui the men cuffed and beaten^ 
ftome apostdliied, the others showed a courage super ioi to torment-s 

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''IM tscHtr of Bishop Hcsi May, 

the iiiohl alrocious, repeated 6ve days in succession, during which 
lime they refused them all kindb of nourishment, in order to abate 
their constancy by weakening their bodily strength. One of these 
intrepid confessors went so far as to stimulate the rage of the toi* 
mentors; ''strike harder/' when he had been horribly scourged, 
attached by the neck, dragged through the iuclosurc of the palace, 
bruised against the heavy chains; and, louder than the sound of the 
strokes upon his bleeding loins, he sounded out the name of Jesus 
and Mary which they wished to stiflle upon his lips, and repeated 
with love, " blessed be Jesus Christ.'' 

At length the judge was weary of these unsuccessful tortures; he 
was desirous to refer the cause to the superior mandarin of the dis- 
trict; but this magistrate answered him that l^e did not wish to med- 
dle with the affairs of the Christians, and he engaged to refer the 
matter to the governor-general. The same functionary that 
refused to enter upon the process, asked if any of the Christians had 
renounced the gospel, and as it was answered to him that many 
had ; " Oh," says he, " these truly are not good Christians : a true 
Christian would choose rather to die than to be unfaithful 1o his 
God." The inferior officer was thus forced to address his report 
directly to the court and it suited him to render a very unfaithful ac- 
count of what had passed. 

The response of the governor-general was not to have been ex- 
pected. He gave an order to the subaltern officer to proceed in the 
way of tortures, to demand of the Christians not only a denial of 
their faith, but also the denunciation of their Christian accom- 
plices and especially of the missionaries : and in case of refusal to 
pronounce sentence upon them with all the rigor of the edicts. 
This would have been the state of this church, if God, who had per- 
mitted this enmity to form, had not opportunely turned aside that 
which menaced it, to cause it to fall upon the head of the principal 
author. To effect it, at the moment when the governor-general had 
dispatched the instructions of which we have spoken, a decree arriv- 
ed from- the emperor which directed that he should be inclosed in a 
cage as a wild beast, and be carried to Peking to render an account 
of his uti^deeds. 

His successor treated the Chrialidno with mure humanity. It is 
very true that men resist the mobt terrible ufllictiont), when they arc 
temporary, belter than of an incessant kuid, agoravalcd by the reflec- 
tions of a solitary sadness 'J'his was ihc case with many of the 
unfurtundte prisoners ; the cmiui^ the suiloeaiing heat of the dun- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Letter of Bishop Best. »&t 

geon, the disgusting insects with which they were covered, effected 
that which the torments could not ; they retired from the lists before 
the conflict was ended. A few more days of constancy, and they 
would have gone forth conquerors with their more courageous breth- 
ren ; for the^mandarin, wearied with the long process, sent one and 
another back to their families, having first directed the demolition of 
the oratory. Thus ended the persecution. 

But, if the Christians of Shantung are few in number, miserable 
and persecuted, the mission of Nanking presents a consoling picture; 
it is tranquil and flourishing and repays by its abundant fruits the 
zeal of those who direct it. 

Of all the provinces of China, this of Kiingnin or Nanking is 
perhaps the most beautiful and best cultivated. The Ki&ng, which 
majestic river the natives call the child of the ocean, divides it into 
two parts : in the part south of the river the capital is situated, 
M'hich has given to the whole province the name of Nanking or the 
southern court, in distinction from Peking situated more to the 
north. To the south of the KiAng, the chief city is Suchau, the 
most elegant, and polished of cities. Everything favors the culture 
of this beautiful country, the fertility of the soil as well as the in- 
telligent activity of the inhabitants, the frequent rains that refresh it, 
together with the many rivers that furrow it in every direction. 
Nolwilhstanding the truly prodigious industry of the inhabitants, the 
inexhaustible fertility of the soil, it is not able to afford suflicient 
nourishment for the population, which is more dense than in any 
other province. To supply the annual consumption they import a 
great quantity of rice from Hukw4ng, whence also Kiingnin geU 
the greatest part of the wood for building. 

According to Wyle, the superficies of Kiingndn • is 81,500 
square miles, and its population reaches to 72,020,050 of inhabi- 
tante. Formerly religion was so flourishing, that every city had 
temples consecrated to the true God, a great number of mandarins 
had been subdued to the yoke of the gospel, and more than 200,000 
Christians, it is said, practised with fervor the admirable virtues. 
But the violence of the persecutions that occurred under the em- 
perors Yungching, Kienlung, and Kiaking covered the whole extent 
of this beautiful mission with blood and ruins, the churches which 

•^ The writer here describes the province of Kidngniin in its extent and 
population, Ac, as it was before it was divided into the two present provinces 
of KiAngsa and Nganhwui ; so that this must now be taken of the present two 
provinces. [Trafis.] 

VOL. xv. NO. V 3;^! 

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So8 Letter of Bishop Best, Ma\, 

yet exist have been converted either into offices for the officers, or 
pagodas or public granaries; the ruin of the faith was almost uni- 
versal, less hitherto from the desertion of apostates, than from the 
coldness that comes over the soul in the absence of the missionaries, 
from having fled or been cast into prison. These afflicted sheep 
would always have remained faithful to the instructions of their pas- 
tors, I believe, if they could have heard them ; but in the time of 
confusion and terror, deprived of their guides by the fury of the 
wolves, who made a horrible butchery of the flock, they became so 
dispersed as no longer to have communication among themselves 
when the sword struck their bishop, M. Godefroi. 

This successor, though he was hindered many years from acting 
by the persecution of the emperor Kienlung, succeeded by his illus- 
trious piety and indefatigable zeal in restoring a great many souls to 
the church, and at his death in 1782, he had already heard the 
confessions of more than three thousand. 

A second general persecution was kindled in 1805, tfnder the 
emperor Kicking ; but was less fatal in Ki&ngn4n than the preced- 
ing, its ravages prevailed more to the north, where the churches 
were destroyed and many of the Christians incarcerated. It appears 
that the pagans by an invention not less foolish than wicked, fitted 
a cross to the soles of the feet of the confessors, so that in default of 
a voluntary abjuration, they were under the necessity of trampling 
under foot the sacred sign of salvation and thereby convicted of 

To these times of trial days of quietness have succeeded. The 
return of peace, joined to the zeal of the newly arrived missionaries, 
and more than all by the blessing of the Lord, who blessed their 
eftbrts, has so greatly increased the number of the neophytes, that 
they number seventy-two or seventy-three thousand, without includ- 
ing the province of Hondn which is also a part of my vicarate. 

On the side of the sea my jurisdiction extends to the isle of Kung- 
min and the peninsula Hai-min, where we number more than ten 
thousand four hundred Christians; the greater portion of the Chris- 
tians on the mainland reside in Sungki^ng, the capital city of a dis- 
trict of the first order which embraces seven districts of the third 
order ; to the capital of one of these 1 am pleased to refer, because 
the names of two eminent Christians are associated with it, as 
Shanghai was the theatre of the apostolic success of Father Matthew 
Ricci, and then the (iescendants of that most illustrious disciple-, 
the great mandarin Paul I] in, now profess with fervor the failh of 
this first minister \}( the empire. 

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1610. Ltttff of Bishop Besi, 259 

Siichau fu and Nanking form two extensive Christian commnni- 
ties. Their number, though it is to me a subject of congratulation, 
causes me profound grief when I think of the impossibility of my 
succoring all, and that at the moment I stand beside the dying, some 
other unfortunate persons, who equally need my ministry, express 
their wishes, but for want of priests they die without the sacraments. 

It was under the impression of these distracting thoughts then, 
that, during the last year, I had the joy of seeing the Jesuit fathers 
re-entering China, where they had done so much, and where the re- 
membrance of their knowledge and piety lies still in the hearts of the 
Chinese neophytes, who have tr:^nsmitted from generation to genera- 
tion the hope and the vow of their return at some day : it is for me 
the last of the bi.»*hop [le dernior des ev^ques] that providence has 
reserved the signal favor of welcoming their return to these distant 

Notwithstanding, the arrival of this generous company, I can only 
number fourteen co-workers in my immense diocese, viz: four Eu- 
ropeans, M. Lavaissiere, French Lazarist, Fathers Got tel and, Bruy^re 
and Est^ve, Jesuits, and ten native priests, for the most part old and 

These are not sufficient for the ministry of the .sick. M. Lavais- 
siere has in his district done about nine thousand four hundred 
Christians, and he is able only to visit them once in three years, 
notwithstanding his indefatigable zeal and prodigious activity, on 
account of the infirmities which press upon a missionary for a great 
part of the time, and that the converts are so separated that it is ne- 
nessary to make many journeys in going from one to the other. 

In order to give to my flock the pastors they require, the best plan, 
without doubt, would be to establish a native seminary ; but in my 
absolute destitution, how can I hope? Nevertheless, passed by the 
necessity, I have arranged some rooms in a public oratory for the 
reception of twenty-two pupils, who are studying Latin under the 
direction of Father Bruy^re. Many other excellent persons have 
entreated me to receive them ; but my feeble resources require a 
painful refusal. And I will even be forced to abandon this little 
establishment, if I dn not soon receive the resources I am hopir.g to 
get from Europe. That which encourages me in this enterprise, 
and sustains me in the midst of my distresses, is the sweet confi- 
dence that the Great association, raised up in these last times for the 
aid of missions, will remove my solicitude in giving, by their alms, 
the means for the establishment and enlargement of that which was 
formed with so much difficulty. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

'-^0 Leittr of Bishop Best. May, 

Tf my diocese could only have a day of the apostles in porportion 
to its extent, Oh ! with what rapidity would it propagate our holy 
religion! It appears moreover (hat the mandarins are wanting in any 
intention to molest us ; they know very well that the neophytes are 
very numerous in this province, that there are more than two hun- 
dred chapels, that they meet every Sabbath for prayer ; and so far 
are they from taking umbrage, that they not only impose silence 
upon our detractors, but they wish to publish that the empire has 
not more faithful subjects than the Christians. This is for us a li- 
berty unknown to the other provinces. We take advantage of this 
to give to the feasts a great solemnity at the Christmas and Easter, 
more than 2000 Christians, assisted at the celebration of the holy 
misteries ; a large number of pagans mingled with the pious throng, 
and carried away when they retired a germ of the faith which time 
and grace will cause to spring forth ; I baptized twenty-four during 
the last month. 

That which gives to my flock the most perfect security is that they 
are tolerated by the highest authorities. The viceroy of this pro- 
vince named Sauking, is the Tartar prince who bravely combated 
the English last year, in the defense of Ningpo. Without doubt he 
had occasion, during the siege, to appreciate the courage of the 
Christians ; for ader they had surrendered the city he publicly de- 
clared their praises, and turned his resentment against the bonzes, 
their enemies, destroyed their pagodas, carried away their idols, and 
sold their gods for a small price upon the march. 

We were exposed to a false accusation, that we had secret rela- 
tions with the English ; but by a signal interposition of providence 
the calumny, promptly refuted, returned upon the authors. 

Very recently, a troublesome Christian, who had written out an 
accusation against us, was carrying it to the palace ; on the way, be- 
fore he had arrived, — as of old it happened to Arius, when this heri- 
search, denying the divinity of Jesus Christ, had returned in triumph 
to the great temple of Constantinople to be readmitted to the com- 
munion of the faithful, — seized with a rending of the bowels at the 
very door of the officer, this false brother was taken up half dead, by 
the neophytes who found upon him the rough sketch of the accusa- 
tion with a long list of names of the missionaries and Christians. 

We have firm confidence that, thanks to the divine mercy, this 
vast mission more favored than any other mission by circumstances, 
will also be the most flourishing in the empire. It is to be fear- 
ed, if might appear, lest the Anglican proselyters, who scatter 

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1846. Ltiier of Bishop Be$i, 261 

Bibles with a plentifal hand, may coanteract our efforts; but in my 
opinion/ it will result in more good than evil ; the^ books though 
altered in many places, will contribute to the diffusion of Christian 
ideas, they will inspire in many a strong desire to know more of our 
great truths, and as is most probable they will come to us to seek 
an explanation of this dead letter, of those obscure passages which 
they cannot understand of themselves, the doubts of the pagans will 
always be resolved in favor of our faith. A Chinese, who renounces 
idols, cannot be else than a Catholic. 

Some of the English themselves do us justice and offer to protect 
us. Mr. Robertson,t second interpreter to the British plenipoten- 
tiary in China wrote to me a letter to this effect, from which I tran? 
scribe literally the following lines : ** For myself, monsieur, I have 
no expressions to express how much I have been delighted to make 
your acquaintance. It is true that I am a Protestant, nevertheless 
that does not prevent me from admiring the heroism, the devotion, 
and the superiority of the Catholic missionaries in China, yes, this 
is a proof that your holy religion does not consist in vain words, but 
that it procedes from the bottom of the heart." 

This year we have enjoyed the consolation of a general meeting at 
our spiritual retreat, preaching by Father Gotteland. This reiinion 
of all my priests, who had not as yet seen Nanking, produced an ex- 
traordinary effect upon the edified Christians, and may serve as a 
small synod, when we can regulate in common a multitude of things 
proper to secure the triumph of the gospel. We have adopted this, 
among other resolutions, to erect schools in all the villages, and to 
choose in each locality a certain number of pious widows, who hav- 
ing some knowledge of medicine, may be able, under the pretext of 
administering remedies to sick infants of pagans, to confer baptism. 
The expenses of this good work, I have taken as my own charge, and 
I have engaged to cover all the expenses, like those poor who not 
having a cent wherewith to pay these debts, and yet generously offer 
to their friends land and silver. Under God, my hope is in you, my 
associates ; let it not be disappointed ! Remember my caution, and 
your alms will people heaven with new legions of angels. 

* This is the feeling which all Protestants would wish to find pervading 
the minds of the Roman Catholic priesthood, when we meet them in heathe|i 
lands: where both come to convert those who are regarded as pagans to 
what each regards as the true gospel. And we are happy to give publicity to 
this moderate sentiment from bishop Besi. [TVaaj.] 

There would appear here to be an error in the name. It should be Mr. 
Robert Thom. \Trana.] 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Chinese Tariff. May, 

At least one third of our Nanking Cristians are composed of fish* 
ermen, living by their nets in their little boats, which conduct them 
hither and thither, wherever they hope to encounter the minister of 
the true God. The simplicity and candor of their souls are painted 
upon their ingenuous countenances. Often they meet about evening 
to the number of twenty barques in the middle of the river, and 
chant in chorus their holy prayers which always finish with a sweet 
invocation to Mary conceived without sin; these ascend as an 
agreeable incense to the throne of the Lamb, for they proceed from 
hearts which the breath of passion has never tarnished. 

It is not the fishermea only that edify us by their innocence of 
life 1 the other faithful do not less astonish us by their virtues, sur- 
rounded as they are by wickedness of every kind, and deprived of 
all those abundant succors that are so lavished upon the Christians 
in Europe. Often, in the midst of the consolations they afford me, I 
blush for myself in seeing the great simplicity of their faith, their 
profound horror of sin, and the great purity of motive that animates 
all their actions. 

I hope you will pardon, Messrs., the length of my letter; it is the 
first time I have written to you, and I have so many miseries to 
paint to you,, so maay hopes to confide, and such excellent virtues to 
present to your ryes ! Will you excuse these out-gushings of my 
beart, anrf ( sbali be doubly happy if I have communicated to you 
some of the seiitim3r4ts which animate me in favor of those whom 
God has given to me as children. I have the honor to be, 6lc. 

Louis db Bbsi, 
Bishop and apostolic administrator of Nanking, 

Art. TV. The tariff of duties to he leified on merchandise im-' 
ported and exported (by citizens of the United States) at the 
five ports of CatUon, Amoy, Fuhchau^ Ningpo, and Shanghai, 

1I€3lD sitHtl^ 7C«iI«J# 

The duties which it is agreed shall be paid upon goods imported and 
exported by the United States at the custom-houses of Canton, 
Amoy, Fuhchau, Ningpo, and Sh&nghai, are as follow: the articles 
being arranged in classes, viz : 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

'*^^<>- Chinese Tariff. '203 

EXPORTS, \^ p f /jlj. 

Class 1. Alvm, oU, ^.c, ]fy ift^ ^ |^ tg- 

Alum, pS ^, i.e. while alum, ^ ^, formerly per t. m. c. 

white alum and blue alone pecul 10 

Anniseedoil, /\ ^ ^, not formerly conUined in 

the tariff. 5 

Cassia oil, j^ ^ J^, not formerly in the tariff.. „ 5 

Class 2. Tea, spices, f c, ^ -|i|. j^^ ^ |g. 

Tea, 2j^ ^, formerly divided into fine and native 

black, and line and native green teas „ 2 5 

Annigeedstar, /^^, „ 5 

Musk, J^ ^, each catty 5 

Class 3. Dnigs, J| j^ ||. 

Capoor cutchery, ^;2^ ^, pecul 3 

Camphor, ^^, ^, 15 

Arsenic, |g ^p, under di.Tcrent Chinese names, 

^P^^— S A tX^iift^i- . 7 5 

Causia, ]|r^ jj^, „ 7 5 

Caflsia buds, jMg -¥-, not formerly contained in the 

t*f''ff- „ 10 

China root, 7^ ^ gg ||| ± ^g^ 1^, „ 2 

Cubebs, ^ ft IP ^ j^ ^, not formerly 

contained, in the tariff. ,, 15 

GaKngttl, ^ M, ^^ 10 

Hartall, ^ '^, ,, 5 

Rhubarb, -J^^, „ 10 

Turmeric, ^ ^, „ 2 

Class 4. Sundries, Sffi W 2K, 

Bangle., ^ Jf] PP j^ |f g^, not formerly 

contained in the tariff. ,, 5 

Bamboo Screens, and bamboo ware, ^>T W^ ^^ 

lit ^ I^ # « 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

264 Chituse Tarif. May, 

CO"". ± «l i«i in IS MljB. "tiveor 

false corals not formerly ooiitain«d in the tariff pecul 5 

Crackers and Ere works, /^^ ^j^^^ 

formerly classed as rockets „ 7 5 

*"•»•• ^ M ^ ^ ^ ^ 1' (»•'»'« f*". 

dec.) not formerly contai ned in tne tariff. „ 1 

glassware of all kinds, formerly classed as native 

crystal ware „ 5 

Glaas beads, J^]^ IP ;^ j^, or false pearls.. „ 5 

Kittisois, ^ ife IP jBfc M i' ^' p'p**' ""• 

brellas „ 5 

Marble. § >? tP ^ ^P Jy*, marble slabs, 

not formerly in the tariff. pecul 2 

Rice paper pictures, ^ j^ ;;|^, „ 10 

Paper fans, M]§, •, 5 

Pearls, ^ ^, (false) not formerly in the tariff. . „ 5 

Class 5. Painters' stares, *<i., ^ ^^ jj^ j^ ,5^ .^.j 

Brass leaf, ^^, „ 15 

Oamboge, ^^, „ 8 

Red lead, jj^I ^, , 5 

Olue, as fish glue, cowhide glue, &c., j^ ^ jlj] 

Paper, .UUonary^ j^^^^^ ^J „ 5 

Tinfoil, |§)|| „ 5 

Vermilion, Jp^ i^. „ 3 

Paintings, g[ XI ^/^ Jtf I J|j ft' 0*^8^ paintings) 

formerly divided into large and small paintings. each 10 

Whitelead, ^^ pecul 2 5 

Class 6. Wares of various kinds, ^ M ^ ;^ j|g. 

Bone A hornware, ^^^^^^^^ „ 100 

China ware, ]p^ -%, fine and coarse, formerly 

classed as fine native, coarse, and middling, ,, 5 

Copper ware and pewter ware, ^ ^ ^ ^* '„ 5 

Manufacture of wood, furniture, &c., St "jic 2jb» „ 2 

Ivory ware,5p .^, all carved ivory work included, 

formerly divided into ivory and ivory carvings. „ 5 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Chiwsc Tariff, 2G5 

Lacquered ware, ]^ :^. n 10 

Mother of Pearl ware, J^ij5|( ^ ^ „ 10 

RatUn ware, Rattan and bamboo work, fS »ft ^& 

MRmvinn- -^ » »=» 

Sandal wood ware, )|f ^ TfC ^ »> 10 

Gold and aiiver ware, ^ ^ ^ ^ ^* form- 
erly divided into g^old ware and silver ware „ 10 

Tortoise shell ware, (||^ j^^ ^ n JO 

Leather trunk and boxes, j^|§)^^^^ ** 020 

C..S.7. Canes. Srcff-^^j^i^. 
Canesorwalkinjfsticksofallkinds, j^^ JHH ^ ps. 1000 5 

Clasb 8. Jrtieles of elolking, "J^lj^^^^ ^• 

Wearing apparel, "j^ Bkr, whether of cotton, 

woolen, or silk, formerly divided into cotton 
clothing, woolen clothing, silk do. satin do. and 
velvet, pccul 5 

Boots aild shoes, £0^ ^, whether of leather, satin 

or otherwise „ 2 

Class, 9. Fabrics of hemp, ♦^•' '^ Xlf ^ 

Grass cloth, S "AjP, and all cloths of hemp or 

linen, pecul 10 

Nankeen, Hit >tK Irfft ^^^ ^^1 cloths of cotton for- 
merly not in the tariff, „ 10 

Clas. 10. SUk, fabric of sUU irC j^^^l^ ^^ 

*•* x^'^ n '"°'''°'** iW ^ ± ^ ^ 
#l^# • •<*"<* 

Coa«eorrefu«!.ilk.;^|g|^||lM3^,^^. .. 2 5 

Org.„«in. of .11 kiad.. %^,B.]i^% 

UxB » "» " 

Stlk ribbon a..d thread, f^ ^ ]^ f^, ^ 

^# • '»« » 

Silk and satin fabricB of all kinds, as Crape, Lustring, 

&4:., &c., formerly classed as silk and sutins peciil )'2 

Silk and cotton mixed fabrics, iA Jj^. 9^ ^t - «* 3 U 

Heretofore a further chargt- per piece has been 
VOL xy. NO. V. 34 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

206 Chinese Tariff, May, 

levied i the whole duly is now lo \ e paid in one sum 
and llie further charge ia abolished. 

Class 11, Carpeting, matting, ^c, ^ ^J ^ ^ ^• 

Mats, ^, of all kinds, as of straw, rattan, bamboo, 

x'^^K ,.020 

Ac, &,c., " 

Class 12. Preserves, fyc, ^ |^ ^ j^ l^' 

Preserved ginger, and fruits of all kinds, 3^ ]^ 

jk^m^m r " 

Soy. ^ -fife, -^ ; " -» 

Sugar, white and brown, ^^^^^^> » "** 

Sugar Candy, all kinds, %'^, • » ^ ^ ^ 

Tobacco, prepared and unprepared, &c. of all kinds, 

~^^P, 1^. " '^' 

Class 13. Unenumerated articles. 
All articles which it has not been practicable to 
enumerate herein specifically are lobe charged a duty 
of five per cent. <id valorem. 

Class 14. Gold and silver coin and gold and 
,a„.,_duty free. ^ ^ ^ t^ iK ^ ^ 

Class 15. BrUks, tiles, and huilding ma- 
Uriah, duty free. ^ ^ ^ >T ^ 5a 

IMPORTS, ^ W,% ^' 
CL.v« 1. WaT,«.llpetrcAc. Jl D '^ i! ^ ffi M" 
Wax 1^ WL foreign. »« bees wax, also called tile 

-.gfiX^^Sffl »^'='" ''' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Chinese Tariff. 267 

Oil of rose maloes, ]^ >^ ^)^, „ 10 

Saltpetre, foreign, i?^ ^^, „ 3 

This article is only allowed to be sold to the go- 
vernment merchants, formerly this regulation did not 
««wt „ 

Soaps, foreign, as perfumed soaps, -^ gS jin %^ 

H » 5 

Class 2. Spices and perfumes, ^ P ^^ ^* 

Gum benzoin and oil of benzoin, ^£^ JP, ^Sp ^^ 

,^^^ Pecul 1 

Sandal wood,^^ „ 5 

Pepper, black, 1^ ;^ „ 4 

All other articles of this class not specifically men- 
tioned herein, to pay a duty of ten per cent, ad 
valorem. Perfumery, five per cent. ai2 valorem. 

Class 3. Drvgi, ^ ^^ ^• 
Atafaetida, fCf ^ „ 1 U 

Camphor, h, ^ y|<. j^ fji^' ^ auperior quality, 

i. e. pure, formerly claaied as good & inferior, „ 10 

Camphor, Ji <^ ^ f^j^ (}fy, inferior quality 

or refuse formerly oncleaned camphor, „ & 

Cloves, Jl ^ T # ^ ^ r #.'"P<^ 

rior quality, picked „ 15 

Cloves, "K ^ ir -§ IP ^ T ^' *"^^"*'' 

quality, (mother cloves) „ 5 

Cow bezoar, -H- W per catty 

Cutch, M /SL.| pecul 

Gambier, ^ ;jg|J ^- „ 15 

Areca nut, ifS ttR „ 15 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

208 Chinese Tariff. May, 

Gineong, foreign, luperior quality, &g, j^ 3S1 ^E 

wmwp^nwi =» • 

Ginseng, np^ ^S y^ ^, inferior quality, Ac. . „ 3 5 

Of every hundred catties of foreign Ginsenff of 
whatever sort, one fifUi part is to be considered as 
of superior quality and four fiflhs of inferior quality. 

Gam olibanum, JL ^ „ 5 

Myrrh. ^IjR 5 

Mace or flower of nutmeg, ^ ^ i^ |IP S. ^ ^ « 10 

Quicksilver, tJc lis » 3 

Nutmeg., J: ^g^gP^^.fir.t quality „ 8 

■eeond quality or coane »> 10 

Putchuck, ^:^ I*enl 7 5 

Rhinoceroa' homa, ^ ^ » 3 

CLAas 4. Sundrie*, j|^ ^ |p. 

FlinU, ^ "J^ „ 5 

Mother of pearl ahell.,^]^^gP^^^ „ 8 

CLAa.5, ^i** ««>'». ft 111 i§:P^'^|- 
Bird. neaf.. L^^^*^ '^, firat quality, 

mandarin, t> 5 

Birda neafa, ^^^%f,^, aecond 

quality, ordinary, « 2 o 

Bird. ..eafa, -f;4^;|5^i^.third,uality, 

with fealhera, » 5 

Bicho-de-mar, firat quality. Mack, _tl ^ /^ ^ 

MA^ .. 8 

Bicho-de-mar, second quality, white, |\ Sp VW 

#665, -^■^- •• "'" 

Sharks fins, first quality, white, JL "# S m 

e 6^- - "•• " ' " " 

Shark's fins, second quality, black, IF "=# |^, J® 

fl£ ^ • " ' ' ' 

Stockfish, called dried fish, ^ ^^ ^\l ^Z. M^ " ^ ^ ^ 

Fish maws, ^ R4-, not formnrly in the tariff, . ., „ 15 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1A46. Otttuse Tariff. 269 

c.*.. 6. p-/-,^. "--. fi jej * S^ HI S- 

Cochineal, P^ lH tI^: „ 5 

S"*'". # W BP A #' * " " 

Sapan wood, ^ tIC, „ 10 

CiAi. 7. roMb, c«i«, <* . ft 'K ® tt IS* 

RatUn.,^j?||, „ 2 

B«»"y. i^^ '. » • « 

AH other imported wood, ai red-wood, aalin-wood, 
7<>IIow-wood, not apecificall/ enamerated to pay a 
dnty often per cent, ad valorem. 

Clock.. ^^^\ watchea. B|)^ ^ ; 
telescopes, ^ J^ ^ ; glass panes and crys- 
UI ware of all kind., 5J[ ^ Jt >8 ^ ^ 

fil^ J^ ;K li IS 5 ''"«"« <>•*•• E ^ 

^ ; dreMing ca«., ^j(g |£ ^ i jewelry of 
sold and ailrer, ^ ^ "ife fR "^ ^ J 
cutlery, «,ord., &c.. ^ |}J ig ^ 7? Hj 

All the foregoing, and any other miscellaneous articles 
of the same description, five per cent, ad valorem : 


Class 9. Gold aiid fUver bullion, duty free. 

C,^.. M. Couch, ^ ZE S S IP- 
Fabrics of cotton canvass, jM'fl^, from 75 to 100 

chih long, and I rhih 7 ismn to 9 f///7< 2 /5?/n wide piece 5 U 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

270 Chinese Tariff. May, 

Cotton, \^ /j^, allowing five per cent for Ure, pccul 4 

J^ng white cloths, ^ J^ ;(fj, 75 to 100 ckih 

lonir and 2 cAM, 2 Untit, to 2 cAiA. 6 tsun wide, formerly 

divided into superior and inferior fine coiion cloth. piece 15 

Cambrics and muslins, Q ^ *g /^, from 50 
to 60 ekik long and 2 cAiA 9 tsun to 3 cAiA 3 
r^un wide , h 15 

Cottons, grey or unbleached domestic, |0 '^ jQE 

7ff|, and from 75 to 100 cAiA long and 2 cAiA to 2 

cAiA 9 tsun wide, formerly classed as coarse long cloths „ 10 

Twilled cottons, |§( fe |^ ;^ t5» ^^^1^ »»™ 

dimensions »» 10 

Chintz and prints, tf) '^ /^, of all kinds from 

60 to 70 ckih long and from 2 cAiA 9 tsun to 3 cAiA 

3 tsun wide, formerly called ornamented or 

flower cloths »i 8 

Cotton yarn, or cotton thread, ^, ^^l pecul 1 


not formerly in the tariff, from 50 to 75 cAiA long a c n 

and 1 cAiA 9 ts^n to 2 cAiA 2 («//i wide, v 5 U 

Bunting, ?1^ ;f5g ... perchang 1* 

All other imported articles of this class, are ging- 
hams, pulicates, dyed cottons, velveteens, silk and 
cotton mixtures of linen and cotton, &c., &c., five 
per cent, ad valorem. 

Class 11 Fabrics of silk, woolens, ^c. J^ 

Handkerchiefs, 4^ ^ ijlfl, large, above 2 cAiA 6 

tsun ....\...:^. each I4 

Handkerchiefs, ;|> ^ j||6, small, under 2 chih6tsun. „ 0^01 

Gold and silver thread, superior or real, JQ ^^ ^g 

^ M per catty 13 

Gold and silver thread, inferior or imitation, p -^ 

^m^ '• ''' 

Digitized by 


1846. Chiuese Tariff 271 

Broad cloth, "jC P]p|, Spanidli stripes, &.C., from 3 

ehih6tsvnU}4chih6tsun Yf'ide, per chang 1 5 

Narrow cloths, /|\ !^/, as Long ells, cassimires, 

dui., formerly classed as narrow woolens, „ 7 

CauileU, ^^ ^, Dutch ,. 15 

Camlets. ^ j^ ,. 7 

ImiUtion Camlets or Bombazetts, ^ ^ »• SJ 

Woolen yam. ^ i% pe«"» 3 

Blankets. )^ § ^. each 1 

All other fabrics of* wool or of mixed wool and 
cotton, wool and silk, &c.. five per cent, ad valorem. 

Class 12. mnes, ^c, ^ 
Wine and beer, in quart botUes, J^ ^ ^ 

JBM:^fi^ ^'^^^ ^ ^ ^ 

Wine in pint bottles, ^ jg ^ ^ ?S 1^ A^ 

^ " 5 

Wine in cask, ^5^ 'jg '^ % ffy pccul 5 

Class 13. Metals. ^pI ^ ^ ||j t|- 

Copper. 7^ /^^ flipb foreign, in pigs, &c „ 10 

Copper. *M §ft ^, wrought, as sheets, rods, &c. „ 15 

Iron, foreign, unmanufactured as in pigs, y^ qr J^.^ ,, 10 

Iron, manufactured as in bars, rods. 6cc. y^ ^ |^ „ 15 

Lead, foreign, in pigs or manufactured, \^ $&. „ 2 3 

Steel, foreign, of every kind, vf ^ ||^ ^ l^lc " 4 

Tin, foreign, 'Ji^ ^^ 10 

Tin plates, ^ f] fpC' ^o'"'»^'"ly not in the tariff, .. 4 

Spelter is only permitted to be sold to goverment 

All unenumerated metals as zinc, yellow-copper, 
Alc., ten per cent, ad valorem. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

2T2 Chinese Tariff, Mav, 

CLAsa 15. Jtwdrif. ^^^7^ ^* 

Cornelians. JJ| T¥ >f| ^^ lUO stonei 5 

Cornelian beads, 5||{^gjj.... i»ecul 10 

Class 15. SkinM, Uetk, horns, 4"^- ||| /It ^ ^ ^ ^ H^' 
Bullocksandbuffalohorns, &«., 7^ |B 4^ ^... „ 2 

Cow and ox hides, tanned and nntanned, g^ St 

^Jk' - - 5 

8ea otter skins, ^ ||£ /^ each I 5 

Fox skins, large, ;^ |R ^ /It 15 

Fox skins, small, ;]> >J)Ii ^ ^ ., 7^ 

Tiger, leopard, and martin skins, //^ ^ ^fv /JC 

Mk^ « • ^ 

Land otter, raccoon and sharks skins, |^ j^ ^ 

B^^fJ^^^ ""-'^ «»• 

Beaver skins, ^ lE^ 1^ ^ hundred 5 

Hare, rabbit, and ermine skins, ^ j^ ^Cj^ ^ 

Ml^^ ''' 

Sea horse teeth, *)^ ^ 5f P«<^**> 2 

Elephant's teeth, first quality whole J;^ ^ ^ W' " 4 

Elephant's teeth, second quality broken,'j^ ^ ^ 

^ 2 

Class 16. UrunumeraJM^ 

All new goods, which it has not been practicable to 
enumerate herein, a duty of five per cent. 4u< iwiiorewi 

Class 17. Rue and other grains, ^ ^ P /^ 
Co„tr.baud, ji IS ft ife^ Opium, y^ ^j*. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Extracts from the Peking^ Gazettes. 517S 

8hippiii« OoKi. 

Theie hiTe been hitherto charged on the meaiurement of the vhip's lenfth 
and breadth, at ao much per chang; but it ia now agreed to alter tne Bjatem 
and charge according to the registered statement of Uie numbered tons of the 
ship's burden. On each tob (reckoned equal to the cubic contents of 199 
tons) a shipping charge of five mace is to be leyied, and all the old charges of 
measurement entrance and port clearance fees, daily and monthly fees, ^-, 
are abolished. 


C. CvsHisfl. L. 8 

TsiTMso. L. 8. 

Art. V. Extracts from the Peking Gazettes, Nos, S to S for 
the twenty'Sixth year of the reign of his imperial mqfesty T&U" 
kwdng, A. D. 1846. 

No. 5. 
This is occupied with notices of merely the ordinary routine of 
business, such as filling vacancies in the various office? throughout 
the empire. His excellency Tni Hi, the literary chancellor of Can- 
ton, has been directed to retain the seals of his office here, though 
the regular term of three years of service has expired. 

No. I. 

/^^ Zl'i^ ^I'l ^^"^ -^""' ^^"^ '***» '* y** *'*"• Tdukwdng, 
Wh shih Ink nicn, ching yueh, shih luh chi Wh shih yih, i. e. " Metro- 
politan Reporter; the Gazette, No. 1. Tiiukwang, the 26th year, 
1st month, the 16ih to the 20th days,'*— February llth to the 16ih, 
J 846. 

Annually on the 20th of the 12th month of the year, the seals of 
all the offices throughout the empire are closed up and remain so 
nominally till the 20th of the succeeding month, which period of 
SO days is allowed for the festivities of the new year. In the mean 
time, however, it is found necessury to carry on a certain amount of 
public business; and the Gazetten, instead of being full and coming 
out once in two days, are very brief, appearing every four, five, or 

vol. XV. NO. V. JVi 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

S74 Extracts from the Peking Gazettes. Mat, 

six days. These Gazettes, issued during the holidays, form a sup- 
plementary series, comprising the five preceding numbers. 

The number before us is the first of the regular series for the 
current year. The principal document in it is a Report from the 
Board of Punishments, giving particulars respecting a religious sect» 

called Tsing Lien Kdu, ^^ ^ ^, " The Religion of the Green 
Water-lily," which made its appearance in Kwangsi about the middle 
of last year. The report occupies twenty-four pages in the Gazette. 
These sects are very troublesome to the Chine^sc government and 
people, being composed of vagabonds who regard neither the laws 
nor the welfare of their fellow creatures. We should be glad to lay a 
translation of the report before our readers, but this is impracticable, 
at least for the present. 

No. 2. 

This number of the Gazette is for th(> 21st and 22d days of the 1st 
month of the 26th year of the reign of his imperial majesty — Feb. 
I7th and I8th, 1846. The names of Lin T.sehsii and Tang Ting- 
ching, the first, governor of the province of Kdnsuh, the other, go- 
vernor of the province of Shenst, both appear repeatedly in this 
number. Our readers will remember that these men were principal 
agents in bringing on the late war between Grent Britain and China. 
Hiiving raised the storm, they subsequently fell into disgrace, were 
expelled from office, carried prisoners to Peking, and there sentenc- 
ed to heavy punishment. They both were sent into banishment, 
and their names for a long period ceased to appear in the Gazettes. 
Lin was more than once reported dead. The first proof of his being 
alive, which see.ned authentic, was th^s announcement of a book at 
Suhchau regarilin;L^ foreigners, generally understood to be his work. 
This was in the early part of 1845, before the end of that yeir the 
emperor was pleased to recall and to reinstate in office, and reinvest 
with honors, both Lin and Tang. Placed in such circumstances Chi- 
nese officers are put on probcition. Being now themselves under 
discipline, these veteran olBcers seem disposed to bring their sub- 
alterns to a more strict pertbrmance of their duties, by asking re- 
wards for the faithful and degradation and punishment for delin- 

No. 3. 

This number is for the 19th and 20th of February, and we make 
from it a single extract, giving first the Chinese and then a trans- 
lation. It will be seen that their excellencies Kiying and Hwiing 
are among the very few who are to receive special marks of distinc- 
tion. This looks well, so far as it retrards the new relations with 
foreigners. If we may jjdge from this di>cument, stands 
preeminent in favor among those of the sime rank in his majesty's 
scrvico. And lie is doubtless as well qiinlified, as any m^n in the 
empire, to act the part of minister fur forei«rn affairs. One of the 
IhpI messen^'crs from court is said to have brought many little tokens 
of t'livor from the CJiipcror lor the.^c otlij-er^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Extracts from the Peking GazeUes. 275 


* « A t « ® f FpI 'i:^> t^ 


^^ia^t. ^ pq^^S 


^ 5i w ^ *ii> I^J -^ ^ ^ « 


m^ ^ m^m %%^ n ^^ 

t m ^ M ^1 ^ mi ^ ^ 



' WMi^m^n^^ji^^ 










^ Hi. t i^ i; IH M 1 t 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

276 Extracts from the Peking Gaxeties. May, 

" A vermilion edict (i. e. an edict written in vermilion by the em- 
peror's own hand) has been received, showing the results of the 
great triennial examination for merit held at court. All the Chinese 
and Manchu ministers, within and without the capita], who are able 
to show diligence and truthfulness, and discharge the duties of their 
offices with sincere hearts, ought to be distinguished. Those who 
possess tnlents for common service, but whose strength is wasted and 
whose years are far advanced, it is hard to indulge. But if among 
the aged there are those whose energies and strength continue un* 
diminished, these it is right to retain in office. Now on the return 
of this great examination, the Board of Office having made out a 
schedule of all the ministers within and without the capital, We have 
deliberated and acted on the same. 

** MuhcMnqak and Puvcin jSTAin^an, high chancellors; S&ish&ng" 
ah and Kt Tsuntsau, presidents of the Board of Revenue; and jffo 
Juliiif president of the Board of War; expert and dilligent in the 
discharge of business, of singular virtue and singular mind : Ngan- 
hceif a president of the Board of Office, exhibiting somewhat of 
patience and truthfulnass in the management of all public affairs : 
Nd'rhkingdh, the governor-general of the province of Chihlf, manage 
ing well all the affairs of the important post on the frontier : Pdu- 
hing, high chancellor and governor-general of the province of Sz'- 
chuen, of sterling character and rectitude, retaining strength beyond 
his years : Kiying, vice high chancellor and governor-general of 
KwAngtung and Kwingsl, with all his mind and thoughts con- 
trolling the maritime frontiers: and Hwang Ngantung, governor of 
Kw&ngtung, joining strength to councils and aiding in maintaining 
quiet and stability : let all these be delivered over to the Board of 
Office to deliberate on the marks of distinction that ought to be 
given them. As to the others, let them as usual discharge the func- 
tions of their respective offices. This is from the emperor." 

No. 4. 

February 31st and 22d. This has interest to those immediately 
concerned, containing, as it does, a long list of appointments. 

No. 5. 

February 23d and 24th. The emperor's fourth son is commis- 
sioned to go and pay religious honors to the demigod Kwdnti, the 
great progenitor of the late poor admiral Kwdn, hero of the Bogue, 
who fell ** so majestically " in the war with the barbarians. We 
notice also, that Pduhing, governor-general of Sz'chuen, has been 
delivered over to the appropriate Board, for trial, one of the young 
cadets, recommended by him to office, having been found on trial to 
be incompetent for his duties. 

No. 6. 

February 25th and 26th. The attention of his majesty has been 
drawn to the slow progress towards the capital of the vessels, carry- 
ing grain ; and he gives orders to have the necessary means used to 
accelerate their movement. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Journal of Occurrences. 277 

The Board of Ritea have laid before the emperor a letter from 
JJsidng ^ ^, kin^ of Corea, aent by an embassador, requesting^ 
that more than one linguist may be allowed to the embassies from 
Corea to Peking, the number having lately been reduced from five 
to one. In future the number is to be two. 

His majesty expresses concern for the non arrival of the tribute 
bearers from the king for Cochinchina, and directs inquiries to be 
made regarding them. 

No. 7. 

February 27th and 28th. Tardiness in the transportation of cop- 
per, as in the case of grain, is complained of; and similar orders 
are the consequence. Complaints are made, by Much^ngah and 
others, regarding the inequality in the current value of silver and 
the copper cash, and orders are given to governors of the provinces 
to look into th id* matter. 

No. 8. 

March 1st and 2d. Local robberies, discipline of the army, and 
the storing of grain are the leading topics of this number. The do- 
cuments, however, if translated, would be of little interest to our 
readers. Robberies abound, it would seem, all over the empire. 

Abt. VI. Journal of Oceurrences : the island of Chusan to be 
immediately made over to the Chinese; commercial steamers 
allowed to carry merchandise; correspondence regarding Hong'^ 
hang; a meteor; the foreign residences at Canton^ their Umitw 
ed extent and dilapidated condition; Macao, 

Regarding the evacuation of Chusan and the opening of the gates 

of Canton we give the following official notice from the "China 



The autograph assent of the emperor of China having been obtained to a 
public instrument executed between Her Majesty's plenipotentiary and the 
Chinese ministers, subject to the final approbation of the Queen, m which, 
among other stipulations, the previously questioned right of entry to Gaston 
city is conceded and established under the Emperor's own hand, and the 
exercise of that right is agreed to be postponed only until the population 
of Canton shall be more under the control of the local government, this is 
to make known, that the island of Chusan will be immediately made over to 
the Chinese officers appointed to receive it, and Her Majesty's forces will be 
withdrawn from that post wiih all practicable speed. 
God save the Queen. 

J. P. Davis. 
Given at Victoria, Hongkong, the 18th day of May, 1846. 

By his excellency, A* R* JoHifSTorft 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

278 Journal of Occurrences. May, 

On this proclamation we shall content ourselves, for the present, 
with giving only the remarks of the Hongkong Register. The 
Editor of that paper says: 

^The protracted discussion regarding the right of foreigners to enter the 
city of Canton, and the consequent delivery of Chusan to the Chinese has 
at last been brought to an end by the emperor having attached his signa- 
ture to a document conceding the right of entry to the city. Chusan is 
tlierefore to be immtdiaicly made over to the Chinese, although the right of 
entry is postponed until the population of CarUon shall be more under the 
control of the local government. To this "lame and impotent conclusion" 
has the matter arrived. The population of Canton will no doubt be kept 
informed of ihe terms, and we have no doubt will take care to make the 
local government aware from time to time that they are not yet sufficiently 
under control, while orders can easily be transmitted to the latter to use no 
harsh measures a^inst them, but to show all due forbearance to their 
reasonable and patriotic prejudices.'' 

Some difficulty having arisen touching the rights of steamers to 
carry goods, the following has appeared. 


His excellency her majesty's plenipotentiary, &c., &c., make known for 
the general information of the British community, that his correspondence 
with the Chinese minister in relation to commercial steamers has terminated 
in his excellency Kiying acquiescing in the right of such vessels to carry 
merchandise, as well as passengers and letters. As the reluctance of the 
Chinese government to the increase of this species of traffic has arisen prin- 
cipally from a not unreasonable apprehension of danger to its own subjects in 
the crowded vicinity of trading cities, his excellency the plenipotentiary 
sees the absolute necessity of holding steam vessels of all descriptions under 
the most effective control, with a view to preserving unimpaired the existinff 
rights under the Treaty, as well as promoting the establishment of good 
/eeling between the subjects of tlie two nations. He trusts and believes 
tliat there will be no occasion whatever for the interference of authority ; 
but, in case of need, the existing law is sufficient for enforcing either com- 
pensation for civil injury, or penalties on account of criminal negligence or 

By command of his excellency, 

Victoria, Hongkong, ISth May, 1846. A. R. Johnston. 

About taxation in Hongkong, &c., the following extract from a 
dispatch, lately received by governor Davis, from the right honor- 
able W. E. Gladstone is worthy of notice. We give along with it, the 
comments of the Editor of the Hongkong Register. 

No. 1. 

** With respect to the terms on which lands have been disposed of, there 
appears to be nothing new in the present representation, and as the subject 
has been already exhausted both in sir Henry Pottin^er's dispatches of March 
and May, 1844, and lord Stanley's answer of lf>th November, 1844, and in 
your own correspondence with the mercantile body, it would be superfluous 
in me to renew the discussion. 1 content myself, therefore with expressinr 
my concurrence in tlie ffcneral reason inef on this subject adopted by lord 
Stanley, as well as by sir Nenry Pottinger and yourself. In regard to the imposi- 
tion oj^ rates, the mercantile body wfiy mean that as such rates are in this 
country levied by municipal bodies, and not by the imperial legislature, it is 
unconstitutional and illegal that they should be levied in Hongkong by the 
Colonial Legislature. But whether this be or be not the just construction of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Journal of Occurrences. 279 

their language, in the proposition itself which thej' have advanced I can bv no 
means concur. The circumstances of the town of Victoria and of the colony 
of HongKong generally, are so different from any slate of society existing in 
this couiitry, or in any British colony, and ihey are likewise as yet so imper. 
fectly developed, that it would be iin possible, perhaps at any time, certainly at 
present, to opply to them priuoiples, or to introduce into them institutions, 
which elsewhere are rc^cn<rnizrd and established. 'J'he merchants in their letter 
to lord Stanley, 1 observe, not only protest against the proposed taxation for 
draining the town of Victoria, but also the * opium farm, auction 
dnties, and other harassing t&xation recently imposed," as deterring the Chi- 
nebe from settling, and being destructive of the incipient trade; and they 
denounce as unjust the requiring the civil part of the community to pay any 
large proportion of the expenses of a colony held rather as a military or n<ival 
station than as a place of trade. It appears to me that in this representation 
the mercantile body have altogether mistaken tlie object of Great Britain in 
the occupation of Hongkong. The occupation was decided on solely and 
exclusively with a view to commercial interests, and for the benefit of those 
engaged in the trade with China. As a naval or military station, except for 
the security of commerce, Hongkong is unnecessary. It would, therefore, be 
impossible for me to hold out to the merchants settled in the colony the ex- 
pectation that Her Majesty's government will propose to Parliament that it 
should permanently impose upon Great Britain the whole or the principal 
portion of the expense of an esiablishment from which those engaged in the 
trade with China are to derive the principal benefit; nor, consequently, can I 
accede to their request that the opium farm, auction duties, or other taxes, 
which have received the sanction of Her Majesty's government, should now 
be taken off." True extract, 

Frederick W. A. Bruce, Colonial secretary. 
No. 2. 
" The inhabitants of Hongkong have for some time looked with a conai- 
derablo degree of anxiety to the answer expected to their representation 
sent home some time aga Not that they entertained any high hopes that 
their case would meet that consideration and justice from tiiie home govern- 
ment, which we are not aware that any case from China has ever received, 
but still it is desirable to know even the worst, and the character given to 
Mr. Gladstone by the home journals, led to an anticipation that some relaxa- 
tion might be expected. In this it appears we have been mistaken. The 
iionorable secretary can And ^ nothing new in the present representation,** 
and old grievances seem altogether below his notice, so there is no use in 
renewing Uie discussion. The cireumatances of Victoria and Hongkong are 
different from other colonies and therefore they cannot enjoy institutions 
elsewhere recognised and established. It migljt have been satisfactory to 
learn what those circumstances are, which are not only different (as they 
must necessarily be) but incompatible with the enjoyment of privileges an& 
institutions generally believed to be the birthright of our countrymen. But 
Mr. Gladstone tells us these circumstances are not only so different, hot as 
yet so imperfectly developed as to render it impossible to grant our wishes. 
Here again explanation would be desirable. If the circumstances them- 
selves are such as to exclude us from institutions elsewhere established, 
would the farther developement of these adverse circumstances remove the 
difficulty ? or if not, what is the meaning of his expression. Had the me- 
rooridl been read with proper attention it would have been found that the 
merchants did not refuse to pay any large proportion of the necessary ex- 
penses of the colony, incurred solely and exclusively on the colony's ac- 
count ; but they protested and continue to protest against being burdened 
with a government altogether incommensurate to the extent and resources 
of the colony, over whoso actions they have no control, yet whose salaries 
they are e.\pected to pay, though the duties of the officers are fulfilled a<s 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

280 Journal of Occurrences, 

they believe in a way to lead to the ruin of the colony. No one ever ima- 

fined that Hongkong was occupied for any other purpose than to protect the 
ritish trade toSk C&na^ is it considered unreasonable that tJiis trade should 
contribute to the expense thus incurred. But the trade with China is not 
quite synonymous with the trade of Hongkong as the secretary may dis- 
cover if he can afford a second perusal to the memorial. I'he whole of her 
majesty's squadron in the China seais is also employed in the protection of 
the trade with China, and according to Mr. Gladstone's reasoning their 
exponaes also should be hold chargeable against the colony of Hongkong, 
as it is presumed ** those engaged in the trade with China derive the princi- 
pal benefit " from their presence. If there is anv force in his reasoning at 
all it must lead to this conclusion. The secretary's arguments however may 
be turned another way. If it is just and reasonable that the inhabitants of 
Hongkong should piy for Uie benefit they receive; it is equally unjust and 
unreasonable tliey tsiiould pay for tliose from whom they receive no benefit 
whatever. They have ever maintained and still do, that one half the esta- 
blishment maintained here, if composed of efficient individuals, is amply 
sufficient for their wants, and why should they be called on to pav for the 
remainder. If Her Majesty 'h government choose to send out a set of officials 
altogether superfluous, it may be for the purpose of getting situations for 
their own dependents, or extending their patronage, they may ** propose to 
Parliament" to meet the expense, or do so in any other way they think fit, 
but have no right to charge their salaries, (not upon the trade of China, 
which they cannot reach,) but upon the inhabitants of Hongkong, verifying 
tlie compassion of our contemporary of the ''£n/^/uAman'°of our island to 
the position of Sinbad perishing under the squeeze of the old man of the 
woods, but with this difference that the old roan did not pretend it was for 
the benefit and protection of Sinbad that he kept his seat. The answer of 
Mr. Gladstone is universally regarded by every one with whom we have 
conversed since it was published as sealing tlie fale of Hongkong. We do 
not believe it will be met with any violent reclamation, or outcry, but tlie 
tliorough disgust it has excited is such as will not be speedily eradicated. 
What little trade we ever possessed here has been all but extinguished. 
It is well known many of the firms here had expressed their intentions of 
removing, which this letter will not only hurry but add others to the list 
However humiliating to us as Brltith subjects it is upon the whole satisfac- 
tory to observe the opposite and liberal courae pursued by the government 
of Macao, and we are much mistaken if another year does not witness tlie 
return of branches of many of our firms to that port." 

On the afternoon of the 14th a meteor was observed in this vicini- 
ty, at Hongkong and at Macao. '' It seemed to comuience in Orion, 
and burst and disappeared a few degrees above the horizon." 

The condition of the foreign residences in Canton will soon, very 
likely, become a subject of discussion. Notwithstanding the great 
increase in the numbef of residents, the houses remain almost as 
limited as they were fifty or a hundred years ago; and some of those 
reccTitiy built are in such condition as to render them exceedingly 
unhealthy and unsafe. We have not space now for details, farther 
than to notice the fail of one on the morning of the 30th ult., which 
buried in its ruins several workmen, of whom five at least were kill* 
ed and several others wounded. 

Macao has not only become a free port, but it is said foreij^ncrs 
are to be allowed to purchase and hold houses there. So much for 
Ifhe march of improvement. 

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Vol. XV.— June, 1846.— No. 6. 

Art. I. Report of the Medical Missionary Society^s hospital at 
Shdnghdi. From \st of May, 1644, to 20th of June, 1845. 
By Re?. W. Lockhart, m. r. c. b. 

In the last Report some remarks were made respecting the position 
of ShinghAi, and an opinion was expressed as to the healthiness of 
its situation and climate; further experience has strengthened this 
opinion, and there do not appear to be any epidemic forms of disease 
prevalent among the people, who however ^wffet much from the effects 
of the sadden changes of climate, which take place during the spring 
and autumn months, as is shown in some degree, from the large number 
of cases of disease of the lungs, and rheumatism. 

It is surprising that more disease does not exist in such a city as 
this, during the great heat of the summer months, densely populated as 
it is, the people being crowded together in narrow streets, and several 
families frequently living together in one house ; and from there being 
no police regulations respecting cleansing the city, nor any public 
scavengers ; the sewerage is also of the most imperfect kind, the drains 
being merely a species of continuous cess-pool, where filth of all kinds 
is allowed to accumulate anH pollute the air; on the other hand manure 
is much wanted for the fields, and as it bears a high market value, 
is much sought after and carried away into the country; great num- 
bers of men and boats are constantly employed in this exportation* 
and thus large quantities of filth are removed, that would otherwise 
no doubt produce detriment to the health of the inhabitants ; in truth 
the price of every kind of ordure is the means of safety to the whole 

VOL, XV. NO. VI. 36 

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282 Report of the Hospital at Shanghai JiNC, 

community. The nasal organs of the Chinese are not so sensitive as 
those of Europeans, and they care little for the most oflfensive odours 
in their streets and houses, while the foreigner feels almost prostrat- 
ed, by the stenches of various descriptions which assail him on all 
sides in any of these cities, the natives appear rather to enjoy " the 
spicy odours '' than otherwise. 

In spite however of all the circumstances which usually prove in- 
jurious to health, the inhabitants of this city and district appear to 
enjoy a good share of health ; and though sallow in complexion, they 
are strong and attain in many instances a good old age. It is only by 
a much longer residence, that it will be ascertained whether there 
are any periodic visits of cholera or other severe diseases, aflTecting 
the whole community. An accurate register of the thermometer has 
been kept for the last twelve months and it may be generally interest- 
ing to show the results : — 






N 1 e H T. 








































































































The register of cases shows the number of patients to be 10,978 
during fourteen months; the diseases that passed under observation, 
are of much the same character as in the last report, and it is some- 
what remarkable that intermittent fever should appear in so small a 
proportion to other aflfections in this district of the country ; and 
several of the cases mentioned came from a single village, about four 
miles from Sh^ngliii, called Lung-hwa, where the pagoda is situated. 
Many cases of fever, dysentery, and elephantiasis, have come from 
that place, most probably on account of its low site ; the banks of the 
river are at this place very marshy, and there is much water around 
the village. 

In' July last a juggler was exhibiting his tricks before a crowd, and 
in the course of his operations had to perform a needle trick as follows, 
lie first pretended to swallow tiventy needles singly, then to swallow 
a piece of string, to which the needles were to become attached (or 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Report of the Hospital at Shanghai 383 

threaded,) and drawn out by a hooked piece of wire. However on 
passing down his hook, the needles had slipped too low, and both 
hook and needles became fixed in the throat ; after repeated efforts he 
extracted 8 or 10 of the needles, and was then brought to me; on 
passing the finger into the throat, the needles were distinctly felt, the 
hook was firmly fixed at the back of the pharynx, but was finally dis- 
engaged and drawn out, and with some difiiculty four more needles 
were removed with a portion of string ; the rest of the needles could 
not by any possibility be reached, either by the finger or by forceps, 
and the worst circumstance in the case was, the needles were all 
attached to the piece of string, and they themselves penetrated the 
esophagus in different directions. The patient suffered much from 
dyspnoea, with great agony from a sense of suffocation in the throat ; 
an emetic was given with a slight hope that 9ome of the needles 
might be loosened by the vomiting, but only one came away ; a pro- 
bang was passed during the evening without difficulty or pain, but 
also without any benefit; — leeches were plentifully applied with 
considerable relief for a time ; active purging also was used, and hot 
fomentations applied to the neck ; but great tumefaction, internally of 
the fauces and externally of the whole neck, took place, and advanced 
rapidly till suffocation ensued five days af\er the accident. The man's 
friends expressed their thanks for what had been done for him, and 
immediately removed the body — the patient was a poor feeble fellow, 
apparently a victim of long continued dissipation and vicious habits; 
the state of his health, joined with the great uncertainty of any bene- 
ficial result, was the reason that no operation was attempted or even 

The case of enormous scrotal tumor mentioned in the list occurred 
in a man 45 years of age, by trade a weaver ; he was also affected 
with elephantiasis of the right leg, but was otherwise in good health. 
The tumor, or morbid growth of the scrotum commenced ten years 
ago, but has during the last four years increased very rapidly ; it is 
now of enormous size, measuring from the perinsum to the pubes 
45 inches — largest transverse diameter 39 inches — smallest diameter, 
thp.t is round the neck, 18 inches; the integuments of the abdomen are 
much dragged down, as is also the whole of the perineum to the anus ; 
the penis is not to be seen, the urine being discharged through a chasm 
in the front of the tumor, the left testicle or its epididymis is felt 
almost of natural size, at the back of the mass, which appears to 
consist in great degree of indurated cellular tissue, similar to ele- 
phantiasis ; the skin is much corrugated over the whole anterior part 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

384 Report of ike Hospital at Shdnghai, June, 

bat posteriorly U w healthy ; and the neck of the tumor conaisu 
wholly of healthy skin, the cord of the right side is somewhat en- 
larged* that of the left side is of natural size. An operation has been 
talked of, but not yet decided on, though the roan is quite willing 
to submit to anything that woald relive hiro from his oppressive 
burden ; for the present he has returned to his family at Chang-chau 
fu about 130 miles distant. In the case of enormous hydrocele 12 
pounds of serum were removed from the tunica vaginalis of the left 
side, there was a small scrotal hernia on the right side. In another 
case of the same disease, but complicated with very large irreducible 
hernia, which led to much difficulty in the diagnosis, especially as 
the scrotum was much thickened in structure, 8 pounds of serous 
fluid was removed in the beginning of August, and in the beginning 
of September the same quantity was again drawn off. 

In September last a man applied at the hospital with a tumor 
on the scalp, to which an escharotic application had been made ten 
days previously ; this had the effect of destroying a large portion 
of the tumor, and much of the surrounding skin, which were now 
in process of separation ; in a few days a large portion of the tumor 
was cut away, and shortly afterwards the remainder of it was re- 
moved, but with it came off the pericranium of the parietal bone, 
of about the size of a dollar, leaving the bone quite bare; the man 
was in good health, and though he had experienced much pain in 
the tumor during the process of separation, there had been no pain 
or uneasiness in the head ; in the middle of September this patient 
was obliged to return home, the bone was at this time quite dry, 
but the granulations all round the exposed part were healthy, and the 
man was in good health. At the beginning of November the patient 
returned, he was a sailor on board a bean junk from Kw^ngtung, 
(Moukden); his stock of ointment had lasted him almost all the time. 
The wound had been kept clean, the granulations were healthy, and 
exfoliation of the parietal hone had taken place; a scale of bone was 
now removed, the granulated surface underneath which, was red and 
well nourished ; cicatrization soon commenced and the wound was 
speedily healed. 

The case of severe wound of the knee, was that of a man who fell 
on board his junk, the left knee came in contact with a rice bowl, 
which was of course broken, and the broken portions inflicted an 
extensive wound on the anterior part of the knee. He was brought 
to the hospital five dsys after the accident, when a wound was found 
to extend completely across the lower part of the knee joint, the 

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1846. Report of the Hospital at ShdngMi. 885 

ligamentniD patelle was divided and the cavity of the joint, was laid 
open, especially on the outer side ; there was also a wound of the leg, 
by which the fascia covering the peroncei muscles was divided, and 
the muscles themselves much lacerated ; the man complained of severe 
pain in the knee; he was ioHnediately put to bed, the wound closed, 
simple dressing applied, and the whole covered by water dressing; a 
dose of calomel and opium was given, which much relieved the severe 
pain, he had previously suffered from it. In a day or two the wound 
lost the red, inflamed, dry appearance it had at first ; became moist 
and covered with pus; the case went on favorably, the suppuration 
became very profuse, and a large quantity of glairy fluid came from 
the joint; occasionally severe pain with slight fever came on, and the 
patient required constant care; in a few weeks cicatrization advanced 
rapidly, and in two months the external wound was almost healed 
but the joint was stiff and at this period the limb was perfectly use- 
less. The man was obliged to return home in his junk which was 
going to Shintung. He will most probably be able to use the limb 
in a few months; but he will have a stiff joint, though that is a small 
matter, when the very serious nature of the injury is taken into con* 

The captain of a junk presented himself at the hospital, having 
dislocation of both humeri into the axille ; this had occurred from a 
violent fall on his back, on the deck of the junk, during a severe 
gale of wind, which made the vessel pitch and roll very much, the 
junk was coming down the Yingtsz' ki&ng from Nanking; — the 
accident happened 70 days before he applied for relief, attempts were 
made to reduce the dislocations; but the heads of the ossa humeri, 
were so flrmly fixed in their new positions, and the attempts at reduc« 
tion gave the man so much pain, that they were not persevered in. 

Since the establishment of the hospital at Sh&nghii, endeavors 
have been made to introduce vaccination among the people, and re* 
peated trials have been made, with lymph sent from the hospital at 
Hongkong; and also with further supplies sent through the kindness 
of Dr. Anderson of Macao, and Dr. Maxwell in charge of the 
Madras troops at Chusan; this latter had been sent to China from 
Madras ; all however proved unsuccessful, till a fresh supply was re- 
ceived from Macao last April, the use of which has happily been suc- 
cessful. At this time the colonel of the Chinese garrison of this city, 
Haw-ta-jin requested that one of his daughters might be vaccinated, 
which was done, and finally another of his children and thirty of the 
soldiers and neighbors' children were vaccinated at his residence^ in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

286 Report of the Hospital at Skdnghdi. June, 

addition to which twenty children were vaccinated at the hospital. 
It is hoped that in a few months, as (he plan of vaccination becomes 
more known, its practice will be extensively sought after. Inocula* 
tion is much practised by the native physicians, indeed the greatest 
number of the children are inoculated ; the mode followed is to push a 
piece of cotton impregnated with variolous lymph up the nostrils, or to 
dress the child with clothes that have been worn by a person affect- 
ed with small pox, and in a few days the small pox developes itself. 
But the advantages of vaccination are so great over inoculation, that 
the former will eventually it is hoped find as much favor here as it 
has done in Canton, where it was introduced by the late Mr. Pearson, 
and an establishment has for many years been kept up at the expense 
of the Hong-merchants, for vaccinating all who apply. To make 
known more fully the benefit of vaccination, the pamphlet originally 
drawn up by Mr. Pearson, and translated into Chinese by sir G. 
Staunton, was republished with some corrections and slight addi- 
tions; and a large number of copies distributed in various parts of the 
surrounding country. It has been said that at Nanking there is an 
establishment for the performance of vaccination, but hitherto no 
definite intelligence has been obtained regarding it. 

There is a short work published by a Chinese practitioner on the 
subject of inoculation, called '' The preservation of infants by inocula- 
tion." By the writer it ia supposed that small pox arises from poison 
introduced into the system from the mother's womb, and this is said 
to be proved by the occurrence of this disease but once during life ; 
this poison is in the Chinese system associated with the principle of 
beat, and remains concealed in the system till it is developed through 
the agency of some externaj exciting cause; hence there being a con- 
stant liability to this disease breaking out, it is very desirable that 
some means of modifying its virulence should be adopted, and this 
means is found in inoculation at such times and seasons, as appear 
to be most advantageous, and when the system of the patient is in a 
healthy condition. The ancients possessed the knowledge of inoculat- 
ing for (or planting) the small pox, which was handed down from the 
time of Chin-tsung of the 3ung dynasty (1014 a. d.) and was in- 
vented by a philosopher of Qoomei-shan in the province of Sz'chuen. 
The disease, when it breaks out spontaneously, is very severe and often 
fatal ; whereas when it is introduced by inoculation, it is generally 
mild, and casualties do not occur oftener than once in ten thousand 
cases ; — the author concludes his introductory remarks by saying, 
** to discard this excellent plan and sit waiting for the calamity*, is 

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184G. Rej)orl of the Hospital at Shanghai 1J87 

much to be deprecated ; it ought to be pressed on the attention of all, 
as a most beneficial thing for their adoption, and all persons that 
have children ought to confide in it, so that the Jives of their children 
may be preserved." Then follow ten rules, which are to be attended 
to; — 1st, regarding variolous lymph; this is the fluid that comes 
from the small pox pustules, and must be taken from a child which 
has the mild form of the disease; whether arising spontaneously or 
from inoculation, the pustules ought to be round or pointed, and of a 
clear red color, the fluid abundant and the crust which comes away 
clear and consistent like wax. The lymph itself or the crust rubbed 
down with a little water can be introduced into the sore, as above 
mentioned. Another mode of inoculation, is drying the crusts, re- 
ducing them to powder and then blowing this powder up the nose ; 
this is called dry inoculation. Al\er seven days fever appears, three 
days afterwards the spots show themselves; three days afler this the 
spots become pustular, in three days more the crusts form, when the 
whole is completed. If the inoculation does not take effect, it may 
be repeated in fourteen days. 

2nd: Seasons. — The spring and autumn are the most favot-able 
seasons for inoculation, or any time when the weather is moderate ; 
during the very hot or cold months, it ought not to be done. 

3rd; Choice of lucky days, — A lucky day ought always to the 
chosen; the 11th and l(5th days of the moon must always be avoided. 

4th; Management of the patients, — During the process of inocula- 
tion, it is of great importance that strict rules of management be 
adopted in respect to heat and cold ; with attention to diet and the 
avoidance of any cause of alarm or fright. 

Sth; At the time for inoculation. The child must be examined, 
and the state of its health ascertained ; strict attention must also be 
paid to the state of the family, and if the child be sick the operation 
must not be preformed. All children ought to be inoculated when 
they are one year old; if the health be good this ought by no means 
to be neglected. 

%th; Restricting. — The room of the inoculated child ought to be 
clean and airy and well lighted ; all excitement must be avoided, and 
the child kept quiet and placid. 

7th; Promise of the eruption. — Afler the inoculation and before 
the fever appears, there suddenly arise on the child's face several 
pustules like small pox; these are called the ** sin midu" promise, 
or belief eruption ; it is the forerunner of the disease, and the evidence 
of ilir^ poison having taken effect. 

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*i8S Report of the Hospital at Shanghai Junk. 

8th: Repetition of the inoculation, — If after waiting fourtecu days, 
the fever does not appear, should the season still be favorable the 
inoculation may be repeated. 

9M ; Mode of action. — The inoculation must affect the viscera and 
then fever commences. The nose is the external orifice of the lungs; 
when the variolous lymph is placed in the nose, its influence is first 
communicated to the lungs ; the lungs govern the hair and skin ; the 
lungs transfer the poison to the heart ; the heart governs the pulse 
and transfers the poison to the spleen ; the spleen governs the flesh and 
transfers the poison to the liver ; the liver governs the tendons and 
transfers the poison to the kidneys; the kidneys govern the bones, the 
poison of the small pox lies hid orginally in the marrow of the bones; 
but when it receives the impression from the inoculation, it manifests 
itself and breaks out externally. 

lOtA ; General rules. — Inoculation is to be performed when there 
is no disease present in the system ; good lymph must be selected, a 
proper time chosen, and good management adopted and then all will 
go on well. 

The retired scholar Lew-Ian, respectfully assenting to the imperial 
decree, compiled the above very important regulations regarding in- 
oculation, and placed them in the '' Golden mirror of the medical 
practice ;" in later times celebrated physicians have discoursed upon 
them, and revised them with much care and attention. 

Thus far an imperfect account has been given of the operations of 
the Medical Missionary Society at Sh^nghii, it ought also to be 
added that while attention is paid to the bodily wants of the people, 
endeavors are made to combine teaching with healing, and for this 
purpose the Rev. W. H. Medhurst, has kindly attended three times 
a week, and addressed the patients on the leading doctrines of Chris- 
tianity, and it is very pleasing to see the marked attention with which 
they listen to the exhortations made to them. 

In addition to the pecuniary contributions so liberally made to the 
hospital at this place, the following have also been received : — 

A case of cataract needles value .£2.2 from the Ladies Association 
in behalf of Medical Missions in China — Western Branch, — through 
Mrs. Charles, London. 

Ten Blankets, — Captain Bomfield, Chusan. 

Ten Blankets, — Lieutenant Elliott, Chusan. 

Ten Blankets, — Dr. Maxwell, M. N. L, Chusan. 

The Tung-jin-tang Ipl ^ ^^ Hall of United Benevolence, was 
n;entioned in the report of lasl year ; in addition to the objects of 

Digitized by 


1846. Report of the Hospital ai Shdngh&l 289 

the institution there mentioned, a dispensary was opened in the 6th 
month of last year, and continued till the 8th month, called jt ^Kf 
^ ^ She-e-kung-keuh, or establishment for gratuitous medital 
relief; this was attended by 8 or 9 native practitioners, who saw the 
patient once every five days; this attendance was gratuitous- on the 
part of some of them, and was paid for in the case of others ; the 
medicines were supplied by the different apothecaries' shops in the 
city, one shop dispensing all that is wanted during one day, which is 
paid for by the subscribers to this part of the above institution ; the 
attendance of patients varies from 300 to 500, who are of all classes ; 
they are prescribed for in the large halls of the establishment, which 
are well adapted for this purpose. It is said that every fu district 
city has a dispensary of this kind, but it is not known to what extent 
these operations are carried on, roost probably not to the same extent 
as at this place ; the reason given for the recent establishment of a 
means for affording this relief to the sick at Shinghii, which is only 
a hien or departmental city, is that it has been done by a foreigner 
who came to reside at the place, and therefore some of the wealthy 
people wished to show their benevolent feeling in the same way ; 
this dispensary can only be kept open for three months, as the me- 
dical attendants are not willing to bestow a larger time upon it ; it 
was again opened in the 5th March of this year, and is now in full 
operation. It is pleasing to observe that the influence of the Medical 
Missionary Society's hospital is thus felt; and it would be very 
desirable if the object of the above named establishment could be 
carried out more extensively, and continued for the whole year, as it 
is a most praiseworthy undertaking, and while in operation, was 
conducted with much spirit and ener;?y, and were the medical men 
better informed in the principles of the healing art, a very large 
amount of benefit would be conferred on the patients. The attendance 
at the hospital is not at all diminished, since the establishment of the 
Chinese dispensary, neither will it be, for the class of cases is different 
in great degree, and the patients at the hospital come chiefly from a 

List of patients from May \st 1844 to June 30/A 1845. 

Intermittent fever, - 

. 71 

Tussis, .... 


Asthma, - - - 

- 91 

Haftmoptysis, - - - 


Phthisis, - 

- 28 

Chronic Laryngitis, 



- 40 

Ulceration of throat. 



- 1434 

Dysentery, - 


Anasarca, - - . 




Jaundice, ... 


Enlargement of spleen, 


roh, XV. Nn. VI. 

^^ Digitized by Google 

»0 Repori of iki Hospital at Shdnghdi. 

Rheunaatisin, - . - l2T5'GangIion of wrist, - 

Rheumatic enlargement ofjointo, Gllnflamed mamm&, 

Partial paralysis, - . "^'■" 

Hemiplegia, - - . 

Parrpjegia, ... 

Epilepsy, ... 

Surditas, .... 

Deaf mute, - - - 

Warts in Meatus Auditorius, 

Psora. .... 


6 Abscess, • • . . 
1 Enormous abscess of thigh. 











6 Abscess under pectoral muscle, 1 

Porrigo Decalvens, 


Extensive eczema, - 

Leprosy, - - - 


Elephantiasis enormous, 

Elephantiasis with vast enlarge- 
ment of scrotum, - 1 

Malignant ulceration of scrotum, 1 

Malignant ulceration of nose. 

Lupus Faciei, ... 

Scalds and burns, - 

Contusions, ... 

Frightful contraction of face 
from burn. 

Severe inflammation of absor- 
bents of arm. 

Suicide by opium eating. 




Ulcers, .... 350 

Carbuncle, ... 6 

Slough in leg of an old man, 1 

Fistula in ano, ... 12 

Do. very extensive - 4 

Do, in perinso, - . I 

Do. Steno's duct, - - 1 

Excrescences round anus, - 8 

Prolapsus ani, - • 6 

HoBmorrhoids, ... 4 

Hernia scrotal, - - 88 

Do. Do. double, - - 2 

Do. Do. congenital, - 4 

Do. inguinal, - . . 4 

2'Hydrocele, ... 35 

6, Do. enormous. 

20 Do. double with double hernia, 
[Fracture of clavicle, - 

Do. Radius, 
Do. Fibula, - 
Do. Tibia and fibula, 
Do. Neck of femur, ■ 

Attempted do. by opium eating, 4 Dislocation of both humeri 
Opium smoking, - - 28 from a fall. 

Accidental amputation of finger, 1 Posterior curvature of spine. 

Gun shot wounds of face and 
body, - - - - 
Laceration of hand and removal 
of thumb by bursting of a 
gun, - - . . 
Severe wounds of face, - 
Wounds of body by fighting 

with pirates, 
Severe wound of thigh with 
laceration of flexor muscles 
from falling on a hoe, - 
Wound laying open the whole 
anterior part of knee joint 
from falling on a rice bowl, 1 
Swallowing needlesby a juggler, I 
Gangrene of hand, and gangre- 
nous spots on body from 
eating a poisonous vegeta- 

ble, - 

Distortion of knee, 
4 Disease of hip joint. 
Do. Knee joint. 
Do. Shoulder joint. 
Do. Elbow joint, 
'Anchylosis of elbow joint, 
jJiydrops Articuli knee, 
1 Strumous enlargement of 
Radius, ... 
Periosteal enlargement of 

Humerus, - - - 
Extensive necrosis of humerus 
with removal of bone and 
solution of continuity, - 
Caries of head of fibula, - 
Caries of head of humerus, 

Do. inferior maxilla, 
Soil nodeF on ulna, tibia* and 
V frontui bone; 

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Report of the Hospital at SMnghdi, 


Osteo-sarcoraa of inferior ma- 
xilla, - * . - 
Do. superior maxilla, • 
Do. humerus, - - - 
Do. head of fibula, 

Destruction of palatal bones, 

Secondary syphilis and sofl 
nodes, - - • 

Glandular swellings of neck, 

Tumor of face, - - - 
Do. neck, - - - 
Do. lip, - - - - 
Do. head, - - - 

Large tumor of the Socia, 
parotidis, - - - 

Enormous scrotal tumor, 

Sarcoma testis, - - - 

Polypus, - - - 
Do. enormous size, - 

Large excrescences on dorsum 
linguae, . - . 

Schirrus mamms, - 

Aneurismal noBvus of lip, - 

Extensive varicosity of veins of 
thorax and abdomen after 
ascitis, - - - 

Painful induration of surface 
of thorax, - - - 

Catarrhal ophthalmia, 

Pustular ophthalmia, - 

Chronic conjunctivitis, - 

Granular lids, - 
Do. Do. with opacity 
Do. Do. pannus, 

Leucoma, - - - 

Ulceration of cornea, - 

Conical cornea, 

Staphyloma, - r 

Iritis, - - • , 

Hernia iridis, - 

Hypopium, - - - 

Synechia, - - - 

Irregularity of pupil, 

ICIosure of pupil, . . 80 

1 {Amaurosis, - - - 110 

2. Do. from onanism, • • 12 

1 Cataract both eyes, - 66 

I, Do. one eye, - - . 40 

Ij Do. incipient, - - 79 

jLippitude, - - - 176 

4 Pterygium, - . - ggg 

14 Trichiasis, - - - 143 

4Entropium, - . . ]63 

5£ctropium, - - • 81 

1 Contraction of tarsi, - 206 

l;£piphora, - ... 6 

Excessive granulations on the 

conjunctiva, - - 1 
Enlargement of caruncula 

lachrymalis, - - S 

Warts on do., - - 1 

Destruction of eye lids, - 1 

Malignant ulceration of do., 4 

Abscess of eye lid, • - 6 

Chemosis, ... 4 

Abscess of lachrymal sac, * 1 

Fistula of do., . - 2 

Stab in the orbit of the eye, 1 
Destruction of globe of the eye 

from carcinoma, . . i 
Loss of both eyes, - 
Do. of one eye. 


464 Total number of patients, 10.978 


250Cataract, • - - - 18 

360Entropium, - - - 30 

.. 892 Pterygium, - - - 2 

15 Artificial pupil, • . H 

r . 44 Staphyloma, * . . 2 

* 10 Tumor of face, - . 4 

6 Do. of neck, ... 1 

4 Polypus nasi, - * 1 

1 1 Hydrocele, - - - 26 

24 Aneurismal noevus of lip tied, 1 

(Shanghai, July 1st, 1845. 

Art. II. Synoptical tables of the foreign trade at Canton for the 
year ending Slst December, 1845, with returns, ^c, of the 
trade at Shanghai, Ningpo, Fuhchau, and Amoy. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Table of the Export at Canton. 













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TabU of tie Export at CantOH. 

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Table of the Import at Canton. 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Table of the Import at Canton, 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

296 TabU of the Impart at Shdu^hdi. June, 

A return of the quantities and value of merchandise h^rtid into the port 
of SWi^hai in 62 British vessels of 15^1 tons, from the countries and 
places undermentioned, during the year 31st December, I84& 

DegcrtptumofarUdet. ^uanMus. ontf j^oom topoMrf. «|.«(4t.M.jMrt 

Manufacture qf cotton : — 

White Longcloths pieces 341,581 \ ^^Xit \ ^^'^ 

Grey „ n 91W11 n 585,98® 

Dved „ value „ ^8,474 

Drills white pieces 1,542 „ 9g 

„ anrev n 1,785 y, 1,199 

CWntz^.^ : 26,816 I IS^ 

Cambrics „ 240 « 250 

Handkerchiefs dozens 8,369 „ ^fi^ 

Velveteens value „ 6,1® 

Cotton Yam piculs 770 „ 4,812 

Manufadvrti of wool ^— 

Habit cloths, Spa. Stripes, &c. yards 297,976 „ ^^^11 

LonffEUs pieces 7,981 „ 13,858 

Camleto, English „ 4,057 „ 18,872 

„ Dutch „ 100 „ 7^ 

Blankets pairs 747 „ 500 

Woollens unenumerated value » 5«,3w 

Woollen and cotton mixture., value n ^^^ 

MetaUy viz : — 

Iron pigs piculs 1,409 „ 734 

^ Todsandbars • 12,144 „ 5,957 

Lead pigs n 1,771 „ 1,338 

Tinplates n 291 n 1,091 

MtBcdlaneousi — 

Flints piculs 7,364 „ 1,868 

Class and glassware value „ 1,338 

G«nbier picul. 272 \ ^^^^ \ 147 

Pepper n hO}^ » 1»163 

Rattens 5,022 „ 4^16 

Saltpetre » 267 „ 445 

Indigo f, 1,632 „ 1,508 

Smalls „ 27 „ 512 

Hardware value „ 2,836 

Woods, Sandal piculs 76 „ 190 

Ebony „ 700 „ 204 

I Sapan „ 478 „ 343 

Wines dozens 889 „ 1,481 

Sundries value » 2^899 

Total £ifiesifm 

ffbu. A very considerable quantity of treasure has been imported from 
Wfisung^ but the amouni unknown. 

G. Balfour, 
H. B. M. coHMul ut ShAngkdi. 
MinghAi, 3l8t December, 1845. 

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Tabu of the Erporl at Shd/i^hdi 


A rcluru of Uic quantities and vnluc of tncrchaiulisic tl.L/fOtftd i'vou\ the 
purt of Slmng^hai in the British vcsjclu of J(j,7(i0 tone<, Ia» tlic countries and 
places uiidcriuoutioncd, during the year ending tJic ^ildt Dcccuibcr, 1845. 

Deacriytion of articles. QmnlUks. 


j4Mtt t^yvil^i. walitt in ttg. m It. 'id. y # 

Alum piculs 

Musk cutties 

Rhubarb piculs 

Silk, Raw, viz. 

Tsatle<j. piculs 5,818 ^ 

Tavsam „ %(^M [ 

Yu'enfo „ im f 

Sorts... „ 205 J 

Tea, viz: — 

Congou, piculs 50,371 ' 

Souchong ,, 2,703 

Pouchons: „ 107 

Pekoe.. "^ „ 3r)2 

H.Muoy „ 173 

Twankay „ 3,100 

Hyson. . „ 7ia 

H.Skin. „ 1,132 

Y. Hyson „ 2,2ar> 

Imperial „ f*15() 

G. powder „ f)21 

Sorts... „ 2fi(n) 

Silk Piece Goods . piculo 

Gypsum ,, 

Najikecn Cloth „ 

Sundries value 

Sliangliai, Slst December, 1845. 



piculs 0,505 

HongkonfiT, Loudon, 
Liver|KX>l, Cork 7! »4,'lHi ) 

► piculs fiO,^.) Hongkong, London, 40*2,7 4«^ 
Liveqiool, Scilly and 

18^ London & Liverpool 
5,4i*0 Hongkong 570 

»> „ G^5 

„ ll^OWl 

Total .si,25y,(nn 

H. B. M. ronsxd at Sh/mf^fun. 

H. B. M. Consul at Shingli^t has prepared, in addition to the 
returns given above, general views of both the Impart and Export 
trtidcy from and to foreign countries, at the port of Shdngh^i ; the total 
of the estimated value of imports is £1 /2'^3,9d0 ; total of exports is 

At NingpOy H. B M Consul, Mr, Thorn gives, along with the 
requisite details, the following summary, for 1845 : 
Total imports iu British vcbscIs £10,398 5^. Od.; exports, £17,405 35. Od. 
Total imports in Bremen vessels 2,>582 exports^ 462 
Total I m;/or<5 under the A me. flag l,12dO exports, 1,1 IGO 

At Fuhchau, H. B. M. Consul, Mr. Alcock, gives the following 

for 1845. 
ToUl imports in 5 English vessels, £72,147 J7.t. Orf.; exports, £68,459 IBs. id. 
Total imports in 3 American vessels, 11,^13 19 10 exports, 776 5 

At Amoy, H. B. M. Vice-consul, Mr. Sullivan, gives the forllowing 
returns of British vessels, fur 1845. 
ToUl imports m 33 vcsjcls £147,494 10*. Od.; exports, £ir>,478 1 17a 5rf. 

We regret that wc cannot give any statements regarding the traffic in opium. 
F*roin data published some months back in the Friend of India it appears that 
liie total ezporu from India for the scaaon, 1844-45, wa.s more than 40,(HM) 
chests. We suppose it is still on the increase and that little less than f(»rfv 
thousand chests must have come to China last year, and i^iyo ^old foE say 
$iM,(XX),000 ! 

VOL ir. NO vii 38 r^ T 

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'J06 Roman Catholic Missions in China. June, 

Art. III. Roman Catholic missions in China, with partiailars 
respecting the number of missionaries and converts, and the 
ecclesiastical divisions of the empire. From a Correspondent. 

The Roman Catholic missionaries to China come from Tarious 
European nations; particularly, Portugal, Spain, France, and the 
Italian states, and are connected with and are under the direction 
of various societies, yet subordinate to the great head of the papisti- 
cal organization. The missionaries from these different countries 
occupy different districts of country. The Chinese empire is eccle- 
siastically divided into three bishoprics, and ten apostolic vicariates 
as follow, viz.; the bishoprics of Peking, Nanking, and Macao. 
The vicariates of Sz'chuen, Yunnan, Chehkiing, Mongolia, Liiu- 
tung, Corea, Hukw&ng, Shantung, Sh^nsl, and Fuhkien. 

We will notice these different dioceses in the order they stand. 

1. The bishopric of Peking was once one of the laigest diocese? ; it 
now embraces only the province of Pichf 11. The administration of this 
diocese belongs to the Portuguese. There is at present no regular 
bishop in charge: and the administration is committed to bishop 
Castro. The missionaries in this province are of the order of the 
Lazarists. Their principal residence is at the college of Siuwan, on 
the borders of Tartary. The converts are reckoned to be 50,000. 

2. The bishopric of Nanking embraces the three provinces of Kilng- 
sii, Ng&nhwui, and Hon^n, and is the most populous diocese in the 
world, embracing in its limits more than eighty-five millions of souls. 
The administration of this bishopric also belongs to the Portuguese. 
There is at present no incumbent and the administration is commit- 
ted to bishop de Besi, an Italian and apostolic vicar of Sh&ntung. 
The missionaries in this diocese, are of the Society of Jesus and 
Lazarists. There are four Jesuits and two Lazarists. The bishop 
reports the number of neophytes at 76,000 having 500 converts dur- 
ing the last year.* 

3. The bishopric of Macao embraces the provinces of Kw^ngtung 
and Kwdngsi, and the island of Hainan. Bishop Matta is the pre- 
sent incumbent of this see. There are nine missionaries, thirty 
native priests, two colleges, three agencies (procures) for French and 
Spanish missions and 52,000 Roman Catholics. The annual num- 

* Note. We learn that the bishop, Le eomp. de Ben, haa recently been at 
Hongkong, having come down from Nanking to welcome a large reinforce* 
ment of European priests, some fifteen or twenty, several of them JesuiU, and 
all for the provinces of which he has charge. This will increase the whole 
number of European priests to about eighty, exclusive of the twelve bishops 
and eixht coadjutor.. p.^.,.^^^ ^^ GoOglc 

1846. Ro/mm Catholic Missions in China. -.'90 

ber of adult baptisms is about 300. The number of Chinese stu- 
dents in St. Joseph's college, where there are two European profes- 
sors, is about fifteen. 

4. The apostolic vicariate of Sz'chuen. It embraces the exten. 
sive province of Sz'chuen and Kweichau, and is one of the most 
flourishing missions in the empire. The missionaries are connected 
with the French Society of Foreign Missions. It is under the care 
of bishop Perocheau, apostolic vicar. He is aided l)y a coadjutor, 
and there are nine missionaries and thirty native priests, and 54,000 
professors of Christianity. The number of adult baptisms last re- 
ported is 3S9« Two colleges serve as nurseries for the priesthood 
and 54 schools for boys and 114 for girls impart instruction at all 
points and to all classes, and 500 monastics by their prayers seek to 
call down blessings from on high. 

5. Apostolic vicariate of Yunn&n. This is a small and recently 
established vicariate, and is administered by bishop Ponsot of the 
French Missions, having three missionaries, one native priest and 
4000 Christians. 

6. The apostolic vicariate of Chehki^ng embraces the two pro- 
vinces of Chehkidng and Ki^ngsl, and receives its missionaries from 
the French Society. The administration is in the hands of M. Lar- 
ribe who was coadjutor to bishop Rameau who was drowned at 
Macao in July last. The missionaries are from the Congregation 
of St. Lazarus, and there are about 9000 conveils. 

7. The apostolic vicariate of Mongolia. This vicariate is recent- 
ly erected and is connected with the French Missions. Bishop 
Mouly is the apostolic vicar aided by a coadjutor. The bishop re- 
ports that the circumstances of the mission are favorable, that schools 
are established for the young of both sexes, and that 400 had re- 
nounced their idols and been baptised. 

8. The apostolic vicariate of Li^utung embraces the three pro- 
vinces of Manchuria. Bishop Verroles, who is connected with the 
French Society has charge of it. This mission is recently esta- 
blished and no full account of its state and prospects has been yet 

8. The apostolic vicariate of Corea. This embraces Cores and 
some of the adjacent islands, and also the Luchu isles. This is 
recently established. Two priests M. M. Farcade and Seturdu have 
been appointed from Corea for the Luchu isles. Their arrival is 
not yet heard of. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

300 Secret Societies in Singapore. Jvst, 

10. The apostolic vicariate of Hiikwdng. This embraces the two 
provinces of Hupih and Hijnin. Its administration is at present in 
the hands of bishop Rozziolati with two coadjutors, ten Italian and 
fiileen native priests. The number of Catliolics is estimated to be 
more than 60,000. 

11. The apostolic vicariate of Shintung. Bishop Besi has charge 
of this vicariate in connection with the bishopric of Nanking, there 
are 4000 Christians, who are much exposed to persecutions. 

12. The apostolic vicariate of Shansf. It embraces the provinces 
of Shinsi and Shensl. Bishop Salvetti is the present apostolic vicar. 
It is connected with the Italian Societies, of its state and prospects 
we have no details. 

13. The apostolic vicariate of Fuhkien. This province is assigned 
to the Spanish Dominicans. Bishop Carpena is vicar apostolic, and 
there are in connection with the mission one coadjutor, five Euro- 
pean priests and nine native, and more t)ian 40,000 members. 

This summary gives twelve bishops, seven or eight coadjutors 
The number of European priests connected with these missions we 
are not able to give accurately. But we think the number not in> 
eluding the bishops or coadjutors does not exceed sixty, and the 
number of native priests ninety, all 170. The sum of the number 
of members reported by the different missions is 345,000, whilst 
there are five vicariates from which the number is not reported. 

The amount of funds remitted to these missions from Europe for 
the year ending May 1844, was franks 205.733.40. Besides the 
schools for communicating the benefits of communications of the 
common rudiments of education to children of both sexes, there are 
one more school connected with almost every mission, especially for 
training native priests, and when not already established measures 
are being taken to establish them. 

Besides these there are five colleges out of China proper for the 
education of native priests, viz. at Naples (Europe)/ Pinang, Macao, 
Siwan in Mongolia, and on the west border of Sz'chucn in Thibet. 

Art. iV Secret Societies among the Chinese in Singapore^ mth 
particulars of some of their late proceedings. Copied from the 
Singapore Free Fress. 

No. 1. 
To the editor of the Frfie Press : 
Sir About two yoMn a«fo the coluiiins of your paper were occupic<l in givin^j lo 
Ibe public much valuable inibruiation regarding tlio Secret Soeieliesanion^M llm 

Ch. Kep Vol I , 458 .^g.^^^.^GoOgle 

1846. Secret Societies in Singapore. 301 

Chinese in this flett]efnrnt>-nnd allcr the nxtraordinarj apectaclo whii^h took 
place yesterday this seems to be a proper time to renow the subject. Many 
▼cars ago a Chinaman, nominally a Baker, settled in Sinofaporo and soon 
became the head of the Haey. SeTeral murders were committed and he was 
suspected of being the " directing power," but no proof could ever be brought 
home to implicate him MuAciently tor the purpose of bringing him to justice. 
At Ico^ he retired from business, and took up his abode at one of the temples 
belonging to the Secret Society where he remained until his death, which took 
place 15 days ago. This man was never possessed of much property, in fact, he 
nad all the outward appeiurance of being poor, but his influence over his clan 
was immense, which the Police knew and a former magistrate occasionally 
availed himself of it in discovering robberies. The moment his death was 
known the clan determined that his body should be laid in state for 13 days 
and be honored with a public funeral. No secret was made of these arrange- 
ment<i ;— indeed some of the leading men asked permission of the authorities 
to allow them to take place which was granted with this condition— -that the 
number of followers should bo limited. In the meantime the police were not 
idle. They discovered that a-verv large body of men would be present at the 
funeral and that other clans would join for the express purpose of creating a 
quarrfl. All this I believe was made known to the local authorities. The 
superintendent of police, the deputy, the European constables and all the 
peons that could be spared were in attendance to preserve order. At the ap- 
pointed hour the procession was formed, consisting of about 6,000 Chinese, the 
police authorities then suggested to the principal men that it should prriceod 
IVom the temple over Paber*s Bridge in a direct line to the burial place adjoin 
ing the military cantonments. This was acceded to by some whilst the majority 
objected and somo man immediately cried out <\Pan " the well-known watch 
word for a row- A rush was made to seise the deputy superintendent but the 
Chinese interpreter, employed sometimes by the authorities, stepped l>efore 
him an^ saved him. The mterpreter was however half killed when rescued 
and now lies in a dangerous state. An express was sent to the governor who, 
with his usual promptitude, called out the military. Colonel Watson, the ofRcers 
and privates were soon on the apoi—huifor whatf The civil power hnd been 
set at defiance, and, notwithstanding the peons were well armed, laughed at. 
The rebellion (if that term may be used) commenced tho moment the Chinese 
attempted to seize tho deputy superintendent, and the object of seeking the 
aid of the Military one would naturally suppcyse was to disperse the mob and 
secure the ringleaders. Nothing of the kind. The sepoys were placed on each 
side of the road to preserve order, and the Hu»y had the gratilication to see that 
their body was all-powerful and could act with impunity. I think, Mr. Editor, 
there is a radical defect in our system of treating the Chinese and if you make 
inquiries you will find all other governments adopt vigourous measures in 
keeping them in order. Here we have this startVtncr fact. An infirm old man 
dies, ay^/i/irien^/y poor and of no note, no sooner is his clan made acquainted 
with it then they determine to congregate from all parts of the island to the 
number of about 4,000. Other clans immediately seize the opportunity of 
** casting shame '* npon the head of the decea.<M>d, as it is termed, and number 
some 2,<i00, many on both sides being armed and ready for a murderous attack. 
Now all this is made known to the local authorities and what steps do they 
take to prevent tlie procession — Jfond! Surely the very circumstance of so 
many thousand men collecting together ought to have induced them to take 
prompt measures to prevent more than a reasonable number following the 

An Evb Witness. 
Singapore lOth March lHi6 

No. 2. 

It seems there was a fracas yesterday between the police and the notorious 

Huey Association, which might have led to the most serious consequences. 

That all but proscribed body, lieardin«r the local authorities in broad day, 

arrangifti; 'hejr lawless msmbcrs foi a.puldir demonstration, which it require; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

'102 Secret Societies in Singapore. Junk, 

the pretence of the military (who were called out on the occaaion) to protect 
the community from ! ! The common report is, that 7,0(N) Hueya proposed to 
parade the principal atreeta of Singapore in procession, under the pretence of 
doing honor to the funeral ritea of a deceased chief, whose hody waa to form 
the externil rallying point for thia rabble, from which to intimidate the com- 
munity at lam, and their uninitiated countrymen in particular, by that con- 
Tincing proorof how careleaa they are of the frowns of our government. Re- 
port further says that the deputy superintendent of police — a magistrate in 
the diacharge of his duty — had a narrow escape from being torn in piecea by 
the mob, and was probably only aaved from being murdered for his hardihood 
in venturing unarmed into the midst of the horde — by their supposing he waa 
amply supported by an armed force close at hand while his thorough knowledge 
of the common Lingua Franca — Malay— enabled him to reason with some of the 
chiefs,— who once personally recognized would naturally deprecate any outbreak 
which might compromise themseTves. As it waa, it is said that one of them 
even who broke the rush made on the deputy was seriously wounded, and 
though his interference had the desired elfect of arresting this onward rush, 
the onl^ triumph of the offic-?.] was his being ultimately enabled to retreat 
protectmg or being protected by his equivocal preserver. It is well known 
that the troops were called out and succeeded in protecting the town itself 
from the insult of being menaced by auch a lawless assemblage, where there 
was so much raluable property to tempt the cupidity of the dangeroua brother- 
hood who had they succeeded to that extent in their contempt for the civil 
power, and such recent proof in their attack upon Mr. Dunman of how little 
power to check them was vested in their own office bearers, might not have 
hesitated to complete their audacity by an attempt to sack the town, while 
their numbers promised impunity if not success. The only point to be regret- 
ed is that a compromise should have been made with them after having broken 
faith. The troops should have been marched to the spot after this, and the 
funeral, if funeral only it was, prevented from being accompanied by more 
followers than they chose — even at the riak of having to read the Riot Act. 
After such an alarming display by those who have hitherto been happy to find 
themselves as a body rather winaed at than tolerated, it is imperative on the 
local authorities to secure the power if they have it not, as the military 
atationed here I doubt not provides the force, for the protection of the peacea- 
ble from this Triad Society. 

Tours obediently, B. 

Singapore^ Utk Marek^ 1846. 

No. a 

Some particulars of the yhusot which occurred on Tuesday last between 
tlie police and Chinese at the funeral of Ho- Yem-Ko, the head of the Tan Tae 
Ho^, will be found in the letters of two correspondents. Indisoosition must 
be our excuse for not ^ving a detailed account of what took place, but next 
week we hope only to oe able do this, bat to give some particulars on the 
subject of the Hoes in Singapore and of late chief of the Tan Tae Ho^ 

The following brief account of what occurred yesterday is all which at 
present we can offer. Permission was asked some days ago to perform the 
customary religious ceremonies at the interment of the deceased, which was 
granted on the condition that there should be no disturbance, and that a 
ereater number of people than usually attend a funeral should not be present 
This was accordinglv promised. Information was conveyed to the police a 
few days a^o that a large crowd would attend the funeral, and that a number 
of persons mtended to enter the town and sack the houses of several persons 
belonging to a rival Ho^. In consequence of this a constable was desired to 
keep an eye upon the proceedings of those attending the funeral, and early 
on Tuesday morning, he and two peons, in undress, and a person named Hon 
Cheo Tek,'one of tlie persons who was to be plundered and the head of a rival 
Ho^ proceeded to Rochor, where the corpse lay, and whens several thousand 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Secret Societies in Singapore, 30!) 

persons were found to be assembled. The constable mixed in the crowd and 
spoke to several of those who seemed to have the principal direction, exhort- 
ing them to try and preserve order which they professed themselves anxioos 
to do. A bad feeling however seemed to prevail among the mob, as the 
constable was informed from time to time that threats were being nttered 
against him. He cautioned the chief persons from attempting to enter the town, 
and at last it was arranged that he should walk at the heajd of the procession 
along with a roan nam^ Chew Sweet and the procession began to move, 
one of the most conspicuous objects in it being a heavy car havmg the figure 
of a man made of paper upon it On aniving at the place where the ruad 
divides, one brancik leading into town by Campong Glam, and the other goes 
across Faber's bridge leadmg by a straight road to the burying ground, the 
procession wished to move on by the former, on which the constable appealed 
to the leaders, and told them they could not be allowed to go that way and 
pointing out the other as their most direct course. Considerable confusion 
then occurred, and the constable apprehensive of a disturbance, sent off one 
of the peonsto apprize the superintendent of police of what was taking 
place. After m great deal of wnngling the Chinese attempted to push past 
the constable who had now only one man with him, and they attempted to 
knock him down by pushing the car against him, which he avoided by iumping 
back. Captain Cuppage, Mr. Dunman, and a few peons then arrived, and on 
Mr. Dunman's trying to prevent the procession moving along the road towards 
Campong Glam a nuh was made at him by a number of persons, apparently 
coolies from the jungle, anned with pieces of iron and wood, and nad Ho 
Cheo Tek not at that moment thrown himself before Mr. Dunman, the latter 
would in all probability have been murdered on the spot Ho Cheo Tek 
received a heavy blow on the breast which knocked him down, and while on 
the ground was severely beat about the head. Capt Cuppage seized one of 
the ringleaders by tlie tail and gave him in charge of a peon, but he was 
soon rescued and the peon severely maltreated. After some further altercation 
the procession moved over Faber's bridge, an armed party of the police being 
stationed on the other road, and the Military having in the meantime been 
called out, the funeral procession on arriving at CoGnan's bridge was joined 
by them, and moved on escorted by the Military and attended by the civil 
authorities who, we believe, accompanied them nearly to the ^rrave. Small 
detachments of sepoys were drawn up across the different street leading into 
town to prevent the procession going in. Ho Yem Ko's remains were thus 
more honored than what he himself, we dare say, anticipated, being attended 
to the tomb not only by his own countrymen, but by the civil and Military 
Authorities of the Settlement The above account may be imperfect in some 
respects but it is the most consistent we have been able, on short notice, to 
obtain, but next week we trust to supply deficiencies. 

We observe that An Eye ffUnea$ nas made a slight mistake in talking of 
the deceased as the head of a clan. The Tan Tan Ho^ of which he was the 
founder and president, is by far the most powerful of the Ho6 in Singapore, 
and comprehends persons of all clans and provinces. 

Ho-Yem-Ko we understand retired from business with 5 or 6 thousand 
Dollars, which he spent in advancing the interests and power of his 
Ho^ For sometime past he was unable lo take any management in its 
concerns from indisposition, but he still continued the nominal head, and as 
such he was trealed with all honor after his death. Had not the procession 
been interrupted by the Police it was the intention to have marched through 
the town to Teluk Ayer Street, and there performed a variety of funeral cer- 
emonies in front of the house of an influential member of the Ho^. 

The succession to the v.u^ant sceptre was vc understand a matter of debate, 
various candidates having been proposed regarding whose claims there was 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

304 Sctnt S»Hitfiri> in SiugaiMic Jiwc, 

iiiucli (iivi:;inn. The contest was wc learn tcnniualcd on Tucn^day cvciiin|> 
liy flic election of a Tailor livinp in Tcluk Ayer Street, whose installation 
will take place in a few days when a splendid procession is to be formed. 


The account which we gave last week of the disturbances that occurred 
at tiie funeral ot Ho-Yem-Ko, the late Chief of the Tan Tae Ho6 we find to 
have been pretty correct in its detail, and we need not therefore again narrate 
what then took place. Several disturbances have since taken place, and 
considerable alarm seems to be manifested of the Chims>*c committing greater, 
otitragcs and even molesting tlie Europeans. We do not consider Uiat there 
is nmch ^ronnd for thin la^st, and in regard to the faction fights, as tliey may 
be called, amongst the Chiuc:je, we tliink tliat by proper measures they might 
ea^iily be put a stop to. 

Considerable confusion of idea and. misapprehension as to the secret 
combinations amongist the Chinese here scoming to prevail, mnny apparently 
sup|K»ing tliemio be one large body, we shall tike leave beforc adverting to tlic 
occurrences of the past week connected with the funeral of Ho-Yem-Ko, to 
oflcr a short explanation on the subject wc refer to. The term lio6 signifies So- 
ciety, and is generally adhibited to the particular descriptive name m diSKsrent 
associations. There are a great number of Hoes at each of the three different 
Settlnmenls havinjj^variotw objects: some beingr exclusively charitable, while 
others combine different purposes. The IIo^s in Singapore arc numerous, — 
the principal beinj:: ilic Tan Tae II06 (Heaven and Earth Society) otherwise 
called the Ghoe Hin IIoA (justice exalted Society and the Kwan Tec II06. 
The former is said to aurn!)or from 10 to 20,000 members, the latter about 
1,000. A ffreat rivalry and illwill exists between the two Uoi'-s. The members 
of these Ho^s we understand are not confined to any particular province or 
clan, but they comprehend persons from ftll parts of China. The other So- 
cieties in Singa)>ore arc insignificant in point of numbers and influence, 
compared with the two we have above named. We may add Uic names of a 
few— EE Kwan Hoc, Cho Soo Kon^ H06, Leong Choo Hoe, &c &c. The 
name of the Society of which the principal Chinese Merchants arc nKsmbcn 
18 Sa Chap Lak Tcan Kong Hoe, — its obje«!ts are to assist each other by 
loans from the common funds, to support widows and children of deceased 
members, educate tlie children &c. &c. each member on entry pays 100 
Dollars, and an annual subscription. In Pinang there arc a great niunbor cf 
these Sor*ietics — tlio names of some of which and their significations wc 
insert, llo^. being understood to be affixed to each — Ghee Uin (justice 
exnltcd,) Ilai Sai (seas afid hills,) Hwuy Chew (graceful district,) Cheong 
llwa (the following flower,) I leong San (fragrant or incense mountain,) Long 
Yip ())eaccful city or town,) Ilo Seng (hannouiuus conquering,) Jin Ho (be 
ncvolont harmony,) Jin Seng (benevolence prevailing,) Chun ^im )pre8ei"ving 
the heart). The objects of the Ton T« and the KwanTosc Ho^ also profonis 
to be charitable, but mnny of their purposes, as weU as those of most of tlic 
olhur Societies, are iii^'lily oujcctiouble. While the obligation to mutual 
.iMsi^taiicc, which tlioy have in common with all such societies over the 
world, Mason lodges, &c, if not carried too far, is the opposite of obicclio- 
nable, tlie way in which this obligation operates and tlie extent to which it 
is carried in Chinotse Secret Societies, renders it not only illegal but highly 
dangerous to society ai large. The objects for which these Societies are 
establiijhcd n^ay be pure and good, but it obviously depends on the character 
of tlic incnibors whctltor tliey arc to c«ntinuo so, or arc to degenerate to 
lower and uiilawiul eiidy We do not believe that tlie Tan-Tae and the 
hwan TacHo^.y wcie couolilulcd for uiiy ori?inallv bad purpuse<i, but if 
ihey have evince ac(|tiircd a bdd reputation it nus aii^en ftoin memhois of 
fheiii wkomiiv have comnntled cilmcb taking iJvanlagc ct tlie '.'{jli.^aUuno 

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1646. Secret SocUiUt in Singapore. 305 

to mutual secrets uid aaeiiftance, by which the other metnben are drawn in 
to araiet in the escape of ofiendeie from justice, and thus become pwrHcem 
ervmnk^ and obnozioos to justice. So far indeed from being constituted tor 
the perpetration of crime, we doubt not, if the rules of theee institutions, 
could be procured, they would be found severe in iheir denunciations of 
offences and to what is against either the property «r the person, and strict 
in the enforcement of moral and religious obligations and duties. 

There seems to have been a great want of precaution on the part of the 
Police on the occssion of H^Ytm^KB^M flineraL Securi^ was not taken that 
tho terms on which the permission to form a procession was granted, would 
be observed. The act of taking tbe head of the rival ho^ as Interpreter, 
cannot be looked upon otherwise than as a most extraordinary and rash pro- 
ceeding. It is well known that a most deadly feud exists between the two 
Societies, and the employment of the head of one of them at the Police as 
an Interpreter &rC has alieady, we have little doub^ been productive of much 
mischief, as it is to bo supposed that he would avail himself of the opportu- 
nity this employment aflbrded him of injuiiug and annoying the rival [action. 
Tftie knowledge of their having been thus trusted and employed could 
scarcely be expected to foster the beet feelings in the breasts of the members 
of the Tati' Tot-Hoe towards the Authorities. The anpearanee of the man 
therefore at the funeral in company of the police would naturally be looked 
upon with feelings of alarm apd indignation by the other Chinese, his veiy 
presence there being an insult to the deceased. Can we be certain that 
when interpreting what was said by ihe Superintendent of Police he did 
not add something of his own of an, offensive nature? — when mingling with 
the mournerswhat boasts may he not have made use of regarding the intention 
of the Police to interfere with the ceremonial ? There is no doubt he must 
have said or done something to produce the irritation which was shewn by 
the assault upon him. 

The severe beating which fib Ckeo Ttk received of course excited an 
immediate desire of revenge in the breasts of his followers, and it is said that 
on receiving intelliffence of what had taken ^ace they prepared to arm and 
take vengeance, and had not the Sepovs been called out and parties stationed 
at the different roads leading into town, there can be Uttle doubt that a sen* 
ous collision would have token place in which many lives would certainly 
have been lost The exacerbation thus excited on both sides led to the acto 
of violence which have since taken place almost every day and with which 
members of both Ho^s are chargeable. 

A number of Chinese have been carried (^ — some reports making them 
as many as 20 ; who are believed to have been murdered. The Cash-keeper 
of a respectoble Chinese Merchant went on Monday afternoon to purchase 
some Gum for his Master about two miles from town, when he was seized 
by two Chinese who were forcing him towards the jangle when he suc- 
ceeded in making his escape and reaching the neighbouring Tannah. He 
afterwards made a complaint to a Constoble and o^red to point out the two 
men but the Constable advised him to remain quiet as it would only lead to 
trouble. He then went to tha Police and made a complaint, and we believe 
the same reply was made to him there ! 

The unfortunate collision which took place between the Police and a 
number of Chinese on Monday afternoon is also ascribed to the irritoted 
feeling existing between the ractions. A Chinese having gone on board a 
junk ror the purpose of trading, and having a small sum on his person, the 
cupidity of the boatmen was excited and they kidnapped him. The brother of 
the man gave information to the Police and a warrant was granted fbr the 
apprehenison of three men residing at Beach road, Campong Glam, whom 
he stoted to be the criminals. Tbe Police accompanied by this man proceeded 

VOL XV. NO. VI. 39 r^ \ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

S06 Secret Societies in Singapore. Jcne, 

to the house where they took the man into custody and were conveying them 
to tfie Tannah when a mob collected and two of the men were re8cued,»4i 
scuffle took place, in which the Police finding themselves too weak retreated 
for reinforcements and during the retreat a shot was fired from a honse which 
hit the informer and he fell, and was taken to the Hofipital where be ^Ho-- 
wards died. Some of the Police were hit and a number of the mob were 
wounded by the fire of the Police, some of thorn dangerously. A coroner's 
inquest on the man who died brought in a verdict of wilful murder against 
some person or persons unknown. The Tan Tae people say that the persons 
apprehended bc!ong«»d to their sociaty, and that the informer was a member 
of the Kwan Tec lio^ ; that on the party of Police setting out for Campong 
Glam, a number of Kwan Tec people started in a boat, armed, for the spot, 
with the intention of taking advantage of the circumstance to get up a row, 
and thus be enabled to attack the opposite part^. 

A great number of Chinese have come over from Rhio lately, some reports 
say to the amount of 2 or 3000, and are living in this Island without any 
osten^kible means of subsistence. They are scattered through die jungle, and 
are no doubt prepared to take their part in any mischief. 

We also learn with some surprise that the Dutch Government are convert- 
ing Singapore into a kind of penal Settlement for tlieir Chinese Criminals, 
the Steaiiier Bromo having brought several Chinese, on her last trip^ who 
had been banished from Minto, and who were landed here! 

In our last number, in mentioning the funeral of the old chief of the Tan 
Tae Ha6, it is said that ^ had not the procession been inteirupted by the 
Police it was the intention to have marched through the town to Toluk Ayer 
Street, and there performed a variety of funeral ceremonies in front of the 
house of an infTuential member of the Ho^.'^ It having been conjectured by 
a number of persons that the party here alluded to was Whamvoa, whose 
place of business is in Teluk Ayer Steet, we have been authorised by him 
to state that if he was meant the report must have originated in a mistake, as 
fd. as he is aware not belonging to any Ho^, nor is he in any way interested 
or mixed in their eoncenis. 

Art. V. Sii Amdn: annual provision for the support of his toidow 
and mother, oohmtanly ftrade by the person who caused his death 
during the riots in June 184'4. 
Ample details regafding the death of this man will be found in our 
last volume, pages ^£37 and 525, and the sequel. Care was taken to 
Btate there every fact having any bearing on the case, it bein^ a novel 
snd a very difficult one. On careful investigation, it was found and 
declared, ** that the killing was a justifiable act of self-defense.*' See 
page 526. But the life of the person who e:nu3ed the death was per- 
tinacioiiely demanded ; by reference to the pages above named, it will 
be seen how tliis demand was met Should a similar catastrophe 
occur again, we fe:\r a similar demand would be made, the treaties 
notivithblaadirig The vvay ^o meet :ill such demands is plain. In 

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Id4tf. 5tf Amans Widottf. 307 

that case an j in every similar one, the disturbers of the peace ought 
to be held responsible for the consequences of their conduct. We 
know it is better to suffer the wrong, than to do the wrong. If the 
foreigner conimence<« an assault — and such cases are not wanting — 
let justice and ample punishment be meted out to him. And where 
the Chinese do the wrong, let the same be done to them. The rioters 
in 1S44 we believe were never punished. We are sorry to know that 
there is a fearful boldness, among the baser sort — a readiness, a desire 
to assail the fdnkwei. We have known wumjf cases of assault, made 
without cause by vagabonds. Escape — we say — ^from all such, as 
you best can. But while we advocate nonresistance on the part of 
the assaulted, we cannot exculpate the local authorities from the 
charge of gross dereliction of duty. Foreigners — and even foreign 
officers — ^nay even ladies and little children — are continually, almost 
as often as they go abroad into the streets, exposed not merely to foul 
and abusive language, but to pelting with brickbats, sticks, etc. We 
could give a long list of particulars, which together would make a 
very grave cause of complaint. 

It will be seen, in the papers which we subjoin, and which have 
been kindly placed at our disposal for publication, that the magistrates 
admitted, that Amin was killed in the act of robbing the foreigners 
—a view of the case, quite different from that maintained in their 
correspondence with the foreigners. In two particulars special care 
should be taken in this case ijirst that the provision be not considered 
as compensation, compounding for guiJt, of which there was no con- 
viction, the act having been found and declared justifiable ; and, 
secondly ^ that this case be not allowed to take such a character that it 
may "by any possibility be made a precedent for getting money, should 
unfortunately the like ever occur in future. 

With these few remarks, we beg to call the attention of our readers 
to the following statements. 

No. I. 

Statemmi relative to 8u Anum made by his relations^ 

Feb. \%th, 1846. 

T4ukw&ng, 24th year, 5th month, Ist day, 4 o'clock p. m. (June 
16th, 1844), SU Aman in Tung-wan k^i (New China Street) near 
the Thirteen Factories was killed with a fowling-piece by a foreigner. 
In the fourth watch (2 o'clock) the next morning he was placed in 
a coffin. Now Aman's coffin having been sealed up by a govern 
ment c^cer was placed in the Budhist temple, Sz'kioh (in the east- 
em part of the city) and is not yet interred. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

306 >»u Aman's Wido». Junk. 

Sii Aman was a native of the village of Pingt4ng, in the town of 
Sinbang, in the district of Tsinghien. At the time of his decease 
he was 46 years old. Now the motlier of A man is surnamed Ch&ng 
and is 81 years old. His wife's name is Hwing shi and is 44 years 
of age. He had neither son nor daughter. 

Subsequently to the demise of Aman, his kindred borrowed from 
the fund for sacrificial offerings to their original ancestors, for the 
expense of carrying the case before the officers of government, two 
hundred and more taels, and different friends to assist them contri* 
buted twenty and more taels additional. Aman's mother is poor, 
distressed and without support; fortunately however she has the wife 
of Aman who goes daily to the mountains and gathers fuel to provide 
(by the sale of it) for her daily sustenance. If fortunately the benevolent 
and the good, pitying one who has suffered death without cause, 
whose mother is advanced in life, whoee wife is a widow, poor and 
without posterity, should manifest to them their great commiseration, 
then life after life, age after age, they will be grateful for their bound- 
less virtue. 

No. 2. 

The widow of Sii Aman in company with Fang Ag&n, who married 
her sister, came to the residence of — — -. when the following par- 
ticulars were elicited by questioning her. 

My husband Sii Aman formerly resided at Kaukung, in the dis- 
trict of F4hsh4n, where he labored for several years, but being out 
of employment he came to Canton seeking a livelihood. Some ten 
days had elapsed after his arrival when he met with his misfor- 
tune. He was living at the time with one Tihshing, in Lwinhing 
street, a friend of his from the same native district I am not aware 
of his being of a quarrelsome disposition, though absent from me 
he might have had quarrels of which I am ignorant I think his 
disposition was good and that he was innocent. It was after the 
labors of the day he came out to take the air. He had on two gar- 
ments, rather worn, which came down to the mid-thighs. He was 
fanning himself, and thought, as he was a mere spectator of what was 
passing, he had nothing to fear from the foreigners. On laying the 
matter before the officers of government, they stated that her hus- 
band was killed by the foreigners in the act of endeavoring to plunder 
them. Did the officers of government pay you or his mother any- 
thing? His mother was too old to come to the city. I came with 
my uncle. The officers were angry and would not allow us to enter 
their court. We afterwards waylaid the Kw^ngchau fii, and thrust 

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1846. JSfii Amm's Wtdm, 909 

oar petition into his sedan as be was retnrning home» bat he wonld 
not receive it We previoaslj had been to the Ninhii who said he 
waa killed in the act of stealing. Neither his mother nor myself 
have received anything from friends. 

Fang A^^n was neit questioned. I married a sister of HwiSngshf, 
I am an embroiderer of mandarin dresses, was not much acquainted 
with Sii A man. I saw him wJien he was married, and a few times 
at Kaukung. Aman has no (own) brother or sister. His widow has 
many relations. 

Canton, 90th February, 1846. 

No. 3. 

Hw4ng shi and Fang- Agin returned and to further questions im- 
plied. Sii A man's wages were from #2.50 lo 51.75 per month. He 
sometimes remitted to me and his mother one dollar and sometimes 
two dollars per month. We now live upon half a dollar a month, 
our food consisU of salt vegeuhles and congee, we are unable to 
bay pork or fish. The clothes she had on were borrowed lor the 

She was at this time informed of the object of the eiaminatioo : 
that the person who caused the death of Sii Aman was about to 
return to his country, and without deciding whether the deceajwd 
was innocent or guilty he wished to know what relations were al^ 
fected by his death, and to provide ibr them as much as he had 
done, for a period equal to his natural life, and she was consulted 
as to the mode of receiving it She preferred to receive it in an- 
nual instalments. The importance of her sileaee as to the fact of re- 
ceiving money from a foreigner was im pr e ssed upon her, as she might 
be robbed or otherwise annoyed by relations oC her husbund, whom 
she had represented as being near akin to pirates. She put her 
finger upon her pulse and said nothing, intimating she woold he 
silent as the pulse. 

February 21st, 1846. 

No. 4. 
AckMwledgment of Htedng $ki the mid&w of Sii Aman, 

Ching shl the mother of Sii Aman and Hwing sht his widow of 
the village of Pingt&ng, in the town of Sinhung of the district of 
Tsinghien, in the department of Kwingchau in tbe province of Can- 
ton, are widows without support, whose family possesses nothing but 
bare walls of their house. Before me there is an aged mother, after 
me there is neitbef son nor daughter, melancholy and solitary, who is 
there that will care for us t I can only go daily to the mountains an<l 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

310 Su Aman's Mldaw, June, 

cut wood in order to obtain sastenance for my aged mother ; my dif- 
ficulties and distress are hard to express. Now I am profoundly 
grateful to ♦ • ♦ ■ a good and benevolent American, 

who fortunately looks down upon me with a compassionate e\e, and 
from whom I have obtained an abundant shower of favors. In behalf 
ofanotlter who exercises compassion and charity, he annually pays us 
t25 for our support. From Kiishin (the 41st year of the cycle,) 
Taukwing 24th year, 5th month, (June 18<I4,) to Wushin (the 5th 
year of the next cycle 1869,) a period cf twenty-five years, annually 
exercising this compassiou and charity, it is a favor comparatively 
high as heaven and broad as the earth, and although we become 
your horses (in the next life) we cannot reward you for one of a 
thousand of your faFors. 

Now in the Pingwu (43d year of the cycle, T4ukw&ng 26th year, 
Ist month, 28th day,) Feb. 23d, 1346, I, Sit Hwing shI in person 
with my own hand, knocking head, received from • * • 
the liberal favor of 950, equal to 30 taels, in the presence 

of my brother-in-law Fang Ag^n. Hereafter • • • ■ 

will kindly give for our expense $25 per annum, which I, Sii 
Hw&ng shl am to come and receive. But I, Sii Hwing shi being a 
widow, and the passage by water being truly inconvenient, she will 
trouble her brother-in-law Fang Agin four times a year to come 
aad receive it, and send it to her for our necessary uses, and there 
will be no mistake. 

But my aged widowed mother is ashamed that she has no power 

to repay your trouble, but • • ♦ sincerely delights in doing 

righteousness and in administering to the wauts of the distressed, 
And we poor widows can only engrave upon our hearts our sense of 
boundless obligation. I specially write this note as a slight mani- 
festation of my sincerity. Many thanks, many thanks, many thanks ! 
Hwing shi widow of Sii Aman; X, her mark 
(the print of her fiuger dipped in ink). 

T4ukw^g, 26th year, Pingwu, (43 year of the cycle,) 1st month, 
21st day. Feb. 23d 1846. (Counter Signed) Fang Agin. 

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184(3 Chinese Tirm> for Ddty. 311 

Art. VI. Term for Deity to be used in the Chinese version of the 
Bible: the words Shdngti, Tien, and Shin rxaminedandiUnstrated, 
in a to the Editor of the Chinese Repository. 
My Dear Sir : As difTerent iisajres prevail among missionaries relative 
to the translation of the word ' God' into Chinese, I have been led to 
give some attention to the subject; and for my own benefit I have 
written a brief account of my observations, which I herewith dend 
you for insertion in the Repository, if you think your readers will be 
at all profited by it. I have copied out many expressions in Chinese, 
because though they might easily be referred to by readers, yet it is 
useful to have such passages collected together, so that they may all 
be contemplated at a single view. The reader would do well howe- 
ver to examine the passages in their connection, as he will thus get 
a more accurate view of thier meaning and importance than he can 
from an isolated sentence. If passages from Chinese writing, which 
would materially affect the subject under consideration, have been 
overlooked, or if the passages quoted have been misinterpreted, or 
wrong inferences deduced from them, it is sincerely hoped that those 
better acquainted with Chinese than myself will take the trouble to 
point them out, that if possible the subject may be set in so clear a 
light as to produce uniformity of opinion among all concerned. 

Shdngti and T'tVw, J^ »^ and J^, "High Ruler and "Hea- 
ven.*' Shdngti is used in ancient Chinese writings as the designa- 
tion of their highest Deity. Thus the Shdng Skfi ^ ^^ 2d 
paragraph : Tsing, peaking of the great wickedness of K'ieh, adds, 
^ -^ ± ^» ^ ^ ^> IE ; " I fe" SWngtf (high Ruler) and 
therefore do not dnre not to Correct him (K'ieh)." 

Examples of this kind are of so frequent occurrence that it is net 
necessary to quote them. We shM therefore only notice those pas* 
sages which exhibit some peculiarities in the use of the term. 

In the Td Hiok, -^ ^, the 10 th Section, is a quotation from the' 

<><*«». ^i Z^^ W( % SP ± ^^ " B^f^"-^ Yin (tne emp- 
eror of the Yin dynnsty) had tost the (hearts of the) people he could 
match with Shdngti." This is explained by the commentary, thus, J^ 

f .1 ^ T ^ ffii ft ^ ± ^ {!i " »•« " i^»>e'f ""•'^^ «««'«« 

and cofresponds to Shiingti," one ruling in heaven above the other 
on earth beneath 

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319 Chinese Terms for Dtittf Juntb, 

The Hoh Kidng, ^ p^, on this passage, says, ^ ^ '^ tE 

decree (by which he holds the empire) is from Tien, heaven ; and Ficn'i 
heart is in the people. If he obtain the hearts of the people, Sh^ng- 
tf will regard him favorably and he will obtain the kingdon. If he 
lose the hearts of the people Shingtl will be angry with him and 
he will lose the kiudom." In this passage Tien (heaven) and Shing- 
ti (high Ruler) seem to he used for each other. 

The Chung Yung, ^ 0, Section 19th, says, ^ iTJl ;^ || P/f 
VI M. h ^ iJl' '* '^^ ^*^" ^^*^ ** ^^^ ceremony by which they 
worship Sh^ngti.' The commentary says, ^ ^ ^ W- ^ m* 
•'The Kidu is a sacrifice to Tien, the ShU a sacrifice to Ti," from 
which it appears that Sh^ng Ti is the same as Tien Ti (heaven and 

The Heh Kiang, ^ ^, carries out the idea more fully and says, 
" In winter they sacrifice to Heaven, and in summer to the Earth, and 
thua worship Shingti, and make the sincere reverence by which 
they honor Heaven and Earth an offering in retarn for their begetting 
and perfecting virtue." 

Skdng Mang t. S» ^^"P' ^^' ^^^^' ^' ^"^^ ^^^ ^^ 

ciM.ic. ^ |B^> 1^ f^ ;J: f ff: 2. H 1ft ^ g| 

± ^- The ^ ^ explains thu. X 1^ T ^ f ^ ^ 

Si^Jiii^^i^Z ± v& ^ tl e IJ:lrN Ji 

nMVJi^9h t'^t.nrX^lki "Heayen produced 
mankind, but could not himself govern them, therefore he ordained 
rules to govern ; he could not himself instruct them, and therefore 
ordained teachers lo instruct. His intention was that rules and teachers 
should, in the name or ^place) of Heaven, carry forward the princi- 
ples of reason in order to assist what Sh^ugti was not able to 
accomplish." In the first part of the paragraph, it is Heaven that is 
not able to rule and teach, and therefore appointed rulers and teach- 
ers to assist or complete what (not Heaven, as we might have sup- 
posed, but) Shangti (in the latter part of the pargraph) was not able to 
accomplish, thus implying that they are both one. This passage also 
shows how low are their views of the power of their highest deities, 
being but a grade above man and depending on him for the comple* 
^ion of their works. How unlike the God of the Bible I 

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1846. Chinese T(rms far Deity. 313 

The relation of Shdngtl to Tien may be somewhat explained 
by a passage in the Shdn^ Shii, ^ ^ ; speaking of the wicked* 

ne« of Kieh. ^ ^ .t ;?^, jy( ;|^ ^ ^ 1^, :^ ffl ;f, gt 

^ ffi ^ ^» *' ^'*^ • pretended reliance on high heaven he 
endeavored to subjugate the people, but Ti in consequence of hi« 
wickedness transfered the empire to Sh^ng ;" here we have (^ ^^ 
and ^ instead of the common formula. The Commentary says, 

^ &, f^n t' 'f J^n ^ ¥ % "Ti » «-<> i» ««•"- 
ence to bodily form, and Ti in reference to ruling and governing." 

Though perhaps it might be inferred from this that Tien is the visible 

heaven, and Sh^ngti the ruler who inhabits it, yet this does not 

seem to be the idea so naturally resulting from the language, in 

connection with the worship of heaven, so oflen spoken of by the 

Chinese, as that the two names belong to one and the same thing 

only referring to different qualities and operations of that thing. 

The TdYd^^ parag. 4th says, Jl ^ %l ^i^=fM 

)5g. The Commentary says, ;^ |I^ ^ ^ ^ t^ ; and a little 

below adds again, ±^^ Z^M^X^' '*'*^"« X ft *°^ 
Jt *^ <1 ^ "® "®®^ synonymously. 

The Shun Tien ^ ^ p&rag. 6th says, when the kingdom was 
delivered down from Yu^to Shun, ^ ^ Jt'v^ * »i? 4^ A^ ^ 
M^A J||^>9i'f^W "they offered the fif/it" (a sacrifice) 
to Sh&ngtf, in which according to the Commentary heaven and 
earth are included ; the In (another sacrifice) to the ^ ^ (such 
as the sun, moon, stars, clouds ^c), the M6 to the mountains and 
rivers ; and the Pien to the spirits of sages." This passage illustrates 
what was said at the commencement, that Shangtl or Tien is the 
highest of the Chinese deities. 

Before leaving this part of the subject, I will add a passage to illus- 
trate the usage of Tien, Ti, heaven and earth. 

The CAun^ Yung '~h {^, section 22d, speaking of a man of per- 

feet sincerity says: ^ ^ VJi^^ ^ Z ^ %'^ ^ 
®^M&t^W.U4^R fj^-r^m t ^- The 
^ ^, on this passage says, f^, A ^ ^^ X i^ Z fji ^^ 

VOL XV. NO. vj; 40 

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314 Chinese Terms for Daty. June, 

fffi 1 ij# . it ti: f- T /rfn li i^' M M ife f + . ifS 

** Men and things are all what heaven and earth begat (or pro- 
duced), but the inability to cause each to perfect (or fill out) his (or 
its) nature is a defective part in the renovating and nourishing power 
of heaven and earth. The perfectly sincere perfects the nature of 
man, and thus a8sis»ts to perfect the nature of things, and thus mutu- 
ally assists and patches up (or tills up) what heaven and earth could 
not accomplish (or come up to)." The Commentary here states that 
heaven an;l earth, in carrying on their operations cannot do with- 
out men of perfect sincerity, and then adds, " Heaven is above and 
overshadows things, earth is beneath and contains things. The per- 
fectly sincere (or sage) is betv/ecn, and perfects things." 

In this passage we are taught that the sage?, ^^ fflf^ ^ {^]j "V 

W ^ ii- ^^""^^ '^ '^"' ^""'^ ^*'^^ ^^""^ *^S ft^? i ^ ^ 0f 

/^ 1^ , expressions entirely parallel. We are also taught that it is 
the visible heaven above and earth beneath the Chinese regard as 
their highest deities, and which when spoken of in their ruling capa- 
city constitute their Supreme Ruler J^ W'. We are also taught 
that the perfect man differs from them, not .so much in the extent of 
his power as in the nature of the functions which he performs, it 
being the work of the one to beget and of the other to perfect — while 
the former is no more aMe to do the work of the latter, than the latter 
to do the work of the former, so that man stands on a level with 
heaven and earth forming with them a triad I 

Shin, jijl^, GckI. The first passage which I shall quote is from 
the Lun Yu ^ =^ 7^, Section 1 Ith, paragraph 11; Ki Lu asked how 
the gods (^ jjjf^ Kwei Shin) ought to be worshiped. The Hoh 
Ki^ng, -^ ^jij, on this passage, after explaining these two words as 
referring only to different operations of the same principle (a usage 
which we shall refer to in due season) explains them separately thus 

iJ^.flDJ ^ J^ RJll^-^ %' '* heaven, earth, mountains, rivers, 
winds, thunder, every thing with which Ki (the creatmg or operating 
power) is (oi *:in brl »:onnecied, all the;5e arc called Shin.' Ancestor-* 

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1846. Chinese Terms for Deiii/. 315 

who are worshiped in the ancestral temples are called Kwei." Shin 
b here defined as a generic term, including all the higher deities of 
the Chinese. 

To the same effect is a passage in the Chung Yung ^ ^ Sec. 
16th. The Hoh KiAng ^ ^ s.js. ^ ^ jj^, J^^ ^ A % 

which sacrifice is offered is not mereli/ the departed spirite of men : 
all, heaven, earth, mountains, rivers, the five sacrifices — even what- 
ever ought to be sacrificed to — all are included." 

The whole section from which this paragraph is taken refers merely 
^^ nL W? ^^^^ Shin, hence these two words must include all the in- 
dividuals enumerated, i. e. ^ Kwei includes the departed spirits of 
men and Shin the rest. 

The Lun Yu, |j^ g^, chapter 6th, parag. 4th, speaking of the yellow 
colored calf of a mixed colored cow, says, ^ ^ >^ ^j U| j|| 
^pL ^ 1;^. Though men may not wish to use it (in sacrifice) will 
the mountains and rivers reject it? The Commentary says, ill |l|, 
|i| III ^iib- "Mountains and rivers, means the gods of the 
mountains and rivers." The same is probably true of wind, 
thunder, forests, &c. The Commentary adds, J^ ^ ?^ Jf]^, jjjf^ 

^' T> ^ Z' Again lE_n^i^i^lk{{{t # ^- 

He (the calf) is proper to use in sacrifice to the gods of the mountains 
and rivers. 

The Lun F«, f| ^g, Chap. 3. Par. 12. says, ^ IjSl^.,^ %^ 
^ S4 /(£. ** Sacrifice as though present, — sacrifice to the gods as 
though the gods were present." The Commentary adds, j^, ^ -^ 
K&itL^^j'-l* ^ /^j^ i|||^ ^Jj. '* Sacrifice means sacrifice to 
ancestors — sacrifice to the gods, means sacrifice to external gods," i. e. 
others beside their ancestros. The Hoh KiAng, ^ |^, says, ^j» 
|jt|-l j^l |JL| 4>ti i^ ^ ^ 1^ " External gods means the gods of 
the mountains, forests, streams and vales.' 

All the passages above cited use Shin as ageneric term, applicable 
to whatever those who used it considered worthy of worship. It is 
in this same signification that the term is applied to the deified spirits 
of departed heroes and sages. 

Thus, in the passage above quoted from the Shun Tien, ^ 
Jp^, the ^ Jli^ is so used, as the Commentary clearly shows. 

So in the Ti Yi ^ ^ Sect. !st, % ^^ \i, the Comment. 
adcl5, pQ'j£^^ (^ ifrt jt # ^ jL " Wan w^ng having died 

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^16 Chinese Terms fur Deity. June. 

and his Shin being on high," ;^i;if|»^^,|SB#^ 
^ Jl ^ ^ & ^> ** Wan wing's Shin (or divinity) is in 
heaven ancTconstantly in the presence of Sh^ngti " (as an assistant). 
Wan w4ng was regarded as a deity, and was sacrificed to after his 
death by those who were not his descendants, which is not the case 
with those who are not regarded as deified, hence his spirit is called 
Shin. Where merely the common worship, which all the Chinese pay 
to their ancesters is spoken of, kwei ^ is commonly employed ; and 
when this kind of worship is spoken of, in connection with the worship 
of other deities, ^ i|B and sometimes simply Jtm is employed. 

We have already remarked that the words ^ lA are used to 
denote merely the different operations of one single principle or deity. 
This usage grows out of the pantheistic theology of the Chinese, as 
developed in the commentaries of the 16th chap, of the Chung Yung 
ip SP. We are there taught that when two separate principles 

.re .poken of. ^^^ZM^' J* # 1^ i^ lift- 
But it is maintained by the commentators that it is really only a 
single principle or power ; and when engaged in creating, preserving 
or perfecting it is called Shin, but when in destroying, wasting away or 
consuming it is called Kwei; that thisdivinity pervades all things and 
that nothing can be without it; that it precedes the existence of all 
things — that all creating, perfecting and preserving and all destroying 
are the result of its operations — that this one principle or divinity 
pervades the whole human race, so that every human being possesses 
a share of it. 

Thus we read If- # ;^ ^ jj^ ^P ^ ?jE. ;^ ^ fl||. 
^ IJiE :t ^ «^ fP i. ^ ;?: Ill j|l|«. "The dinm., in m, 
body is the same as the divinity to whom sacrifice is offered. The 
divinity to whom sacrifice is offered is the same as the all operating 
divinity." I think it is the share of this principle, which each indivi- 
dual of the human race is said to possess, and which, as referred to 
the word Shin, is applied to the animal spirits of men. 

Much more might be said in reference to these words but what 
has been said is sufficient to illustrate their usage in all important 
particulars. Now in reference to the question, which term is the 
proper one to be used as a translation of * God,' in the Bible, it should 
be borne in mind that, Jehovah does not mn'dy claim to be the hiffhast 
deity acknowledged by a people, nor will he be satisfied with the 
name of their highest gods, but he claims to be God alone, to concert' 
irate in himself a// /A a/ ought to be worshiped; and he claims an 

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1846. Chinese Terms for Dtiiy, 517 

appellation which inToives in itself all that those who use it deem 
worthy of worship ; this name, which the people hnd been accustomed 
to bestow equtilly on several imaginary beings he claims exclusively 
to himself, and he claims it without any qualifying epithet ; and thus 
maintains his own exclusive divinity. Such is the nature of the words 
used in the original Hebrew and Qreck scriptures for ' God \* they 
are not the names or title of any one god, but were applied to what- 
ever those who used them considered as worthy of worship. These 
words are used in scripture without any qualifying epithet to desig* 
nate the supreme being. Now in this view of the case, I think there 
can be no doubt as to what word should be emploed in translations. 
Shin is used in the same generic way as the original term; and 1 
believe no other word is so used ; this therefore can be used uniformly 
in every instance where the word God occurs in the Scriptures^ while 
every other expression which has been proposed must in various 
instances (as when the word is used in the plura! or when it is ap- 
plied to some particular idol, d&c.) be changed. Other words are 
merely names or titles of particular idds, and however high their 
rank, they can neither answer to the generic comprehensiveness of 
the original word nor can they come up to the high rank of the God 
of the Bible. '* The gods that have not madb thb heavens and the 
earth even they shall perish from the earth and from under these 
heavens." Such must be the fate of all the gods of the Chinese ; let not 
then their names he deemed an adequate designation of him wh<^ 
" is from everlasting to everlasting." 

Art. VII. A walk arovnd the city of Canton: kavses of the coffined 
dead; the I' ling temple; Mohammedan buildings; scenery 
on the north; forts; an old citadel; a remarkable burial plcLce; 
ifc. From a private Journal. 
Monday at 3 o'clock p. m. May 4th. 1646, the weather being re- 
markably cool for the season and the heavens overcast so as to shut 
oat the rays of the sun, I started in company with Mr. C. on an 
exclusion, intending to go round the walls of the city and as ixx into 
the country on the north and east as the time would allow. Once 
foreigners could walk freely and unmolested on the north and east 
of the city ; for a long time past it has not been so. Even since 

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til 8 A walk (iround (he city of Canton : Jink, 

the war and the treatief*, an excursion around the city has been con- 
sidered as unsafe. British officers — the colonial cliaplain and the 
colonial treasurer of Hongkong, and H. B. Ms. vice-consul of Canton, 
not long ago were rudely assaulted, and the treasurer, Mr. Martin, 
was severely beaten. It is remarkable, that nil, or nearly all these 
attacks have been made by people on the walls, or by vagabonds close 
by them, who ought to have been instantly seized by the soldiers 
and guards; and the inference is, that the authorities, or those under 
them, have been the first to give annoyance or have allowed others 
to give molestation to those whom they were and are bound to pro- 
tect. Thrice before and once since the war, at the request of 
friends, I have accompanied them round the walls, and though always 
beset, yet in each case a few words, suited to the persons making 
the attack, turned them from their evil purposes and allowed us to 
pass on unharmed. In one instance, however, a gentlemen had his 
watch taken from his pocket. It would be well, perhaps, as things 
now are, for foreigners, on all excursions far from their factories, to 
leave their watches behind them, and to have about them nothing 
that can attract the cupidity of outlaws and vagrants who abound in 
the city and suburbs of Canton. 

From the foreign factories, near the south-west corner of the city^ 
we proceeded directly north in the long straight street that runs 
parallel with the western wall of the city and is separated from it by a 
fosse or canal. Having gone nearly two miles on foot and reached a 
part of the suburbs, off the north-west corner of the city, where the 
children and vagrants are particularly annoying to the foreigner, we 
took our sedans (which we had engaged to accompany us before 
starting) and were soon at the military station, on the borders of the 
suburbs in this direction. There we halted a moment to pay our 
respects and to tell the soldiers where we were intending to go. 
These stations pre numerous, within and without the city, usually 
consisting of a corporal or some low ofRcers and eight or ten men, 
habited ordinarily just like the common people. 

Turning to the right, as we left corporal Chang a gray beardod 
old man, we walked on over the rising ground, having the fosse 
and a part of the city wall on one side, and on the other, the north 
side of our path, a line of low sombre buildings filled with coffins, all 
tenanted. The number of the.'ie buildings on the north and east of 
Canton amounts to several scores. On the decease of persons, especi- 
ally if they are from other parts of China and have no burial-place 
in or near the city, their rcmiiins are placed in coffins, closed herme- 
♦irally or nearly so, and are then carried out and depoaited in these 

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iS46. A wuik- around the cify of Canton: 319 

houses, and from thence, after months or years, the mouldering body 
is borne away to seek affinity with its ancestral dust. 

On the highest point of the rising ground, which we had now 
reached, stands the riin^ mhiu, a noted temple.* Behind and be- 
yond it, and the other bnildinnrs. just described, are some lofty trees 
and shrubbery, giving to the .«<cene a pleasing rural air. In the dis- 
tunce, far on beyond some rice grounds, are seen other little hills and 
other similar clumps of trees and shrubbery, quite inviting and half 
tempting us to steer our course off in that dirction, which would have 
brought us to the place where the British troop, under sir Hugh 
Qough, landed in May 1841. 

From the I*Ung temple we decended the hill, going in a a north- 
easterly course, pa.'<sing a few poor houses liere and there on either 
side of the way, till we came to the center of a little village, where 
three ways meet, about half a mile due north from the Ching peh 
tnutif or principal northern gate of the city. This is but a poor 
place, the houses and shops few and the people not very civil. 

From this center we turned norlh, ascendding a little on reach- 
ing the open country. As we came out of the village, we passed, on 
our right, a low building, apparently of Mohammedan origin. Half 
a mile farther on, we came to other larger buildings of the same 
kind, on the lef\ or western side of the road. These buildings 1 had 
previously visited, and as our time was now limited we did not enter 
them, but passed on farther going over the rice fields and among 
graves of the Chinese. The people we ftere met were very civil, 
and received thankfully small portions of the Scriptures in the shape 
of sheet tracts. A hundred of these were distributed, most of them 
to people from the adjacent villages. We were now on the ground 
ovor which the British troops passed to take possession of the 
*' Heights of Canton,'' and had before us on the one side the forts 
and the ramparts where the imperial troops made such poor defence, 
and on the other hand the hills and meadows where the *^ village 
braves'' assembled by thousands to exterminate the '* barbarians." 
But we saw not a trace of all the havoc and devastation made by 
either the one party or the other. 

" The I 'ling mi&u is dedicated to the i'Ung i:i ti^ ^ ^ -^^ ^, u th«5 
great god of good physicians." The Chinese say that tn t{ is the sdnte as Shnng 
tiy the hiirh ruler; and that iUng denotes those skilful physicians, who have 
been always successful, their prescriptions never failing to produce the 
desired effect.. These temples are numerous in China, and they are all dedicated 
to the "great ruler or rulers," patron or patrons of physicians. Bv the by, 
the pairons are nuaierou.n, .some great and some small 

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320 A walk around the city of Canton : June, 

Returuiog, we passed from the Mohammedan buildings to the cen- 
ter cf the village, and from thence eastward till we were direotely 
before the city gate and distant from it eighty or one hundred reds. 
At this point, the prospect was charmingly picturesque : the valley, 
the hills, the forte, the city walls, the aged trees, the pocb. the 
streamlets of water, &c., all combined to fill up the scene. But it 
was becoming late, and our bearers, who were now to serre as guides, 
wished us to hasten on our way. They were directed to choose the 
course that would s>how us most of the country. Going eastward 
and northward they carried us through a deep valley almost directly 
below the large square fort, and the high and prominent object; on 
the east of the city, off as far as Whampoa. soon opened to view. As 
we passed along, through this deep valley, the hills on both sides of 
us were covered with the graves and tombs of the Chinese. 

On the heights northward, opposite to the square fort, our guides 
pointed out the ruins of an old citadel, wh?re they said the Manchu 
conquerers took up their head-quarters when they laid siege against 
Canton, more than two centuries ago. 

On emerging from this valley, where we had seen nothing but the 
habitations of the dead, with naked hills and rocks and a few small 
patches of rice-grounds, some poor cottages were seen before us, 
and some small manufacturing establishments, farmers' houses, dtc. 
Instead of now turning to the right, which would have been the short- 
est and easiest course for our bearers, they kept off under the brow of 
the hill on the le(\; and having gone some rods along the bank of a 
little water-brook, they crossed it on some stone slabs and then steered 
a course, over very rough ground, towards the south-east, and by a 
circuitous route brought us to the spot where were piled up the re- 
mains of those more than two thousand, men, women, and children^ 
who s9tTe burnt to d^ath in the theatre which was consumed by fire 
in Canton on the 25lh of May 1845. 

No hecatomb could compare with this pile of human bones and 
ashes. The number destroyed with the theatre was supposed to be 
not less than 2300, of whom, our guides told us, the remains of 
1^70 were in thfe pile now before us ! The mound, rising perhaps 
twelve feet in the center, is surrounded by a wall six or eight feet high, 
enclosing it may be half an English acre. At one end of this, there 
are some tablets, and close by a little temple. The shades of the 
evening had begun to fall, and we could not linger on this melancho- 
ly spot. It is situated about half a mile directly off eastward from 
the north-east corner of the city. 

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1846. Peking Gazette. 921 

From this place of the dead, we passed across the northeastern 
and the eastern parade grounds, homeward bound. As we came 
down a long street and were crossing the latter, a crowd of vagrants 
followed us; and when in the open field or parade gound, they shouted 
thrice and at the same time hurled showers of brickbats. These felt 
harmless. On our turning around, we saw several respectable men 
beckoning and warning them off from their evil doing. By this inter- 
ference, with a few words to those who were near us, the whole crowd 
became pacific, and we passed quietly on, and reached the point of 
our departure— the foreign factories— a little before 7 o'clock, well 
pleased with the excursion. 

Art. VI11. King Pan or Peking Gazettes: with extracts and 
notices from Number Ninth March 3d to Number Skxteenth 
March nth 1846. 

We now resume our notices of these State Papers, giving only such 
items as seem likely to interest the general reader. 

No. 9. 

March 3d and 4th 1S46. From the Board of Office there is a long 
report, recommending a great numi>er of changes^ which however 
can be of no interest to our readers. The imperial canals are 
also noticed ; and long details of repairs, expenditures, &c., are laid 
before the emperor, by the officers in charge of the public works. 

No. 10. 

March «5th and 6th. There is in this Number a report from Lid 
Yenko, governor-general of Fuhkien and Chehki^ng, announcing the 
completion of the repair, or rather rebuilding, of the walls of the 
city of Chau-ngan hitn, ^^ ^ 6^, in the department of Ch&ng 
chau, jTjp 444 in Fuhkien. The circuit of the walls is 1360 change 
and the height and breadth each one and a half change or about twenty 
feet. These walls were first erected in the time of the Ming dynas- 
ty, more than three hundred years ago ; but the action of the ele- 
ments having laid them in ruins, they have now been rebuilt, chiefly 
by subscriptions and public contributions. 

No. 11. 

March 7th and Rth. Piracy and registration are the principal 
topics of this Number. His excellency Liu Yunko has laid before 
his master a long memorial detailing the ways and means that 
have been employed for the suppression of piracy on the high seas, 
off the coasts of Fuhkien and Chehki^ng, and especially near For- 
mosa. We do not get a very favorable idea of the naval forces in 
those seas from this document. The vessels, and the ofKcers oom- 

VOL XV. NO. VI. 41 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

322 l^rkhisi (jiazclff Ji;nk, 

tuHndin;r tliem, seem equally bail and inefBcient. la a word, these 
*' wator-thioves," as the pirates are called, like the multitudes of 
bandits and hijrhwaymen on shore, are little disposed to obey the im- 
perial laws. Ill one port of the memorial, it is stated that the pirates, 
the Hiore erisily to effect their purposes, join themselves with the 
** barbarians." We suspect there is some error here, about the 

The other document is from the governor of Shantung, complain- 
ing of irregularities in the registration of certain students, and he 
begs his august sovereign to have the cases duly investigated. 

No. 12. 

?Jarch 0th and 10th. In this Number, as in several others, are 
notices of oflicers who, in accordance with decisions given at the 
great triennial examination, are to be introduced to his majesty, the 
emperor. The audiences are to take place at the ** Round-bright 
Gardens," calU;d Vuen-ming Yuen. 

We have also, in this Number, two long papers regarding the 
army and the mint. Efforts are made to improve the discipline of 
the one; and to facilitate and augment the issues of the other. 

There is, in another paper in this Number, allusion to the ^ ^ 
^^^ Tsing Licfi Kiiiu, *' The Religion of the Green Water-lily," in 
a memorial to the emperor from the governor-general of the two 
provinces, viz : Hupeh and Huu^n. His excellency gives a dark 
picture of the morals of the people under his jurisdiction. The 
numerous ramifications of the ** Green Water-lily," and the mystery 
in which the atiairs of the whole fraternity are involved, occasion 
him no small anxiety. 

No. 13. 

The fit'ih son of the emperor, ^1^ ^j^, Yih-isung^ who has in due 
form been adoped by one of his majesty's brothers, continues to be 
an object of attention at court. His titles, his livings, his seals, &.c., 
have all to be determined and fixed by the emperor and his advisers. 
In this number there is a memorial from the Board of Rites, submit- 
liii'; varioii.'i propo^ilionb regarding his seaKs, their dimensions, mate- 
rial, oic. 

The commissariat and the revenue, in various parts of the empire, 
are the topics of other papers in this number. March, lith and 12th. 

No. 14. 

.March fJ^th and 1 1th. After a variety of details, announcing 
appointments, &c., there is a document regarding the Mohammedans 
and wild barbarians, from which we take the following : 

•* Ho Ch^ncling, •fovernor-general of Yunnan and Kweichau, 
kneeling, lays before his majesty, by memorial, the following state- 
ment, regarding tiie seizure of wicked and cunning Mohammedans, 
who in connection with wild barbarians proceed in acts of revenge 
agaiusi Ihe ciiv «.! Yung-Cli^ng |in the wf^sl pan of thp province of 

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1646. Peking Gazette, 523 

Yumiiin, lat. 2r>' 04' 40" and enst long. 99" 2o' 55" near thft 
Burman froiilicrs], and concerning the summary measures adopti'd 
in the prosecution of the same; all of which, are resspect fully sn!)- 
milted, with the prayer thai the holy (emperor) will look then^on. 

*' Le Hanghicn, the submagistrate of Tan^yueh, some lime ago, 
reported that he had received, from the wild chiefs of VVfuitung, the 
following facts : a Mohammedan chief\ain, Min Yin^kwri, having 
incited tlie wild men (the savages) of Peh-yeh-shTi, and other place*, 
to proceed in acts of revenge against Yingching, he (the said sub- 
nngistrate) immediately assembled his troops to interpose and cut them 
off; and when, more than two hundred strong, they made an attack 
on Shin-mu-Iung, he lead on his troops and vigorously pursued 
them, while the wild men fled taking away with them flocks and 
herds, bi!l there was no injury done to human life." 

His excellency having received this information, took measures 
accordingly, as if the whole empire had been in jeopardy, fie went 
in person to Yungch4ng and carefully examined and inspected every 
thing and every body having any connection with the insurrection. 
The result of all these proceedings was the decapitation of Min-ying- 
kwei, as chief instigator. 

We have, in this number, another report to the throne, from his 
majesty's slave, (or jfj^ 7p, nfi-t^ni^) Pu-yen-t'ii, regardini^ the lands 
recently brought under cultivation, through the agency of Lin Tsehsii, 
during the period of his banishment to the western frontiers of the 
empire, at Aksu, Ushi, Kauch^, Hoticn, Kash-gar, and Yarkaiid. 
These newly improved grounds do not seem likely to prove very 
productive; indeed, his maje.ity's ** Have" at present is unable to 
say with confidence that they will yield the government any revenue. 
More time, he says, is required to ascertain their capabilitie.s. 

No. 15. 

March 15th and 16th. One lonir document, regarding metallic 
rurrenct/y fills nearly the whole of this number. A translation of it 
we hope to give in our next issue. 

No. 1«. 

March 16th and I7th. Papers relating to new appointments to 
office, arrangements for the emperor to visit the 8?pulchres of his 
ancestors, the superintendency of imperial manufactures at Nanking 
and Suchau and Hangchau, &c., &c., fill up the first part of this 
number What these manufactures are, it does not appear froin the 
papers before us: their superintendency, however, like that of cus- 
toms at Canton, seems to open some lucrative oflices for the poorer 
members of the imperial house. 

A eunuch of the palace, having been intolerably burdened and 
beaten, ran away ; and,. having been seized by the magistrate of Tsing- 
yuen, was delivered over to the governor-general of the province at 
Peking, who sent the poor man bark to his masters and along with 
])im a memorial lo the throne, detailing of ihcluowji parlieMJarft 

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3'2I Peking Gazette. Junb, 

of the case — which are too trifling to be here repeated, and only 
herve to show how great men may employ themselves in very little 

There is also a paper from the governor-general of the •* river- 
ways" of Ilonan, " beging and praying for celestial favor and con- 
descension to pour out ^,000 taels " for repairs. 

Art. IX. Journal of Occurrences: residences for foreigners; r«i- 
fing of houses and ground; review of troops ; the U. S. A. 
Squadron ; Macao port regulations ; piracies ; kidnapping ; 
Admiralty court at Hongkong ; English troops at Chusan ; two 
Chinese catholic priests ; protestant missions ; baptisms of con^ 
verts; marriage; ordination. 

Residbnces for foreigners are much in demand in the provincial 
city, and are likely to become still more and more so, as the number 
of foreigners increases while the houses appropriated for their use 
remain the same. Many of the houses now occupied are so narrow 
and so close as to render them both exceedingly uncomfortable and 
unhealthy, not to say quite intolerable for places of residence. 

Under these circumstances efforts have been made, but hitherto 
with little success, to rent houses beyond the lines of the foreign 
factories, or ground on which houses may be built, in accordance 
with the provisions of the several treaties. No soouer is it known that 
a foreigner wishes to obtain a house, or a site on which to build, 
than whole streets and neighborhoods assemble and combine to pre- 
vent the same. It appears that some gentlemen have Fecently been 
trying to rent a lot of ground on the south side of the river, in the 
vicinity of the JFdti or "Flower Gardens." And we have now 
before us a placard issued in consequence of this. After saying many 
hard things against the foreigners in question, and against the trai- 
tors who are aiding and abetting them, the writers declare that they 
will allow of no such proceedings, and that should any barbarians 
convert their happy soil into abodes for themselves, they will slaughter 
the foreigners, and that without mercy ! So much for the boasted 
clemency of the gentle sons of H'^n. 

The review of the imperial troops, in the eastern departments of 
Canton, is now in progress under the personal inspection of K lying. 
Ilij excellency left the provincial city early in June, and will proceed, 
it is said, as far as to Ki^ying chau, by the way of Weichau and 
Chauchau, fu. Kiuying chau is the home of a race of Chinese 
known, at the Straits of Malacca and el««ewhere, as H&k§ men. 
Abroad they are a restive race, but docile at home. 

The United States squadron, consisting of the Columbus and the 
yincennes, under commodore James Bidd)e, sailed for the north about 
the end of May, and on the 6th instant was at Amoy. We hope the 

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184G. Journal of Occurrences. 325 

commodore will visit all the northern ports, noi excepting THentsin. 
What the emperor has done to keep all friendly powers at such a 
distance we are at a loss to conjecture. A visit to the port of Pe- 
king would only be paying him a just tribute of respect. And it is 
high time the national flag of the U. S. A. were seen and known in the 
northern waters of China, and also in the Bay of Y6do. 

Macao is again becoming a place of resort, and especially for such 
as need a refuge from the contracted domicils of Canton. It has 
as good a climate as can be found between the Capes, excellent 
hou.^es, and a tolerably good market. The government now seems 
disposed to modify its regulations so as to mvite a more frequent 
resort to that city. We copy from the Hongkong Register the new 
Port Regulations, which were to take effect from the 7th ult 

I. The office of the Harbour- mafter tbaH be near the Custom -hooae. 

S. Every vetael wanting a Pilot, on entering the Roads, shall have her Na- 
tional flag at the foremast-head. 

3. The Harbour-master alone shall have power to employ in his service pilots 
who have passed an examination. 

§ 1. In the denartment of the Harbour-master no cognisance shall be taken 
of losses in any ship under charge of a pilot who has not been examined, and 
sent on board by the Harbour-master, wnether in entering or departing. 

§ 2. The pay of pilots who have been examined shall continue the same at 
of those now established. 

4. The Captain or Master of the ship shall deliver to the person authorised 
to keep a Register of them, a list of the names of all the passengers, declaring 
their employment and destination ; also all the papers he brings, mentioning 
the number. 

5. The Captain, immediately on landing, shall produce to the Harbour-master 
his Register, and a list of the crew of the vessel. These doc ^^nts shall be 
kept at the Harbour-master's office till his departure. 

6. The Harbour-master shall send immediately to the Chief of the Custom- 
house, a statement of the number of tons of the ship or ships entering the 
River or Typa, extracted flrom the proper document and authenticated by it. 

7. Ships cannot enter or leave the Harbour in the north-east monsoon 
drawing more than 15 feet of water, and in the South-west requiring more 
than 16 feet, and that only in spring tides. On other occasions there are only 
13 feet. 

6. Vessels are not allowed to enter the Harbour with gunpowder on board. 
It must be deposited on entering at the Bar-fort, and received again on the 
Teasel's departure. 

9. It is prohibited to throw ballast or ashees into tlie sea, within the poru. 

10. Vessels cannot change their anchorage within the River, without the 
consent of the Harbour-master. 

II. Vessels are obliged to have their sheet-anchor always ready to drop. 

12. If any of the crew desert the ship it must be made known to the Har* 
bonr-master, who shall take measures for his apprehension, f f be is not found 
before the vessel sails, he may be apprehended as soon as he appears, if that 
is desired, in ord<^r to be delivered up to the competent authority. 

13. It is prohibited to leave sick persons in Macao, and these can be landed 
only by permission from the Harbour-master. 

14. No Captain shall have the power to turn away all or a part of the rrew 
of his vessel without the consent of the Harbour-master. 

)5. It belongs to the Harbour-master to make a registration of the crew. 
16. Masters, or Captains of vessels who intend to depart, shall produce some 
time before to the Harbour-master, all their papers and clearances which ou^ht 

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32C Journal of Occurrences. .Iin'K, 

to bo given them by the Custom-house, declaring if he has gunpowder in de- 
posit; and if these (>aper8 are regular the Harbour-master uhall give tlie last clea- 

Contravention of these articles shall be subject to the award of the law. 

The authorities to whom the cognizance of these things belongs have thus 
understood and decreed. 

Macao , 1st May. 1846. (Signed) JoAd Maria Fjerreira do Amaral. 

Piracies have of late been unusually frequent. We quote, from 
the local papers, the particulars of two cases. 

No. 1. 

Another cask of Piracy.— The fast-boat which left Canton on Friday 
(May 29th) for Hongkong, when off Tongkoo about 9 o'olock on Saturday even- 
ing, was attacked by pirates, who forced tlieir way on board wounding some 
of the crew that opposed them. One of the pirates who spoke good English 
told a young gentleman who was on board as a passenger, that if he lay ntill 
and made no resistance, no injury would be done him. Of course, they carried 
off his clothes and whatever goods he had on board as wall as what belonged 
to the crew. They also cut the rigging of the boat, disabling her for some time. 
Before laxing, the same Chinese told him that a Portuguese, assistant in a 
commercial house in Canton, had become terrified at the fire-balls they threw 
on board and jumped into the water. As he has not since been heard of there 
can be little doubt he has been drowned. As none of the native fishermen on 
the river speak English, this occurrence confirms what has been often before 
surmised, that these piracies are generally planned aud executed by parties in 
our own harbor. We heard a good deal some time ago of gun-boats to be 
fitted out by our Government here for the suppression of piracy. As usual the 
labouring mountain has produced a very small mouse. A paltry-boat of the 
size of tkc common Chinese row-boats that ply in the harbour has been 
constructed, and has lain in the harbour about a fortnight, it being considered 
unsafe, we presume, for her to go out with the crew and armament which 
was intended for her. That Mr. Lena, who superintendented the construc- 
tion of her, only obeyed his directions we are well aware' and mean no reflec- 
tions upon that active and zealous public officer. At the same time, this 
miserable abortion can only become the jest and laughing-stock of the parties 
it was meant to intimidate. Hongkong Register^ Jufu 2d. 

No. 2. 

** On Thursday last, the Schooner Privateer was despatched for Cumsing- 
nioon with upwards of 200 chests of opium. About 3 o'clock p. m. the Cutter 
Grtice Darling brought intelligence to that anchorage that she had seen the 
Schooner in possession of Pirates, off Lintin. The Gra'-e DaWmg,' being mere- 
ly a pleasure boat, was unable to cope with the Pirates, but made all speed 
to Cumsinj^moon where she and the Theresa were manned, chiefly by the 
captains of the receiving vessels, and took the southern passage. Another 
Cutter, the Echo, in which were one captain, six mates, and ten Manilameu, 
took the opposite and less accustomed route. From the heavy squalls to the 
southward it was concluded that the piratical vessels and their prize would 
probably be driven up the river, and the Echo therefore steered northward, and 
had the good fortune to sight the Privateer about 5 o'clock the same evenint^, 
having two China vessels near her. The pirates probably took flight on find- 
ing they were discovered, for when the Edio made up to the place and boarded 
the Schooner, they had disappeared. It was found, however, that the gunH 
had all been removed and the ringing cut adrift, and a portion of the opium 
(since ascertained to be 72 chests) taken away. At this time it was too diirk 
to give chase, and the captors therefore bore up for Cumsingmoon, where they 
arrived ne.xt morning about 10 o'clock. 

"The crew of the PritaUr.r had originally consisted of thirteen, chiefly 
Manilameu, bosidt's the raptniii :ind a Enropeai) pp.MHonger, an ofliror ol" a 

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\f<Ul Journal vf Occurrences. 'W? 

niercliaiil voswl. The Echo found only four persons on board, one of whom 
wan the psissfnijcr. He utates thai the Privateer^ while proceedingr from 
Honfirkorig to Cnmsing^inoon came np to what appeared to he two large 
fiHhinv hoats, and tliat Captain Martoll, being unwilling to injure their net^s, 
pasiieJ to the leeward, when one of the boats seizing the opportunity, put up 
her helm, and dropping alongside, boarded the Schooner with an overpowering 
number of armed men. CupUiin Martell, wlto had been writing on deck, fired 
his rifle at them, and run below to procure more firearms. While attempting 
to force his way on deck again, -ind .ifler a severe struggle on his part, he was 
stabbed in the side and thrown overboard." 

" We have since received some laillicr particulars by the Schooner Theresa 
which arrived here last night, bringing with her the gunner and a seaman, 
wh«» had bi»en miraculously saved. It seems that when the vessel was board- 
ed, the chief mate, the gunner, and three Manila men leaped into the boat 
astern, which was immediately pursued and seized by the Pirates, who brought 
their prisoners on board, and threw them into the hold of one of their junl(s. 
In the course of the night they were one by one brought on deck, where their 
arms were pinioned, and having been chin-chin'd with lightt^d Joss paper they 
were told to drink as much salt water as they pleased, and then tossed over- 
board. Of these victims two were so fortunate as to extricate their hands in the 
water, and Iwing expert swimmers, contrived to make their way to the neigh- 
bourhood of Macao. The other four were confined lielow in the Privaiccr, and 
strictly guarded. Altogether six of Uie crew have been saved, — two Eur- 
opeans and four Mnnilamen.'* 

'* We undertand that some difference of opinion has arisen about the Echo's^ 
exclusive claim to salvage, and that the matter is to be referred to the arbitra- 
tion of two Englishmen and two Americans. The value of the property 
recovered amounts to a large sum." The China Mful, Ju^e 25M. 

Kidnapping is common in China : there is now, so it is said, a 
case before one of the magistrates of Canton, in which the defendants 
are cliarged with the kidnapping of young children for the purpose of 
selling them to foreigners! Trained as the Chinese are to this traf- 
fice, it is not strange that they should attempt it m such a place as 
Hongkong. We give the foHowing from the Friend of China for 
May 27th. 

On the morning of the 25th a respectable Comprradore belonging to a Eur- 
opean firm, was kidnapped by eight robbers and carried to the opposite shore. 
The man had gone to the Joss house on the Saiwan road to pay his devotions 
according the custom of the sect to which he belongs, and the robbers were 
doubtless aware that he was a person of respectibility, ar>d expected a heavy 
ransom from his friends. Afler being gagged and blindfolded, the prisoner 
was carried ofFin a large boat, such as are used for carrying cargo. They anchor- 
ed at a village called Chunewan, somewhere about Pilot's bay, near tins Cap- 
singmoon passage. The boatwoman who carried the Compradore to the Jos- 
House, gave information to his friends, who procured the assistance of a native 
police boat, together with home men from the salt Junks, numbering in all 
eigliteen. They were well armed, and taking the boatwoman with them to 
identify the pirate craft, they proceeded to Pilot's bay. The pirate vessel was 
anchored there ; and on closing with her the crew jumped overboard an4 
escaped. The Compradore was dis«overed below and released. He had pre- 
viously been stripped of his clothes and watch; and in the struggle was stabb- 
ed in the thigh, and scratched about the face. The pirates told him that he 
would not be ransomed for less than $4000, and that he would be removed to 
the interior that night. The police boat arrived just in time, as there is m> 
doubt that the poor fellow would have been carried to some piratical haunt, 
and only rirlivered on paying a handsome ransom. It is thought that somo 
had r.haractrrs, who live near West point, were aware of the Compradoro's 
int»ndtd vi.iil to the Johs Houst', and gave information to the parly who capt* 

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'&2S Journal of' OaurrcHcei. 

ured him. The matter was inveitigated by the Magistrates to-day (Tuesday) 
but nothing further was elicited. 

Abductions of this kind are common on Uie Canton river, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Macao, though seldom accompanied with personal violence. 

The malversations of the Chinese cannot be, or, perhaps we should 
say, are not, equaled by those of any people ancient or modern. Every 
day we live in the country, our hearts are pained with the new mys- 
teries of iniquity that come to the light. Piracies and kidnappings are 
but small items in the sum total of these evil-doings. 

A vice-admiralty court has been established at Hongkong; and 
letters patent " appointing sir John Francis Davis, baronet, to be vice- 
admiral of the Island of Hongkong," and '* appointing John Walter 
Hulme, esquire, to be judge of the vice-admiralty court of Canton/' 
are published in the China Mail for the 4th instant, where also may 
be found an " Insolvent Debtor's Act," for the said island. 

The English troops, at Chusan, we hear, have been withdrawn 
from Tinghai and are soon to leave the island. 

Two young Chinese, educated as priests in the Chinese school 
at Naples founded by Father Ripa, came on to Hongkong from Mal- 
ta, in the *' Lady Mary Wood " last month ; their names are Giovan- 
ni Evangel ista and Giovanni Baptista. 

Early in the month the Rev. Alexander Stronach arrived at Hong- 
kong from Singapore, bringing with him the Chinese type and 
foundary formerly in the care of the late Mr. Dyer of Penang. 

Some Chinese converts to the Christian faith have been recently 
baptized at Sh:ingh4i and at Amoy. As these are among the first 
fruits of protestant missions in China, we shall be glad, and feel 
obliged to our friends and correspondents, if they will give us the 
particulars of these cases. Any and all correct information regard- 
ing the progress of Christianity in China is earnestly requested. 

Marrikd, May 2dth, at the Colonial Chapel, Hongkong,^by the Rev. V. J. 
Stanton. Charles B. Hillirr, £sq., Assistant Magistrate of rolice, to Eliza 
Mart daughter of the Rev. W. H. Mcdhurst o.d. of the London Missionary 
Society at dhiinghif. 

By a note from Sh6n|bai. we learn that the Rev. Thomas McClatchie of 
the Charch (of England) Missionary Society was married to Miss Isabella 
Parkks, May 29th. 

Ordihation of Rev. James G. Bripomar, missionary of the A. B. C.F. M. 
In Canton, Sabbath evening the 3J8t May, 1846, James Granobr Bridomait, 
A.B.,of Amherst, Massachasetts, U. S. A., was ordained by an ecclesiastical 
council, consisting of the Rev. Walter H. Medhurst d.d. of Sh&ng-hdi, the 
Rev.E. C Bridjorman, o.d., and the Evangelist LiAng A-fdh. 

Reading of the Scriptures, and the Introductory Prayer by the Rev. Peter 
Parker, m. d.; Sermon* by the Rev. Dr. Briclgman, fVom Ephesians, vi : 11, and 
12; Questions to the candidate, the Consecrating Prayer, and the Charge by 
Rev. Dr. Medhurst; Right Hand of Fellowship by Rev. Dr. Bridgman; Con- 
cluding Prsyer by the Rev. W. J. Pohlman of Amoy. 

Besides the above, there were present the following missionaries. Rev. Dyer 
Ball, M. D., Rev. T. T. Devan, m. d,, Rev. I. J. RoberU, and Mr. 8. W. 
Bonney of Canton, and the Rev. William Gillespie of Hongkong. 

This is believed to be the first Ordination of a Protestant minister of Christ 
rn China. The services were peculiarly solemn and impressive, and will not 
soon be forgotten by those who were privileged to witness and enjoy them. 

" The sermon was not delivered, on account of the preacher*s indisposition. 

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Vol. XV.— July, 1846.— x\o. 7. 

Art. 1. On the sigHification of the. character jin ^ ; jin thi. 
nan if en, ^ ^ ^^ g*. Communicated for the Chinese Rc^ 
In all cultivated languages there are words of such extensive and 
varied significations that it is difltcult to include all their meanings 
under any one deBnitioii. Lexicographers and metaphysicians have 
puzzled themselves in attempts to define the word truth, and in 
despnir of finding any suitable and sufficiently full definition, some 
have made it equivalent to being in general.* The Chinese lan- 
guage also boasts a word in general use, which may vie with almost 
any from other languages in the extent of its significations. The pre- 
sent essay proposes to offer some remarlcs on its primary signification, 
omitting all reference to the minor and accidental meanings, such 
as nuts, the fruit of a tree, &/C., which are given in the dictionaries. 
There is much unanimity in the definitions oT jin ^, by sinolo- 
gues. Premare and the earlier Roman Catholic missionaries called 
It " caritas." Morrison defines it " benevolence : love to all crea- 
tures; charity ; virtue in general." Medhurst says, ''benevolence, 
virtue; affection." Callery gives, *' misericordia, lenitas, pietas;" 
and the common' opinion ib, that it' is bei>t expressed by, benevolence. 

* U is not Mtraiige that the word truth should eji^ciic much speculation in a 
world where falsehood siid deceit have so odrn obscured it. it han been s 
subject of inquiry for intiiiy centuries, for one of the questions put by Pilate 
to our Savior, was, ** What ij truth '" Fanciful as it nia^^ Mpcm, there i% truth 
in the quaint remark *■*• If Pilalr asked in Latin quid rst vxnta:, ? the answer 
is found in the anagram ofhi*) question, Bst vii qui adcst " 


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iiJO The ChanuUt Jin JtLv. 

It may be preoiuiipluous iii the writer to differ Iroin tlichc high auiho 
ritics, who were scholars in the Chinese lancruage before he knew 
aught of its first riidiincnls : yet the chihl may pick up a gem as he 
passes through the galleries of the mine that were opened by stronger 
and abler hands. And having been induced to prefer a different de- 
finition, it may not be uninteresting to consider some of the grounds 
on which it is based. 

One of the first steps in the appreciation or communication of 
knowledge consists in good definitions. What then is the meaning 
of UenLVoUnrc, and how far does it agree with the ideas expressed 
hy jin -{^j in the places where that character occurs? By bene- 
voleiice we understand tliat virtue which wishes well to others. Its 
object is external, for we can hardly say, with propriety, that a man 
is benevolent to himself. Le.xicographers define it by such terms a^, 
'* The disposititm to do good ; good will; the love of mankind ac- 
companied with a desire to promote their happiness;"* *' A will or 
wish for the happiness of others."t " When our love or desire of 
good goes lorth to others, it is termed good will or bencvoinncr. 
Benevolence embraces all beings capable of enjoying any portion of 
good, and thus it becomes universal benevolence, which manifests 
Itself by being pleased with the share of good which every creature 
enjoys; in a disposition «o increase it; in a feeling of uneasiness at 
their sufferings; and in the abhorrence of cruelly under every dis- 
guise or pretext. When these dispositions are acting powerfully 
towards every being, capable of enjoyment, they are called the bene- 
volent affections, and- as they become in those who indulge them 
operative rules of conduct, or principles of action, we speak of the 
benevolent principle:"} These remarks may be taken as a fair 
definition of benevolence ft will be seen in the sequel that but a 
part of it is applicable io jin ^, that it by no means exhausts the 
meaning of that character, and (hat the word has many ideas con- 
nected with it quite distinct from tlwit of benevolence. Some other 
word then must be* substituted wher we speak of jm, ^f and it is 
submitted to the consideration of those best able to judge, whether 
I he word humanity is not the precise word required. 

As now commonly used the word' humaniiy differs little from 
bcncvnlrnccy and is often given as^ tlie synonymc of the latter, its 

• Wtbslor. 

t KirUurilson. 

I O'^an "M I In- |>:ivi.»i»!., nuoU-il ill Unliarcl:,on ;. ditliuiiary Jol. I, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. The Chamcin Jin 331 

common colloquial meaning is not the one no>v, inlencled, hut its 
original signification in the Latin language, from which it is derived, 
and its primary signification as given by correct English lexicogra- 
phers. The word humanitas (like the Greek Avdp(iMro7tj^,) signifies 
human nature^ human feelings^ all that is necessary to distinguish 
inan from the brutes. It is generally understood in a good sense, 
as when Cicero says to a friend, " Natura iibi dedit ut non parum 
habrres humanitatis: and hence the **vis humanitatis" and the 
'* studium humanitatis^** of the same writer. With this agree our 
modern philologists. Webster's definition is: ^'1. The peculiar 
nature of man, by which he is distinguished from other beings. 2. 
Mankind collectively, the human race. 3. The kind feelings, dis- 
tinguished from the lower orders of animals: kindness, benevo- 
lence." In this definition benevolence appears a part of humanity. 
The same definition, in substance, is given by Richardson ; " hu- 
mane is manly, having the nature or qualities of man; feeling for 
man; compassionate; benevolent. //Mmonf/y is mankind ; the na- 
ture of man ; the feelings proper to or becoming man.'' To the 
sam epurpose speaks sir T. Elyot, as quoted by Richardscm. " The 
nature or condition of man, wherein he is lesse than God Almyghty 
and excellyge notwiihstandyng al other cretures in erth, is called 
humanitatie^ which is a generall name to those vertues in whom 
semeth to be a mutuall Concorde and love in the nature of man." 
It will be seen below how remarkably the Chinese definitions ofj'i/i 
I , agree with these definitions of humanity, and with the famous 
verse of Terence, 

Humani nihil a mc aliennin pato. 

In the synonymes of Crabb are some useful remarks on bene- 
volence and humanity ; '* bent volt ncc lies in the will, humaiiity in 
the heart;" but as he uses the word in its restricted and colloquial 
sense, his distinctions, which are not always accurate, are the 
appropriate to our present inquiry. 

The classical passages which must define the meaning of the cha- 
racter in question, are the words of Confucius and IMenciua in the 
Four Books. In the twentieth chapter of the Chung Yuntr, Con- 
fucius sajs, jin rU jin y^^ {z^ Kj^\ and Meiic»us,*'in his 
f»eventh section, says jin y6 cM jin yt, J -fji ^ A {b + 

" The rcfor^^nce in t)>is r8S.ny are to tho octavo nlif ion of iho Four liook - 
with rhpnotos of Chii iVilsz , printed in Tanlon ni the voor l-^l-i, uilh Ihc title 
S:' S/,r. U Kii T.,h n,u gy ^ i^fl ^1 ^i ^ ' The ,,cUu^. .,^,^ ^U^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

332 The Character Jin. July, 

These words are as express as can well be imagined, and leach that 
jin I , is neither more nor less than man or humanity, in the wid- 
est and best sense. The same doctrine is taught by the most re8< 
pectable commentators, in language equally pointed and express. 
Chij futsz' on the passage in Mencius remarks, jin rM jin chi so i 
.njinchiliyt, ] ^ A ^ ^ J^K «& A ^ S t»* 
'*Jin is the principle by which man becomes a man^** i. e. by which 
he is distinguished from the lower ordei% of creation, becoming a 
man and not a heast. That jin ] must mean humanity in the 
sense above defined, and not simply benevolence is proved both po- 
sitively and negatively, (as the old logicians would say,) by the two 
following quotations. Chu futsz' says, sz* tien, VA nang si^ shin 

L*'^*V" '*' '** y^' f ?c rth tg It ;t 151 ii ?E I 

#21 ± lE'^ " '^^ serve heaven, and in waiting for death to regu- 
late one's self, is the very highest part of jin" This is certainly 
*' the highest duty of humanity," but what it has to do with bene- 
volence is somewhat difficult ^f discovery. Ching futsz' says, fuh 
jin chi sing, tseh puh jin chi shin chi y^» ^ A y^ 14 ftfl >^ 
^ "^^ A ^ -ih^ t "To act ip opposition to, and to thwart the 
nature and disposition of mep, (by loving what men hate, and hat- 
ing what men love,) is the extreme of Inhumanity," i. e. it is utterly 
contrary to^'tn, the nature of man. 

Here it is necessary to bear in mind the fundamental principle in 
Chinese ethics, that human nature is pure. The doctrine of origi- 
nal sin is totally denied by their moralists, and by none more ear- 
nestly than by Mencius. Once on a time the heir apparent of the 
state of Tang called on the philosopher. The only remaining re- 
cord of theix conversation is in the oracular words, Mangtsz* idu sing 
shen, yen pih ching Ydu Sfutn^ ^^^^^% ^i^^^ 
^, '' Mencius maintained that man's nature is good, and in proof 
quoted Ydu and Shun,**\\ But though this conversation is so briefly 
narrated, there are others in which he maintains his doctrine at 

neie page will be given \n each initance. It is much to be regretted that 
there if no correct and portable edition pt the Four Books for reference and 
quotations. Would it not be worth while to have a small edition printed on 
good paper, to contain simply the text, paged, and the lines numbered for 
convenient reference ? Such a work on sized paper would make only a mo- 
derate volume, and might be printed for a small cost either by blocks or by 
metal type. 

• Mencius, 7 : 37, note. 

i Ibid, 7:2, note. 

X Ta Wioh,p. J^l,nole 

II Mencius, 3 1 

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184G. The Charactrr Jin, 3^1 

lengthy and with sioine ingenuity; and it is yet the dcirtrine of the 
Chinese moral iMs. The first sentence of the first book that chil* 
dren learn, proclaims jin rM ts^ sing pan, sben, ^ "^ Jpf| f|j^ tI^ 
^, '' At man's birth his nature is good/'* This doctrine, and the 
doctrine of human ability, or that man is able in his own strength to 
return to the paths of virtue from which he wanders, run through 
the whole system of morals of Confucius and Meneius. Our object 
is not now to combat this doctrine, so repugnant to experience and 
to the Sacred Scriptures, but to note its influence on the meaning 
of the word before us. 

Since human nature is thus naturally good, the word that expresses 
it can have only a good meaning. We hear qo such phrases among 
the Chinese as, "our frail humanily," ''poor human nature," "At/- 
fnanum est errare" and others which with us are nol confined to the 
pulpit and the lecture room. They go much furthejr. Western 
moralists seek for the foundation of virtue in the nature of God, but 
the sages of the ''celestial empire" place it in the nature of man. 
Whatever accords with humanity is right ; and hence, as one of the 
commentators informs us, Confucius^ yiijin i puh yu shin, ^ ^ 
jfn ^ |p l^> "Spoke of man and not of the gods.^f Meneius 
was not satisfied, qot to speak of the gods. H^ taught that the people 
were more important than the gods, and if the latter did not hear the 
prayers and accept the sacrifices of the people, tseh pien c/ii $bi^ fsih, 
K'l ^ S l|fc 'S' "Then remove these (useless) gods of the laud 
and the grain, and substitute others in their place."^ Human na- 
ture is the good ground from which grow the five kindly plants called 
the, wd chang J[ ^, or five constai^t virtues, of which jin, or 
humanity is always reckoned the first. So great however is its im<- 
portance that it is sometimes called the heart itself. Thus, jin jin 

sin y€, ijin /*i y<?, f:l A iU ife ^ A lf& tfe^ " Humanity is 
man's heart, and righteousness the road in which he walks.- '|| The 
exprssion, " humanity is man's heart," is explained by the iM)q8tantIy 
recurring phrase, jin ch^ sin chi ith, ngii ph% Ih 1 ^ 'Ijfr ]2l 
^ ^ ^ @' '* Humanity is the virtue of the heart, and fheprino 
ciple of benevolence,"^ or the other and fuller expression, ^'tn ch^ pun 
sin chi isiuen teh, ^ /^ 4^ i£i^ ^ ^ 'pD' " Humanity is the 

* San tsz' king. 

i Lnn Yu 4 : U, note. 

I Meneius, 7 ; :)6 

II Meneius, 6: 19. 

^ rhu ttits?.' in MeneiiiH 1.9, noif^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

834 Tke Char act er Jin July, 

perfect virtue of the iindefiled heart."* The same idea is thu» ex- 
pressed by Ching fntsz', sinju kiih chung, jin tseh ki sang rki sing, 

«6 iW i^ #' I l«J ^^Z^^ " ^""""^ »•«"" ^ '"'«"'<''' 

to the planted seed, humanity is its living nature/'t and the neces- 
sity of possessing this virtue is strongly expressed by jin *rk puh jin 
tseh fei jin, hcoh Wh puh chi tsh puh kwoh ^i /^ jjfjj ^i \ ^'J 
^^ A» @ flB ^ V& M^%^ "A man without the 
principles of humanity is no man, as a state ungoverned is not a 

We shall form but an imperfect notion of what the Chinese sages 
mein by humanity, if we confine our views solely to the little world 
in each man's own breast. There is a principle in their philosophy, 
which though not often distinctly announced, is yet built into the 
foundation of their sy.steni, and enters materially into the meaning 
of the word jin. The principle referred to, is something like pan- 
theism, or the modern transcendentalism, which resolves all things 
into one's own consciousness, and makes man a part of deity, and 
ofupiversal nature. This principle, which is but obscurely inti- 
xpated iu the writings of the older sages, became fully developed 
after Budhism was introduced into China, and is thus distinctly 
avowed by Chu futsz', jin ck^ i Hen it wan wuh wei yih it, moh fei 
kiyhjintchtreikihosopuhchi ^1 ^ fc^ X A j^* ^^ S 
~ i(#. ^ ^ ^ d ^ • M # S e ^ P/r ^^ £ • " T he 
tpan of enlarged humanity coosiders heaven earth and all things to 
be but one body t0 wii kimself; knowing that these things are part 
of himself^ where will not this principle lead bim ?"|i The commen- 
tator did well to ask " where?" This principle enters largely into 
the Chinese religion in the doctrine that associates man with heaven 
and earth ; sdn Isdi ckl Hen, tijin, H. >i" ^ ^ Jill ^^ " Tlie 
three powers ajjft heaven, earth, and mej9."<^ In this middle station 
man becomes wan wuh chi ling, g^ {pjj ^ ^, The soul of ail 
things, and this is the perfection of his humanity. In this connection 
we may introduce some reflections of a certain Fan Ling, famous 
for his pithy sayings. '*How vast and confounding is the immensity 
of heaven and earth ! If we look above or beneath us, there are no 

■ The Slime in Lun Yu, 6 ■ 18. 
t In Moncius, 6; 19, notj?. 
t tun Yu. 3 39. 

II Lni> Yu, 3 • M, notp The same iden is also cxprrr.Ti^d m the notes to 
the Chung Ynng, p 4 
^ SaI)t^v/ kin^r 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1816 Tht Chiwailrr Ji,i. 335 

liiiiils to bound out vision. In the niiflst of all (Ins nninensiiy 15 man 
Re^cirding merely the niiiuiloness of his btNly you wonhl a:iy he is 
but a singU' grain of wheal in the overflowing granaries of a king , 
but if you rctrard in:i hcuit, (and from ancient days till now, who 
boasts not the posse.ssion of a heart?) he ranks on an equality with 
heaven and earth, and la numbered with the Three Great Powers."* 
Such is the high destiny and station of man, according to these eas- 
tern sages, and the principles, that fit him for it arc called humanity, 

(A ifn A^ ] ^\^ \') '^ ^''^" ^'^ ^^^^ ^"^ '"*'' ^"^^' destiny, 
how can he suller scHishno:<s to usurp the place of that all comprehend 
uig humanity which places hhn in this commanding station to watch 
over and care for, — not merely liis own little self — but the interests 
and happiness of all with whom he associates or over whom he can 
x^xert an inlluence f Rc;raiding' man in this light, it is easy to 
understand the numertuis passages of the Four B(H)ks, and their 
commentaries, which deiicribe jV;i, perfect humanity, as being utter- 
ly incompatible with sz' ynh, 'Jf:l^ ^Jj, selfishness. Such passages 
are of frequent occurrence, especially where it is the object of the 
moralist to inculcate the preservation or the renewal of virtue. Thus 
(/hu \uis/.\jin Urk sz' yah tsin k'ii, 'rh sin trh ch't tsiticn y<?, 1 jJlj 

■ifL ^ M -ife' ifjj ill* tf^ :?: ^ 4' " ''"'■'''^i ''"""-""y CO... 

sists in the entire removal of selfishness, and the fiHiug^ up oftlie virtue 
of the hcart."t On the words of Confotei^i^,ji/« cht' pnh yti, 1 -^ 
^f\ ^^ ** '^^^^ "'**" whose huinan feeliligs are properly exercised has 
no sorrow," the snme commentator remarks, // isuh ( shing sz' kii 
puh yn, 5f . jE J^ 1/^ i^ ^ #1 " "'s principles arc so 
powerful as to have overcome selfishness, and hence he has ilo sor- 
rows."t 1'^ *^*® same purpose spGJiks Coiifucius elsewhere, kih ki 
fuh h loci jin, ^ tf, ^ jjjia ^ 1 > ** To ovepcome one's self, and 
restore intercourse with others to its proper fciotitjg. is humanity" — 
or rather, — is to act out the duties of humanity. || These statements 
of the utter incompatibility between humanity and selfishness, ena- 
ble us to understand the meaning of the liote jin cht lien hid ehi 
chinff li y/*, ^ ifff % \< ;^ it ®1 -ill. " P"fect humnnity is 
the correct principle of all mankind, "v^ because it is only when 

• Menrius, 6 : *-i4, notes 

\ 1,1111 Yu, 4; 3, note. 

j Liin Yu, 5: 14, and nOic 

II l.iin Yu, 7: 18 

s l.un Yu 2:2 4nd m^ the iAwx^ idoa rurther oarriad odtT in Chung* 

\wn<j. pp 8. 1 1 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

336 The Ckanutcr Jin. Jul*. 

men are divesled of selfishness, and regardful, not merely of their 
own welfare, but of tlie welfare of all others, that the principles of 
humanity attain their due expansion, and mankind are blessed with 
peace and prosperity. 

Having thus shown, as we think, that by jin is meant humanity^ 
and having pointed out the extent of meaning that it involves, it 
remains to inquire into some of its exercises and objects. A little 
examination of the classical writers shows that its object is roan, 
commencing with one's own internal nature, and extending by de- 
grees first to parents, then to superiors, and dependents, and then to 
mankind at large, while its afliliated virtue ngdi ^, benevolence 
or love, embraces without exception all that it can benefit or render 

Its seat is in man, and its rule is from himself, jin Jin chf ngdn 

/.sz' nui kih wdi, ^Z J\1t^.U\f^lk ^» '"r**^ "^'"^'y 
feelings which treat men as men, proceed from the heart outward- 
ly;'' thus Mencius,* and to the same purpose speaks Chu futsz\ 
i ki kih jin jin Chi Chi sin yi, l?( £ B^' A f- # ^ '6 ^^ 
'* The humane man's heart, by its own feelings and wants, discerns 
those of others, and acts accordingly.t 

As already noticed, perfect humanity requires the removal of all 
selfishness ; it equally demands the cultivation of all virtue in our- 
selves, itself being the door, and the way of virtue, shing Uh i jin 
wei 5171, Fjj^ ^ ^U 1 1% ^> '' Pef rect virtue gives humanity 
the first place."! '^^^^ Mencius says, jin ch^j& shii ; shi6 chi thing 
ki VA kau faK [ ^ ^iP If Qt t IF £ rfii ^ %' "The 
man who would exercise his manly feelings must be like the 
archer ; the archer first places his own body in an erect position, 
and then launthes \\\^ arrow." || So Confucius, shing kt jin y^, Jj^ 
P I •ito , ** To perfect one's self is humanity ;" and the same idea 
is expressed by Kiun tsz- so i wei kiun isz' i ki jin y^, ^ ^ ^ 

^^S^i2^ i "ife' ''^^'^ *'"'y ^"^ '"*" becomes so 
by the right direction of his humsln principles and feelings."*^ To 
encourage efforts to attain this perfection, Confucius maintains that, 
since the virtues of humanity exist in ourselves, they cannot be hard 
to e.\ercise, jin yuen hu tsdi ; ufo yuhjin, tsz' jin chi '> 1 t^ ^ 

* Mencius, 7 : 31. 

I Lull Yu, 3:34, note. The writer hopes to he excused for not giymg a 
closely literal translation in all cases; it is sometimes impossible. 
Lu " 

\ Luh YU, 7:30, note 

II Mencius, 2 • 27. 

V Lun Yu, a 19, note 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1840. Tkt Character Jin. 337 

^ ^ ^}fe 1 Jfr ^ S ll^ " Why say that humanity is far off 
and hard to be exercised t If 1 but wish to be humane, behold hu- 
manity is already mine!''* Notwithstanding this strong declaration, 
one can hardly avoid suspecting that ''the teacher often thoasand 
ages" was mistaken, for he himself says, wo m kien hdujin chi trii 
pukjin ch^,^^^i^ ] 1S[^,r> ] i^."l h've not 
yet seen a man who truly and fully loved the perfect virtues of hu- 
manity, and bated the opposite vices.''f 

A man's own heart being thus rectified by the principles of hu- 
manity, he must next expand them, till they reach those without. 
The first step is to exercise them towards his own kindred, and 
above all to his parents. Confucius says, jin ehi jin yf, tsin tsin 
weitd, ] ^y^ «t^^^^, ••Humanity is man; its 
most important duty is to give to parents all that the relation of par- 
ents demands.''^ In regard to what are commonly styled " the five 
relations," (affection of parents and children, fidelity between prince 
and subject, due separation between man and woman, due regard to 
rank between elder and younger, and confidence between friends,) 
we are told, ehi so i chi t$x' yi, jin so i ti tsz' y^i ^ fff J^ ^ 
ftt til 1 fit Iji flS lib t6» " Knowledge appreciates these re- 
lations aright, and humanity embodies them in practice."|| As the 
relation between parent and child is the most intimate and endear- 
ing, it is especially in it that the principles of humanity must be 
developed, and Mencius speaks of ^Vn chi yHtfu tsz yi, I ^ ^i^ 
^ -^ 4k« '* Humanity between father and son."^ So also jin 
tsin i weipdu, ^ ^ i^ j^ ^' " Humanity to parents is consi- 
dered as a precious jewel ;"t| and hence Confucius says, hdu ti y€ 
chi k'i y,n jin chi pan yii, ^^ ^ ^ ^^ [ ± jj^ ^, 
" As to the filial and fraternal dunes they are the most important 
parts of human actions."* 

It may be asked here, why we have not adopted the translation, 
'* Filial and fraternal duties are the foundation of humanity?" With- 
out going into a philological disquisition on the subject, two reasons 
may be mentioned. I. Such a translation would not agree with the 
doctrine taught in other parts of the Four Books, which uniformly 
represent the filial and fraternal duties as one of the exercises of, 

* Lun Yu, 4 ; 15. t Lun ,Yu, 2:19. t Chunur Yuiiff 26. 

II Chun-' Yuiiff 25 : note. y§ Mencius, 7 : 4J. I! Tu Ilioij, 19. 

- Lun Yu, I : 3. 

vol.. XV. NO. vu. 43 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

338 The Character Jin. July, 

and not the foundation for humanity. 2. The commentator ^ jC*, 
in an able note decides in favor of the interpretation given above. 
We copy his note as a specimen of Chinese reasoning worthy of 
notice. '* The filial and fraternal duties are the same as the virtue 
of obedience. Now as to him who does not love to rebel against his 
superiors, how is it possible for him to resist reason, and practise un- 
lawful deeds? Virtue has a foundation; this foundation being laid, 
then its principles become fully developed and enlarged. When filial 
and fraternal duties are practised in the family, then the principles 
of humanity and love can extend to all mankind, which is what is 
elsewhere called ** Treating one's parents as parents should be treat- 
ed, and men as men." Therefore he who, wet Jin, j^ ] , would 
practice the principles and duties of humanity, must regard the filial 
and fraternal duties as fundamental. If you speak according to 
man's nature, then humanity is the foundation of these duties. Per- 
haps some may ask, " Does not the text mean that we are to consi- 
der the practise of tlie filial and fraternal duties, to be the founda- 
tion of humanity in general ?" I answer, no. It says that he who 
practises the duties (or possesses the principles) of humanity, roust 
commence with the filial and fraternal duties. These duties are but 
a part of the actings of humanity. Yoii may say, " He who prac* 
tises the duties of humanity, considers the filial and fraternal duties 
to be of fundamental importance,'' but you cannot say " they are 
the foundation of humanity," because humanity is nature itself, but 
the filial and fraternal duties are only the exercise of nature. In 
our nature we have only these four things, ** humanity, righteous- 
ness, propriety, and knowledge;" how then can the filial and frater- 
nal duties find a place in it? True indeed, the chief exercise of 
humanity is^love, but there is no nobler love than to love one's par- 
ents, hence the saying of the text, " He who practises the duties of 
humanity must regard the filial and fraternul duties as of fundamen- 
tal importance.'* 

Humanity is a special virtue of a ruler, and is most necessary in 
the government of a state, for if a ruler does not treat men with all 
the consideration* due to men, he cannot expect his government to 
be either profitable or popular. Hence Confucius says, Wei jin 
kiun chi yujin, ^ A ^ it M 1 » *' '^^^ ^^^^^ '©sts in huma- 
nity,"* i. e. he must duly regard the nature of man, and so direct 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

IHIC. Tkr Character Jin. :139 

his government as not to thwart it. The highest praise and dis- 
praise of monarchs is awarded hy this rule. Ydu Shun shwui tien hid 
i jin, kith chau shtoui den hid i mii, ^^ ^ ^[1] ^ ^ y^ / ^^ 
jy* iSb -/^ f^ ]^ ^» ** Y^" *°^ ^*^"" governed the empire by 
adherence to the pinciples of humanity, but Kieh and Chau by 
those of oppression."* The necessity and benefit of adherence to 
the principles of humanity is thus expressed by Confucius, 3Jin ch^ 
yu jin yi shin yu shui ho, shui ho tou kien iau 'rh sz* cht i; wd 

kifHtaujin'rhsz- chii,^2.V^ 1 it S *^ ;K ^' ?K 

" It is more necessary to treat the people according to the principles 
of humanity, than to supply them with water and fire. I have seen 
people die in consequence of walking in the fire or the water, but 
I have not seen them die in consequence of walking in the ways of 
humanity/'t Mencius said, puh sin jin Aieit, iseh kwoh kung hu, 
1^^ 1 % ^iJ P ^ M' '' ^^"^^° distinguished for humanity 
and wisdom are not entrusted with office, the state will become an 
empty wilderness ;"| and hence the reproof of Mencius to Hwui the 
king of Li&ng for being intent solely on gain, and disregarding the 
more necessary principles of humanity and righteousness." || It may 
be added that the character given by Mencius to Wu w^ng, as 
being chijin ehi, ^ ^ #•,§ is well expressed by Cicero's ** Sci- 
pio vir humanissimus." The same character is elsewhere given to 
Wan wdng and to Y4u and Shun. 

The principles of humanity as held by the Chinese sages are such, 
that, though their chief developement must be sought for in the do- 
mestic circle, and relations of social life (as where a widow is call- 
ed puh jin, 7jf\ I f wanting in due regard to the duties of human 
nature, for not following her husband to the grave,) and in the wider 
sphere of the ruler, yet their influence does not stop there, but ex- 
tends to all mankind, or even to all the members of that great body 
of which man is the head and soul, it is only the man who rightly 
appreciates his position as the soul of all things, and a chief part 
of the great universe, who is capable of judging between right and 
wrong, and of saying vrhat is best for the whole. It is one of the 
highest exercises of true humanity thqs to appreciate one's position, 
and to fill it well ; and hence Confucius says, leei jin thi nang hdu 

* Ta Hioh, 15: «eQ also Chungr Yung, 94 : t Lung Vu, 8 14 
\ Mencius, 7 " 3o |t ^ff ik^ius, 1:1 ^ Mi»hrius, 7 . n*I 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

340 The Chararttr Jin. Jii.r. 

jin, nang n^ jin, ^ \^^^Q■K^f^M A' " 0«ly he 
in whom humanity is triilj developed can love men, or hate men." 
This sentence is thus explained " the true wan, jin chi^ I ^, 
is unselfish, therefore he can discriminate between good and bad 
aud award to each their portions."* Elsewhere we are told, tsek 
yin ckx sin jin chi twan yt, %%t. ^ \ 1L^% " '^*» 
h&ve a compassionate heart, is an indispensable part of humanity," 
which is explained by a sentence which occurs in the same connec- 
tion, wa tseh jin ckt sin fd jin *«. # jftj H ;^ .C» ^ A % 
" He who has not this compassionate heart, is not a man."t This 
doctrine is illustrated by the case of a child about to fall into a well : 
as there is no one who would not instantly attempt its rescue, so 
it is evident that compassion is an indispensable part of correct hu* 
man nature, for he who would see the child perish without an at- 
tempt to save it, is a brute, not a man. 

The most interesting passage we have seen, is one that comes 
under this head, and approaches nearly to our Savior's rule, ** Do 
to others as you would have others do to you." It is in the Lun 
Yu, Chung'kung wan jin^ Tsz* yueh, chuk mun ju kien td pan, ihi 
min ju ching td tsi, ki so puh yuh vmh ski yu jin, f^ ^ (^ \ ^ 

^ ^ ^ jS^ A > '' Chung kung asked respecting humanity. The 
sage replied, when you go out of the house act as if in the presence of 
an honored guest ; when you serve the people act as though waiting at 
the great sacrificefi, — and what you would not have done to yourself, 
do not do to others."^ The same idea is thus expressed by Tsz* kung 
v>Q puh yukjin chi kid chii woyi, w(i yih yuh wu kid chujin, -7* $, 

" What I do not wish done to myself, by other men, I also by no 
means would do to others." This the commenta^tor declares is jin, 
\ true humanity, but Confucius told Tsz' kung, that it was a point 
of excellence which he had not yet attained. || So far it is well, but 
it does not reach the excellence of our Savior's rule. His command 
is to do to others, wha^ we wish others to do to us, but the Chinese 
moralist is contented with not doing to others what he would not 
have done to himself. 

In answer to the question how the character jt/i f^ came to have 

' Lun Yu, 2 : 18, unci note, t Mencius, 2:24. t Lun Yu, 6 • 90 
II Lun Yu, 3 : S, and note 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1846. Tke Character Jin. 341 

so extensive a signification, it may perha[>s be permitted to oflfbr 
the following theory. The character jtn | was originally the same 
f^jin ^; (see the quotations from the Chung Yung and Mencius 
in the first part of this essay,) and like most other Chinese words 
was either a verb or a noun, as occasion required. Every tyro in 
Chinese knows that a word is frequently repeated in Chinese com- 
position, in which case, the first is commonly a verb, and the second 
a noun. Thus ch&ng chdng -^ ^ and tsin tsin t^ j^, signify, 
•'to treat one's relatives and superiors, as superiors and relatives 
should be treated." Lau idu ^ ^ and yH yd ffft ^^ " to 
treat the aged and the young, as ihe aged and the young should be 
treated." Tien Hen ^ ^ and /i rt ^ JJ^ (quoted on the autho- 
rity of Premare), ** ealificare calum,** to make heavea to be heaven, 
and earth to be earth. Many such phrases occur. In strict analogy 
with the above ^ A mig^bt be used to signify treating men as 
nun should be treated^ and would thus include all the rights and 
duties of humanity. By a little exercise of the power of abstractio9 
and generalization jin ^^ would signify, not only man in the con- 
erete^ but man in the abstract^ i. e. humanity, in which sense it 
would be synonymous with jm ] • In this sense it occurs at least 
once in the Four Books, where we meet the phrase kiun tts^ ijin chi 
i»« S' •? liJl A ]^ A' " The good man, by man governs 
men," where the definition of the ^rj$ijin J\^y as given by ChO fu 
toz* is jin ehitdv^ \ ^ |^, " the principles of manknd,"» which 
agrees precisely with the definition of jin A^i as given in another 
part of this essay. In process of time however, it was found that to 
use a character of such frequent occurrence as^m ^^ in this ab- 
stract sense would induce confusion, and to prevent this, a character 
was formed from the original word, jin yy, by the addition of two 
unmeaning strokes, which possessing the same sound, and being suf- 
ficiently allied to it in derivation, was yet different enough in appear- 
ance to prevent confusion. 

If the preceding remarks and speculations are correct, there are 
two questions worthy of attention; 1. \yhether it is proper to 
distinguish any of the attributes of the true God by the word jin 
^ ? It has hitherto been common to do so, both among the Roman 
Catholic and the Protestant missionaries. As we have seen, its 
original signification is confined to human excellence, and unless it 

Chnn^ Ynn^ p. 14 : and note 

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342 Report of (he Nhigpo Missionary Hospital Jrtr, 

has by time and custom lost this primary signification and acquired 
new ones, it can scarcely be deemed proper to apply it to the character 
of Him who communicates to us " in measure " parts of his own im- 
age, but receives from us none. This is however a difficult question. 
The Chinese language contains few terms that can be used in Chris- 
tian books without some modification of their meaning, and the 
christianizing of the language (if the term may be allowed,) is 
neither the least important, not the easiest part of a missionary's work. 
2. If the foregoing representation that the Chinese phrase *' man is 
the soul of all things," is founded on the pantheistic notion, that he 
is a part of the "great universal whole/' be correct, it becomes a 
grave question whether that phrase can be used by the Protestant 
missionary. The doctrine partakes of pantheism and transcendent- 
alism^ (for the two are intimately united,) and as they are rejected by 
tts^ why should a phrase deriving its origin from this impure source 
be admitted without question into a purer theology ? On these points 
the writer would be understood, only as asking for instruction from 
those further advanced and better able to decide than himself. 

As this essay was opened with a '* quotation from Ching tsz' *' it 
cannot be better closed, than by the words of Confucius, — both in 
apology for its defects and for the errors it may contain. 

&' md NiH wqa$jin, Tst^ yuehjin chi ki ytn yt jin, '^ S ik 

^p^B'h^^t^M "S^' ^^ Niu asked re- 
specting humanity^ the sage replied. It is very difficult to discourse 
of humanity." 

P. S. Since finishing this article the writer has been informed that 
P. Gon^alves has given to jin, Tl, the same definition, humanidade, 
and he is happy to fortify his position with the authority of so able 
a sinologue^ 

Art. II. Report of the Ningpo miisiffnary hospital^ to the Medical 
Missionary Society of China. By D. J. MacGowan, m. d., 
Ningpo, Sept. Ist, 1845. 
Thb Ningpo Missionary Hospital was opened in November, 1843, 
but continued JQ operation for three months only. It was not re-open- 
ed until April last, During thene eight months, but a small portion 

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184G. Report of the Shigpo Mi^^ioiwry Hospital \\\'6 

of the alternate days of the week were devoted to the treatment of the 
sick, in consequence of the more urgent claims which the study of the 
language has had on the physician's time ; hence, the comparatively 
small number received. Until recently the benevolence of the Medical 
Missionary Society in this city, was carried on in a dis-pensary, occupy- 
ing at one time a private dwelling, and subsequently the principal temple 
of the Tan sect, which rendered it difficult to perform surgical opera- 
tions, and unadvisable to undertake the treatment of dangerous forms 
of disease. At present, however, there is a suitable hospital, capable 
of accommodating eighteen or twenty patit^nts. The applicants for 
aid are so numerous, that were all the medical officers of the Society 
at this one port, a great multitude of sufferers, many of whom come 
from remote cities, would l)e left to their fkte, for want of time to 
prescribe for them. The recipients of the Society's bounty in Ningpo, 
have been mainly the poor, who generally speaking are the only proper 
subjects of its charity. It is hoped th^t at no distant day, those 
among the Chinese who have the ability will contribute' towards the 
support of the Institution, as a return for the beh^Bts which western 
Medical science confers on them. Afi the patrons of the Medical Mis- 
sionary Society, and the readers oP its Reports, do not generally feel 
interested in the details of medical science, the names of the various 
diseases treated (though regularly recorded according to the Society^s 
rules,) may be omitted wit!iout apology. 

The city of Ningpo is at the confluence of two rivers, nearly in thb 
centre of a large alluvial plain, varying from about 10 to 15 miles in 
breadth, and 20 to 25 in length, enclosed on all sides by lolly hills. 
The plain is intersected in every direction by canals, which serve for 
draining, irrigation, and transportation. The population of the city 
may be estimated at 250,000, and that of the plain at as many more. 
The filthy habits of the people, together with the imperfbct interment 
of their dead, both in town and country, do not seem to be pro* 
ductive of much disease. The climate, both as it affects natives and 
foreigners, is salubrious, and generally agreeable. The extremes of 
temperatul-e, remarked on the eastern continent of North America, 
prevail on this coast, but to a far greater degree ; as much more as 
the Pacific exceeds the Atlantic in breadth. At Ningpo the winters 
may be compared to those of Paris, and the summers for a short sea^ 
son to those of Calcutta. 

The diseases which chiefly prevail here arc a milH form of intermit-' 
tent Fever, Diarrhoea, Rheumatism, Ophthalmia, and various cutaneous 
affections. Foreigners are subject to the three first named affectiuns 

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344 Report of the Mhigpo MUsioaary HosjfUaf. Jui.v, 

at certain seasons ; yei tiie port can be recommended to invalids at the 
■ouih with confidence, as affording perhaps the best sanatarium on 
this side of tlie Cape. Ningpo enjoys the exemption from pulmonary 
affections which is common to marshy districts generally; not a single 
case of consumption ban yet come under my notice. The number 
afflicted with blindness is very great : this is occasioned in a great 
measure from the violence of the diseases which often follows in- 
occulation. The blessing which the genius of Jbnner conferred on 
mankind, has not yet extended to the north of China. Efforts will 
be made this season to introduce vaccination. Another of blind- 
ness is the disease called entropinm, or an inversion of the lids, keep- 
ing up a constant friction of the eyelashes against the visual organ. 
A very simple operation removes this disease. Chinese surgeons 
have a method of operating, which often leaves the patient worse than 
before. Prudential considerations have induced me to decline per- 
forming for the present any (what in a surgical point of view can be 
called) important operations. Ten applications were made in behalf 
of persons who had attempted suicide; in only two of the cases were 
the remedies successful in averting death. Four of these cases were 
females, and six males ; one resorted to drowning, the rest to opium. 
The motive in almost every case appeared to be anger, or revenge. 
Perhaps in the large cities of no country, except Japan, are suicides 
more frequent than in China. Opium smoking has many victims ; the 
poor subjects of this destructive vice oflen apply either in person, or 
through relatives, for some remedy to enable them to overcome the 
fatal habit. Happily the tradesmen who form the great body of the 
people have neither the means, nor the time for this indulgence. The 
use of the drug is chiefly confined to the retainers of magistrates, to 
boat-men, shop-men, and others who have some leisure ; the literary- 
men, and officers are addicted to it perhaps more than other classes. 
Infanticide is extremely rare in this city ; not so an analogous crime. 
At Fung-hwa, one of the cities of this fu, occupied chiefly by poor 
people engaged in the manufacture of mats, female children are put to 
death in great numbers, if the concurrent testimony of the natives can 
be relied on. 

The primary object of this hospital has been to disseminate among 
tbe pfeople a purer faith, which if received, will prove as certain, as 
it is the only remedy for their mora), and to no small extent for their 
physical maladies : to this end each patient is exhorted to renounce 
all idolatry and wickedness, and to embrace the religion of the world's 
Savior They are admitted by ton:s into the prescribing room, and 

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1846. Hunt's Merchants Magazine. 345 

before being dismissed are addressed to the physician, and the native 
Christian assistant, on the subject of religion. Tracts are given to all 
who are able to read. It may be here remarked that the proportion 
of those able to read in China, to the whole population, is very small, 
probably not more than 5 per cent, of the adult males. The ability 
to read among females is extremely rare. The foreign residents in 
this city being so few in number, nearly all the benefits which the 
medical science and humanity of the west can confer on the people 
must come from the philanthropic of other places. By such it is hoped 
the claims of the Society supporting the Ningpo Hospital will not bo 
unheeded. The benevolence of the foreign community of Bengal 
has supplied the means of furnishing the hospital with instruments, 
anatomical models, plates and books, which have been ordered in Paris 
though not yet arrived at their destination. Though the pages of a 
medical journal are the most appropriate place for a detailed account 
of the diseases treated at this hospital, yet the subjoined statement 
may not be uninteresting. Two thousand one hundred and thirty- 
seven patients have been prescribed for — of these 1,737 were men, 
240 were women, 160 were children. Total 2,137. Of their oc- 
cupations, there were: 


- 714 

Fishermen, - - - 50 


- 375 

Literary men, - - 78 


- 164 

Beggars, - - - 56 



Priests, players and jugglers 42 



Barbers, doctors, 6lc. - 30 

Shopkeepers, - 



Art. III. HunVs Merchant's Magazine : commerce a liberal pursuit ; 
commerce of China; China and the China peace; Chinese Museum 
in Boston, S^c, 

The monthly numbers of this work, from its commencement in July 
1839 to April last, have reached China, replete with interesting and 
often very valuable information. Some of the notices of men and 
things relating to China will not be deemed out of place, we trnit, 
it transferred to the pages of the Chinese Repository. Aiiicle tir^it, 
for January 1840, "Commerce a.<^ a liberal pursuit," was delucied 
VOL. XV. NO vii. 44 

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346 Hunts Merchant's Magazine, July» 

as a lecture at a meeting of the *' Mercantile Library Association" 
in New York, by one who for many years was a resident in Canton- 
The lecturer considered commerce, first, as '* the nurse and compa- 
nion of freedom;" then as *' the civilizer and refiner of nations;" as 
** the promoter of public improvements and of the mechanic arts;'* 
as "the disseminator of science and literature;" and finally, as the 
'* herald of religion." The article is a good one, worthy of the head 
and the heart of its author. But this is not the place and the time 
to speak of his worth. His name deserves a place among the admi- 
rers and promoters of every liberal pursuit. We knew him in the 
varied walks of life, in sickness and in health, as a man of business 
and as a disciple of that teaclKir who was sent from God. He was 
ambitious — ambitious to do good, and probably shortened his days 
by too intense mental efforts made prior to entering on his commer- 
cial pursuits. His acts of benevolence and charity were many, but 
for the most part were concealed from public notice He came to 
China first in 1620, and left this country for the last time in the 
sunnner of 184->, in an extreiliely feeble state of health, and died on 
board the steamer '^ Bentinck," 27th of September near Aden, in 
the Indian Ocean. The memory of Charles W. King is dear to 
many and will not soon be forgotten. 

In vol. IJI. pp. 465, 481. the ** commerce of China," is exhibited; 
and *' the China trade" in vol. XII. pp. 44,52. These are both 
good articles, and we may refer to them on some future occasion for 
their useful statistics. 

''China and the Chinese Peace" form the subject for a singular 
article in vol. VIII. pp. 205, 22(>, which is chiefly valuable as it 
indicates, in a very clear manner, the incompetence of able men, on 
the other side of the globe, to describe or conceive of the true char, 
acter and policy of their antipodes. Take one short sentence as a 

**The collec.lion of men into clubs and cliqiien, into odd Fellows' halls and 
huui:uie prevenlive socioLicv, or even into lite iar;:rer cladseii of religious aectst 
or political coinbin.itions, which are so numerous in Lurope and America, is 
nowhere to be found in the Chinese tjrfpirf.'' p. 219. 

Chibs and cliques nowhere lo he found in the Chinese empire? 
Ask the einpert)r, and he will trll )ou, whal is niost notorious, that 
they exist evprvwli( re The great mass of tlie male population is 
clubbed and cliqued in manner and detrtee probably unequalled in 
any oilier na>ion Befoie he writes another article for the Magazine 
aboiM Chma Mi Whiilon sliould better niform linnseif ^f what the 

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1646. Hunt's MtichanVs Mugaxlne. «U7 

Chinese are, in character, policy, etc. The paper which he has given 
U8 shows a benevolent heart, influenced by a good spirit, but laboring 
sadly in the dark. Persons who have not vidited China and carefully 
and for a long time investigated the workings of the Chinese mind, are 
very liable to err in their conclusions regarding the intellectual, the 
moral, the political and the religious character of this nation. It is 
not so easy to deliniate the mind's acts and qualities as it is to exhibit 
the forms and uses of things here. To show the mind of the celes- 
tials of the middle kingdom, so that b-^rbarians can comprehend all 
its products would be a very difficult task and require volumes. Even 
the best informed residents here, have a very imperfect knowledge 
of what the Chinese are ; and so will be, till more extended and 
free intercourse is enjoyed. The recent efforts of such men as Mr. 
Fortune, Mr. Dunn, and others, to exhibit the products of the soil 
and the manufuctures of the people are most commendable. 

From the Magazine for April 1846, we copy a brief account of 
''the Chinese Museum in Boston, by James H. Lanman, esquire." 

"The collection of the Chinese Museum, which is now open for 
public exhibition in the city ol Boston, although not the first, is yet 
the largest that has ever been imported into the United States. The 
cabinet of the late Mr. Dunn, of a similar character, which was de- 
posited in the city of Philadelphia, for the inspection of the public in 
1838, was removed to the city of London, and these two are the only 
collections of this sort now known to be in existence ; the present 
being the most considerable in the world. It embraces groups, pre- 
senting views of different forms in life, from the imperial court, 
through successive stages of society ; the admjr^istation of ju.stice, the 
different modes of travel, the practical exercise of the useful arts, 
commerce and agriculture, down to the peculiar kind of warfure which 
exists among that singular people; together with the various species 
of their manufactures, and indeed everything calculated to throw light 
upon Chinese charcter and institutions. We here have specimens 
of their shops, vessels, houses, lanterns, temples, tombs, bridges and 
paintings, and the innumerable products of industry, both useful and 
ornamental, which have peculiarly distinguished this ancient people. 
Jt is our design to show briefly the prominent features of this exhibi- 
tion, by specifying the principal articles which it contains. 

*' The entrance to ihe hall of the Museum, which is in the Marlboro' 
Chapel, is decorated with Chinese designs, being painted and gilded, 
and illustrated with such niottos as are calculated to distinguish the 
peoqljar national character of the collection 

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3rS Iluni's MtrchanVs Magazine. Jitlv, 

*' In the first place, we arrive at an apartment containing a group, 
the size of life, exhibiting the emperor and the principal personages 
of the imperial court, all the figures being covered with gold and silk 
embroidery ; and in the next case, is the empress, accompanied by 
several ladies, the wives of mandarins of the several ranks, also richly 
clothed, with their attendants ; adjoining this group, is a court of 
justice, where all the appliances of the law are administered, and a 
culprit is seen suffering the penalty of his crimes. In the fourth 
case, is a group representing a school, priests of the various religious 
sects, and paintings of numerous Chinese deities, as well as a tomb, 
mourning-dress, and mourning-lanteruD. Another apartment portrays 
a domestic scene, namely, a Chinaman smoking opuim, and his wife; 
and a female attendant with tea, all in a room such as is frequently 
occupied by individuals in that condition of life, with tables, chairs, 
book-case, mnde of bamboo ; the walls adorned with paintings, lanterns 
hanging from the ceiling, and door-screen embroidered with gold. 

** We now arrive at the store of a merchant, which is alleged to be 
an exact representation of a mercantile establishment in Canton, 
where we find the same circumstances represented, as most commonly 
exist in the shops of that city at the present time. There are also 
presented views of Chinese modes of warfare, which clearly indicate 
the obtuseness or the obstinacy of the nation, in adhering to those 
instruments which it is obvious cannot successfully compete with the 
approved instruments of war in our own age. The next case gives us 
an accurate representation of an agricultural scene, in which is a naan 
ploughing with a buffalo, as well as the various implements which 
are U5%d for winnowing, irrigation, and other matters connected with 
husbandry. We also have a group in the collection, representing a 
carpenter, a blacksmith, and a shoemaker, each employed in his ap- 
propriate occupation. A tanka boat, pagoda, lacquered baskets, and 
other articles of a similar character, are in the next case. 

** But one of the most interesting parts of the exhibition, is that of 
the porcelain manufacture. It is well known that the Chinese em- 
pire has been long distinguished for the variety and elegance of its 
manufactures of porcelain, the article itself being most frequently 
named after the nation in which it was first made. There is here 
exhibited almost every variety of this product of Chinese industry, 
some of it of the most elegant and costly kind. Following this, there 
are also represented the various musical instruments which are used 
ill China, including the gong, which it is well known has beeii in- 
iroJured into our own country The dilferenr species of cardfi and 

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1846. Hunts Merchant's Magazine. 349 

ornamented as well as other paper, constitute a curious part of the 
exhibition ; for it will be remembered that the Chinese are peculiarly 
scrupulous in all those matters which appertain to etiquette and 
ceremony. A model of a summer-house, a silk-store, a China-ware 
and curiosity-shop, comprise a portion of the collection, that will be 
of great interest to the mercantile portion of the visitors : and various 
enameled articles of a light kind, indicate the excellencA to which the 
Chinese have carried this branch of their manufactures. 

'' A model of a canal-boat, similar to that in which the tea is 
transported from the interior to the places of shipment at Canton and 
other ports on the seaboards, exhibits the species of vessels which are 
employed to a great extent upon the inland waters and can8!j9 of th^ 
empire, where they are either pushed aiong by men with bamboo po|es, 
or are tracked with ropes. In addition to this, is a model of the 
junks which are employed in the commerce of China« especially in 
the coasting trade. The sails of these, like those of other Chinese 
Tessels, are composed of mats, the ropes and cables of split rattans^ 
and the husk of the cocoa-nut, and the anchors of a hard wood named 
by the Chinese *' iron-wood '* The Chinese trading junks are very 
curiously managed; besides the captain or pilot, is the principal 
owner, or agent of the owner ; the captain or pilot sits almost continu- 
ally on the weather side of the vessel, observing the coast, and seldom 
sleeping. Although he possesses the noroiaal command of the vessel, 
yet the sailors obey him or not as they please, iipd there is but little 
discipline or subordination in the conduct of the crew. Next to the 
pilot is the helmsman, and there is also employed a purchaser of 
provisions, us well as clerks for the cargo; and another individual is 
engaged, whose business it is to attend to the offerings at the religious 
shrines. Each individual is a shareholder, with the privilege of plac- 
ing a certain amount of goods on board ; and it is obvious that in such 
a state of things, there can be but little of prosperous navigation, or 
of successful seamanship. 

" There is also presented in the Museum, a model of a hong-boat, 
and a mandarin-boat or revenue-cutter, whose ostensible object is to 
prevent the smuggling of opium, but which is more frequently em- 
ployed in assisting its operations, or, at all events, in collecting a cer- 
tain amount of taxes from the smugglers, by (he mandarins who have 
auch boats in charge. In addition to those several prominent articles 
that we have enumerated, are many smaller, the product of manufac- 
tures, and which are variously used in domestic life and the arts, 
together with models of theatres, a Budhist temple, colored lanterns 

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350 HunVs Merchants Magazine. Jui.v, 

and numerous other things which are employed in domestic use, or 
that constitute staples of domestic export. We would especially 
designate the numerous paintings, exhibiting in their execution the 
peculiar character of that class of Chinese productions. 

"In the various specimens of Chinese labor which are here collect- 
ed, we perceive the products of a nation, which notwithstanding its 
crowded population, possesses within itself nil the resources of inde- 
pendence, without the absolute necessity of foreign commerce. The 
principal staples of import to our own country, which formerly con- 
sisted of silks, China-ware, and tea, have constituted a principal por- 
tion of the trade which we have prosecuted with that country up to 
this present time. The import of tea, it is well known, must continue, 
from the very greaA and increasing use of that staple with us; but 
from the manufacture of China-ware and silk elsewhere, their import 
to this country have been of late somewhat diminishing. 

"The recent difficulties which have .sprung up between that nation 
«nd the British governmeni, whatever might have been the merits uf 
the ques.tion between them, there is no doubt, have induced such a 
negotiatioQ^ as to place the commerce of China, with foreign nations 
MpoQ a more permanent iind solid basis. In consequence of the 
arbitrary and capricious exactions which have been exercised towards 
the persons and property of foreigners who have been employed in the 
Chinese ports, the commercial interests of Great Britain, as well as 
f^se of this couutry, have there suffered to a considerable extent; 
a«}d the execution of a definitive treaty between our own country and 
that of China, has tended to define the position in which our com- 
merce shall herealler stand in the Chinese marts. From the contact 
of the Chinese empire with European civilization, we may, more- 
over, presume that the habits aj)d wants of fhe people of that country 
will be materially changed ; that to the cotton goods, ginseng and 
lead, which we now export, will be added a long list of products, thus 
opening ai) increasing trade. We trust that whatever may be the 
phange wrought in the condition of tl^e Chinese, by its more extend- 
ed commercial relations, the state of that empire may be advanced, 
and that the morals of the nation, which appear to be extremely debas- 
ed, will receive an improved tone, not from an idolatrous philosophy, 
but from the spirit of a genuine and enlightened Christianity " p 349 

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1846. Trmdation of a Budhisl PrinL 051 

Art. IV. Translation of a Budhht print, (desrriptive of the) 
one thousand hands , one thousand etfrs, the atl^prcvatent and 
most mrrciful To-to-ni (goddess of merry). 
Omito fuh (Ainidiia Riidlia) receives and loads those who wor^ihip 
Budha and arc virtuous to go far away and be born in the west- rn 

In comparison with the repairing of great and small roads — with 
the rendering to others of various kinds of assistance — with what- 
ever is most straight forward, rapid, comprehensive, and easy (in 
order to secure our future happiness) everything is inferior to the 
worship of Budha. The whole ol)ject of the worship of Budha, is 
to seek for life in the western region and is to obtain a pure coun- 
try. This means that the western region is an extremely happy 
world, and is the pure country of Budha. There are 12 Classical 
or sacred books of the Three Ts^ng (a name of Budha) and each 
of these leads to the great happiness. There are 84,000 doctrines 
(or law gates) each of which exhorts us to go to the western region 
But the doctrine which enjoins the wv»3t:lp of Blidhb is by far the 
best and most important; and than it, there is no dbcttinb more 
conducive to a benevolent life. 

(The Budha) Kuteh says, he who attends to l!ie otlier doctrines 
is like an ant ascending a lofly mountain, which in an hour only 
gets a single step in advance. But the doctrinb wliich' enjoins us to 
go to the western region, is like a vessel with full sails and favor- 
able wind and tide, which in an instant advances 1000 miles. When 
we have once reached thfe western region, we are no more obliged 
to go out, or exposed to fell. The highest grade (of votaries) is 
able to ascend the Budlm's ladder. The lowest grade is fkr supe- 
rior in happiness to those wh6 live in an emperors palace. The 
wor^iihiper of Budha's merits are very lofty, his duties are very easy. 
y\ll, whether honorable or mean, talented or stupid, old or young, 
male or female, the eater of ordinary f(K>d, or he who restricts 
himself to vegetables, the man wlio has left his family (the bonze) 
or he who siill remains in it, — all may discharge duties. 

I tliprelore exhort the virtuous males and believing females of the 
ten regions (all the empire), into whose hands this may come, im- 
mediately to put forth a believing heart, and with the whole heart to 
woiship Budha and 5eek for a life in the western region If per 

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3.>2 Translation of a Budhut Print. JtLV, 

chance you are involved in family affairs and endless worldly tran- 
sactions, and cannot devote your whole mind to this, then you ought 
every day to recite Budha's name 3000 or 5000 times, and make a 
regular constant practice of this. If even this you cannot do, your 
recitation of this sheet will be reckoned as one degree of merit. 
Having recited this one hundred times, then dot one of the circles 
on the margin, and when the dots are all made they will amount to 
150,000. Whether it is for yourself or for your father and mo. 
ther that you are asking for life in the western region ; or whether 
you are asking for your father and mother, protection from disease, 
peace, increased happiness, or protracted old age — in all such case, 
you must in the presence of Budha burn one of these sheets. If you 
pray for the happiness of your deceased parents or for your six 
orders of relations and their relations, you must, before the ances- 
tral tablet, or over the graves, burn one of these sheets. Whether 
you worship the gods, or sacrifice to your ancestors, either at the 
festival of the tombs, the winter solstice, the middle of the seventh 
mouth, or the end of the year, you must recite this sheet, and then 
burn it on the tombs of orphans, or of those who are buried by cha- 
rity, and thus provide for the happiness of destitute souls who have 
no relations to sacrifice to them. In doing all this you may rely on 
the strength of Budha to secure their translation to the pure country. 
You may do this once or many times, according to your ability; and 
the merit you will obtain is inconceivable. 

I fervently desire that you may together put forth a believing heart, 
be together virtuous friends, together see Budha, and together ar- 
rive at the extreme of happiness. 

Hwui Chau, the head priest of the Drum Mountain (Ku Sh4n,) 
monastery in Fuhkien, has respectfully printed this, bows and 

Here follows a picture of a vessel in full sail. It is called, '* The 
Compassionate vessel, Poh-joh" (a name of Budha). 

The flags have inscribed on them, ** For the exceedingly happy 
world." And, ** Receive and lead lo the western region." 

Oil the sides of the cabin doors are the two following antithetical 
sentences : 

*' Man, if he wants to go on the road to heaven, ought fubt to think 
of securing happinesb (by worshiping Budha)." 

*• Among the passages (or defiles) that lead to life or death ihe 
^•on>hip ot Budha i? Uie chief." 

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1846. Translation of a Budkistic Print 353 

Oq the sail the following is written. 

The single phrase Mi-to (or Bi-to or Amidha) is a precious 
sword that can behead the herd of evil spirits, and can destroy the 
bravest general of hell; it is a clear light that can illumine the 
blackest darkness; it is a compassionate boat that can carry us 
across the bitterest seas ; it is the road by which we obtain a new 
birth into the world ; it is the excellent prescription by which we 
escape the evils whether of life or death; it is the infallible specific 
for enabling us to become genii ; it is the divine medicine for chang- 
ing our bones. The 84,000 doctrines are all comprehended in 
these six characters (O mi to Fuh tsieh yin). The 1700 ten* 
drils of (lax or rattan, (emblematic of life's miseries) by one stroke 
it can sever asunder. By utteriug this phrase, Mito, without any 
other mental effort, or troubling you even to move a finger, you will 
arrive at the western region. 

The blocks for printing this sheet are deposited in the monastery. 
Bubbling Fountain, on the Drum Mountain. 

Chinese of the foregoing. 

=f iKri5«iRi§^-^nn±E*s 

? ?i^ fr ip;^ t ^) ^ /^ ik ^ wm® 
















^^e = A±^iiDi^-i5i5;fc 





VOL. XV. NO. vii. 45 ^ J 

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3o4 A Budhistic Print. July, 

H}4*S:^MI««S^lfef^'-^ viz; 

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IS46. AiHoy 355 

Art. V. Amoi^ : memoranda of the Protestant missions from their 

commencement f with notices of .the city and island. Prepared 

by resident missionaries. 

For the following papers we are indebted to two of the members of the mia- 
iiion at Amoy. The second, g'V'ng topographical information, &c., has al- 
ready been published in one or the Singapore newspapers. While we thank 
our correspondents for these communications, we may express our hope and 
wish that they will continue to furnish such information as they can for the 
pages of the ('hinese Repository. The security of residence, and the opp<»r- 
tunities for observation, now enjoyed at the several ports, will gradually 
increase our knowledge of the country, its varied resources, its innabitants 
and their occupations, manners, customs, Ac. The people of Amoy are 
noted for their friendliness, their freedom from enmity against missionaries 
and their social character. Foreigners residing at that city have freedom of 
access to the inhabitants in all the villages on the island and can go where- 
ever they please without molestation. 

No. I. 

There arc three Missionary Societies represented at Amoy. The 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the Pres- 
byterian Board of Foreign Missions of the United States, and the 
London Missionary Society. At the first founding of the mission, 
the American Protestant Episcopal Church had also a reprctt^^n- 
tative there, in the person of Rev. Doctor (now Bishop) Boone of 
Shingh&i. The following statistics of the station, which I send you 
for publication, may be useful for reference hereaAer, and I would 
request that the same and all other interesting facts regarding mis- 
sions at the respective ports in China, be collected and preserved in 
the pages of the Chinese Repository. 

I shall first speak of the laborers. The mission began by the ar- 
rival of the Rev. Messrs. Abeel and Boone at KulAng sn, the 24th 
of February, 1842. These missionaries came to prepare the way, 
and selecting a position within the precincts of military protection, 
they fitted up a house, and at once began the public and stated 
preaching of the gospel. When it was safe and healthy for families 
to reside at Ruling su. Dr. Boone returned to Macao for Mrs. 
fioone. Medical labors commenced June 1842. 

Messrs. Boone and McBryde with their families and Dr. Cum- 
ming arrived June 7th, 1843, which was the first reinforcementt 
Mrs. Boone died August 30th, 1842. Mr. and Mrs. McBryde lef) 
the station January I3th, 1843. Dr. Boone departed for the United 
States February 10th, 1843. 

Dr. aqd Mr.i. Hepburn arrived Nov. 25th, 1843. Messrs. Doty 

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3^6 Amo^, JuLT, 

aud Pohlman with their families arrived from the Borneo mission, 
June 22d, 1844. Messrs. John Stronach and Wm. Young with 
their families arrived from the Singapore mission July 8th, 1944* 
Mr. Lloyd arrived December 6th, 1844. Mr. Abeel led for the 
United States on account of complete prostration of health, Decem- 
ber 19th. 1844. Mr. Brown arrived May 6th, 1845. Dr. and Mrs. 
Hepburn departed June 28th, 1845. Mrs. Pohlman died Sep. 30th, 
lL-45. Mrs. Doty died Oct. 5th, 1845. Mr. Doty and Mrs. Slro- 
nich led Nov. 12th, 1845. Mrs. Stronach died at sea, on her pas- 
8a;Te to England. Total of men who have belonged to the mission 
eleven. Total of women who have belonged to the mission seven. 
Greatest number at one time present ciglU men and ^ve women. 
Least number present since the station was first occupied two. 

Of the foregoing, thtee are missionaries of the A. B. C. F. M. viz. 
Messrs. Abeel, Doty and Pohlman ;ybur are missionaries of the 
A. P. B. F. M. viz. Messrs. McBryde, Hepburn, Lloyd, and Brown; 
two represent the L. M. S. viz, Messrs. Stronach and Young. Dr. 
Gumming is not connected with any missionary society. 

Another class of facts relates to the labors of the missionaries. 
The first great work has been the study of the language, so as to 
speak intelligibly and fluently with the people. In doing this para- 
mount attention has been given to the tones, and no word or phrase 
has been considered as learned, and consequently usable, till its ori- 
ginal tone, and the modulation of that tone in combination, have become 
familiar, and the missionary could speak it out with coiifidence. It 
is thus that the language is spoken with the precision and accuracy 
of mathematical demonstration; and if the missionary work at Amoy 
has gone on steadily, and promises fairer than at the other ports, 
the writer is of opinion that it is owing, under God, to learning the 
languc^ge by rub, and not relying on the uncertainty of imitation, 
and to stated intelligible and formal, exhibitions of divine truth on 
the Lord's day, and during the week. This statement addresses itself 
loudly to all who are preparing to preach the gospel in China, and 
its language is, be sure you are understood, and when you have at- 
tained this great end, then, preach, preach, prka^ch. Every missio- 
nary should, as soon as possible, have a stated time and place for 
preaching the word of life. My own rule would be — a chapel for 
each missionary. No man should be a day without a chapel he can 
cill his own, just as soon as he can speak intelligibly. But again 
let the caution be heeded, be sure you are understood. " Alas! for 
A mission, where the absorbing obiect of attention with any of iu 

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1846. Amoy. 367 

members is anything else, than how Christ crucified shall be preach- 
ed to the heathen so as most effectually to persuade them to be re- 
conciled to God." 

The following statistics will show the progress of operations at 
Araoy. First preaching at KiilAng s'l, March 6th, 1842. First 
preaching at Araoy, January 1844. Bible class commenced March 
21st, 1844, with twelve attendants. Second c^lpel opened Dec. 1st, 
1844. Co.Timciiced daily revision of Chinese Scriptures Dec. 12th, 
1844. Third chapel opened August 24th, 1845. First meeting for 
females December 16th, 1845. First opening of the chapel of the 
American Board for daily services, December 22d J 845. First 
Chinese monthly concert, January 5th, 1846. First baptism of 
native converts, April 5th, 1846. Open ing of Chinese girl's school, 
May 11th, 1846. 

The monthly concert is a season of deep interest. Papers pre- 
viously prepared are read by two of the teachers. The subjects arq 
history of other missions, such as that at the Sandwich Islands, 
Society Islands, Ceylon, memoirs of distinguished converts, accounts 
of Mohammedanism, d&c, 6lc. The missionary who presides makes 
a short address founded on Scripture, and prayers are offered by 
three of the brethren. Sometimes the meeting continues for more 
than an hour and a half, and the interest is kept up throughout. 

There are twelve interesting girls in the school, now under the 
superintendence of Mrs. Young. The number could be greatly in- 
creased, provided means and health were at command. A boy's 
school is in contemplation as soon as more help arrives. Operations 
of all kinds, stated, itinerary, in the city, in the country, by preach- 
ing, by teaching, and by distribution of books, can be carried on 
freely and entirely without molestation to any extent, and the grand 
desideratum of the mission at this time is men, who like Barnabas 
shall be "good and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith," that through 
their instrumentality " much people may be added unto the Lord." 

The first Sabbath in April, which happened also to be the anniver- 
sary of the Chinese feast of the tombs, was a day of solemn and 
joyful interest to the missionaries at Amoy It was a time of in- 
gathering and the exercises of that occasion will long be remember- 
ed by those who participated in, or were eye-witnesses of them. It 
b in the hope of leading others to rejoice in the progress of the 
truth, and to awaken the sympathy and prayers of Christians for 
these first converts, that the following particulars are communicated. 

The candidates for baptism were two aged Chinese, Wding Fuh- 

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358 Amoy. JllTj 

kwei -£ is ^. >»^' ^'»«> Wanshi^ ^| 7m '^» (*"^^^'^"^^*^" 
dialect Ong-hok-kiii and Lau-un-sia,) the former 70, and the latter 
69 years old. They are known in Amoy by the names of Hok-kui- 
peyh, and Un-sia-peyh. Peh ^^ (peyh) is a term signifying uncle, and 
is conferred by way of respect on elderly men. Hoh-kui-peyh is a 
native of Nan-ng^n ffl •^, about twenty miles from Amoy, and 
came to the city at the age of seventeen. His first employment was 
that of a mill-grinder, for which he received the compensation of 
300 cash, or 25 cents a month, and his food. At the age of 22 he 
enlisted a soldier, and carries scars received in battles fought with 
pirates. When nearly 50 years of age, he opened a shop for the 
manufacture and sale of idol paper, a business which then af- 
forded a good profit, and from which the old man soon realized a 
competent subsistence for himself and family. Af\er the first mis- 
sionaries had been atKfiling s(j about six months, he was brought to 
hear preaching by a friend, and beccme at once impressed with the 
reasonableness of the truth, and the utter folly of idolatry. For three 
years and a half, be has been a steady attendant on all the means 
of grace, and a diligent seeker of salvation. His conversion has 
been gradual, though marked. He has since had many domestic 
troubles, and in the midst of all has shown a spirit of Christian for- 
titude and resignation. His employment, being indirectly connect- 
ed with idolatry, caused him great uneasiness, and he abandoned it. 

Un-sia-peyb, is a native of Tung-ngan |p| ^, ten miles from 
Amoy, and came to the city about seven years ago, to take the 
store of his brother who died. He was brought to the chapel by Hoh- 
kui-peyb, more than two years ago^ and has since continued a diligent 
and devout hearer of the gospel. At their public examination these 
old men referred to Mr. Abeel, as the missionary from whom they 
first heard the glad tidings of great joy. The idols in the house of 
Hoh-kui-peyh, all belonged to different members of his family, and 
he has insisted on their removal from the public hall, where they 
have been worshiped for n^auy years : this after a long struggle, has 
been done. The only idol in the possession of Un-sia-peyh has been 
formally handed over to the perRoq from whom he asked baptism, 
and is now in his possession. It is an old dirty broken headed Ti 
Peh kung -^ ^j^ ^^ and has been sacredly adored for generations. 

For many months these old men desired to profess the name of 
Christ, but they were put off. Though they prayed acceptably at the 
prayer meeting, and were regular in their attendance at the Bible 

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class, the Sabbath day services and the other means of grace ; though 
correct in all their deportment, and uniform in their attachment to 
God's servants, and to the truth as it is in Jesus ; yet, being old in 
sin, nnd young in grace, we feared they were not sufficiently in- 
structed, and that possibly they might be actuated by sinister mo* 
tives, and expect some worldly profit by their connection with mis- 
sionaries. For three mouths previously to their reception, the solemn 
act was before their minds, and they made it a special subject of 
prayer. As an aid to self-examination they were furnished with 
questions on practical religion, and the nature of the ordinances to 
which they were to be admitted. 

The exercises on the occasion were as follows : a sermon on bap- 
tism was preached at the chapel of the American Board, by the Rev. 
Mr. S. who showed clearly and fully its nature and design. He stat- 
ed that it strikingly represented the sinfulness of our nature, and 
the necessity of purification by the blood and spirit of Christ : — that 
in order to its reception, we must believe in Christ as our prophet, 
priest, and king; that, as the initiatory ordinance of Christianity, it 
signifies that the receiver takes on himself the character of a disci- 
ple of Jesus ; that he is saved not by his baptism, but by that which 
it represents, and must not only be zealous at the commencement 
of his course, but endure unto the end. 

After this, the audience convened at the dispensary chapel, where 
the Rev. Mr. P. addressed them on the nature of the Christian 
church, its head, its members, its initiatory rites, and its discipFine. 
Then the aged candidates arose, in the presence of the assembly, 
and with deep solemnity made a profession of their faith in Christ 
by clear and emphatic replies to the following questions : 

1 . Do you believe in the only true God, distinct in three persons, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghoet, who made heaven and earthy and all that in them i«, 
of nothing, and still maintains and governs them, insomuch that nothing 
comes to pass either in heaven or earth, without his divine will ? 

2. Do you b«*Iieve that you were conceived and born in sin, and therefore a 
child of wrath by nature, wholly incapable of doing any good, and prone to 
all evil, and that you have frequently both in thought, word and deed, trans- 
gressed the commandments of the Lord ; and are you heartily sorry for these 

3. Do you believe that Christ, who is the true and eternal God and very 
man, who took his human nature on him, out of the flesh and blood of the 
virgin Mary, is given by God to you, to be your Savior, and that you receive 
by this faith, remission of stnu in his blood, and that you are made, by the 
power of the Holy Ghost, a member of Jesus Christ and of his church ? 

4 Do you assent to all the articles of the Christian religion, as they ard 

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360 Amoy. ivvt, 

taught ia the Chrittian church, according to the word of God, and purpone 
steadfastly to continue in the same doctrine to the end of your lives; and also 
do you reject all heresies and superstitions, repugnant to this doctrine, such 
as the idolatrous rites and mummeries rife among the Chinese (here a long 
catalogue of heathen rites and errors were enumerated) ; and do you promise 
to persevere in the communion of this Christian church, not only in tli« hear- 
ing of the word, but also in the use of the Lord's supper f 

5. Have you Uken a firm resolution always to lead a Christian life ; to 
forsake the world, and its evil lusts, as is bcccming the members of Christ, 
and his church, and to submit yourself to all Christian admonitions ? 

Afler the rite of baptism was administered to the candidates in a 
kneeling posture, tbey stood up, and gave solemn heed to a warning 
on steadfastness in the faith, by Mr. P. 1. He warned them to 
guard their hearts ^ and be instant in prayer, and the study of God's 
word, assuring them that defection begins in the closet, and that 
their only security was in fervent prayer, and a devout reliance on 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 2. He urged each of them to became an 
example of love to God and man, so that all might see that they were 
different from what they once were, and different from all around 
them. In case of having to encounter the scorn and derision of 
their idolatrous countrymen, they were warned not to render evil for 
evil, or railing for railing; but contrariwise, blessing. 3. They were 
told of the goodness of God to them in calling them in their old age 
to hear the gospel, and embrace it to the saving of their souls; and 
called upon to render devout thanksgiving to Him for this unspeak- 
able mercy. (Here they could not contain themselves, but gave a loud 
and hearty response.) 4. They were urged to activity and zeal 
in the cause of Christ, by speaking a word in season to their friends 
and neighbors, by imitating the example of Christ to *' go about 
doing good," and as long as life lasted to make it their business to 
spread abroad the savor of his blessed name. Finally, they were 
warned to remain firm unto the end, and amidst all the temptations 
of the world, the flesh and the devil, to consider him that endured 
such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest they should be- 
come weary and faint in their minds. 

I need not say that the occasion was a solenr.n and affecting one 
to us, and that the most serious attention was given by the heathen 
who were present. But the services of the day did not end here. 
In the afternoon the missionaries met for the celebration of the Lord's 
supper, and for the first time sat down with these good old men, 
rejoicing in hope of the glory of God. There were 15 or 20 specta- 
tors and the services were conducted mostly in Chinese. Mr, Y, 

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1846. Am0y, 361 

gave a lucid account of the origin of the ordinance, its nature, and 
its great design. Mr. S. administered the elements, and gave the 
closing admonition, speaking of the love of Christ to us, as exhibited 
in his death, and of the great object of that love being to excite our 
love to him, and thus draw us to his service. Thus passed this 
season of thrilling interest, and who will not, on perusing this, lift 
up a prayer to God, that these first fruits may be speedily succeeded 
by an abundant harvest? The attention on the preaching of the word 
by several constant hearers still continues undiminished, and we are 
not without hope that God is drawing others to himself. 

It may be asked how, these two disciples appear since their bap- 
tism ? I reply they have thus far adorned their profession, and seem 
to be sensible of their weakness, and in constant fear lest they sin 
against God. Hoh-kui-peyh has been called to drink the cup of 
sorrow in the death of a beloved son. His feelings and exercises of 
mind then were closely akin to those of David on a like occasion. 
He besought God for the child saying, "Who can tell, whether God 
will be gracious to me, that the child may live." But when the 
child was dead, he acquiesced with sweet and joyful submission, and 
was comforted in the reflection, "1 shall go to him, but he shall not re- 
turn to me." Un-sia-peyh has opened a small store, which is con- 
ducted on Christian principles, and closed every Scd)bath^ though in 
so doing he has to withstand much obloquy, and is often entreated 
to sell a little. Thus these first disciples are letting their light 
shine, and though from their age, too much should not be expected, 
yet from their extreme caution and circumspection, their private 
devotion and their habitual attention on every means of God's ap- 
pointment, we doubt not their path will be like that of the shining 
light which shineth more and more unto the perfect day. And well 
is it remarked, by one long conversant with the minutiae of foreign 
missions, "If we would make anything of converts in pagan lands, 
we must bring them to the ordinances of the gospel, and into the 
church, as soon as they give satisfactory evidence of regeneration ; 
for they are too child-like, too weak, too ignorant to be lefl exposed 
to the dangers that exist out of the fold, even until they shall have 
learned all fundamental truths. The school of Christ for young 
converts from heathenism, stands mthin the fold, and there, cer- 
tainly the compassionate Savior would have them all gathered and 
carried in the arms, and cherished even as a nurse cherisheth her 
children." M. N. N. 

VOL. XV. NO. VII. 46 

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862 Amoy. Jilt, 

No. 2, 

•♦Since the war with England, this city has secured some little importanc« 
in the estimation of merchants as a place of trade, and of Christians as an 
opening for the ingresa of the go.^pel into tJie interior of tliis paitofthe 
Celestial Empire TJie public will donbtless, for these reasons, feel some 
interest in any items of information pr^iceedinir from this city. It is tlie object 
of the presont communication to furnisti, if possible, some additional facts to 
those alreariy known respecting Amoy and the island upon which it is built. 

" The position of this city ^jives it many advantarres in a commercial point 
of view It is conveniently situated for trading with m'.ny of the important 
cities and villasres of the Fuhkien province in which it lies. Your readers, 
no doubt knjw that iho city 13 not built on tho main Innd but on an isiunu of 
*he same name, which is separated from the continent by a channel of one or 
two miles in breadLh. The islaud is about 35 miles in circuit or 10 miles 
across. It i-? somewhat circular in form. The southern and western portions 
are very much broken by a range of granite hills, which extends along the, receding at intervals from the sei and leaving small but beautiful plains 
which are laid out in fields and dotted with villages. The hills themselves 
are generally too barren and ragged to admit of cultivation — where water, 
however, can be procured at a sutlicient elevation, the sides of these hills are 
terraced and made to yield some vegetables to the hand of industry. In one 
or two instances, there are small table-lands lying on the summit of this range 
whichal so have their well ordered farms and contiguous villages. The prin- 
cipal use to which the- sides of these rocky hills are appropriated, is to supply 
burial plnces for tlie numerous dead. The city of Amoy is situatetl on the 
western side of the island and its population, living and dead, completely 
covers the hills and vallies in and around the place. So numerous are tlie 
graves that one can scarcely avoid them in his rambles beyond the suburbs 
of the city. Thi»y protrude their unseemly forms on every side of the path 
and impart a gloomy aspect to the surrounding scenery. 

** Leaving the hills and passing to the north and east portions of the island, 
one finds himself in a beautiful region of country, thickly studded with com- 
pact built villages and teeming witli human beings. This section of the 
island is comparatively level and is under complete cultivation. It is a great 
relief to the mind to ramble beyond the limits of the city and its adjacent 
burial grounds and enter this region where the prospect is scarcely marred 
by a single monument of mortality. The roads or paths are generally narrow 
but afford pleasant walking, or riding on horseback. 

"The soil of the island is naturally thin and unproductive, except in the 
mall vallies where water is found and where the mould of the higher regions 
has been collected by mountain torrents. The industry of the Chinese has, 
however, in some measure overcome the original barrenness of the ground 
and now secures tolerably good crops. The productions consist chiefly of 
sweet potatoes, paddy, wheat, 8Ugar,-canc, ground-nuts and garden vegetables. 
The prevailing feature of the island, except where the hand of Cultivation is 

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J846. Amoy, 3C3 

coDBtantly employed, is naked barrenness The eye searches in vain, except 
in a few favored spots, for the larger species of the vegetable kingdom. In 
the villages and around the temples, the comfort and convenience of men* 
have prompted them to plant and nourish a few shade trees and on the tops 
of some of the hiUs a few scattered firs are growing. The island produces 
no fruits except such as may be found in very limited quantities in private 
gardens. The markets of the city are abundantly supplied with oranges, 
plantains, pomelos, pears, peaches, and other fruits in their season, but these 
are all brought from other partB of the province. Even the regions around 
Fuhchau fu supply in part the fruit markets of Amoy. 

** The island produces very little animal food. But few domestic animals 
are raised upon it The poultry, pork and beef found in the markets, are 
brought from the main land. Cultivating the ground and fishing seem to be 
the principal employments of the village population — some labor as boatmen 
and sailors. 

** The inhabitants of the city are principally engaged in commerce and in 
manufactures for home consumption. So far as the writer's infonnation ex* 
tends but few articles for export are manufactured in this place. Perhaps 
the chief exceptions are shoes and umbrellas. Considerable quantities of these 
are manufactured here and exported ; most otlier exports come from the neigh- 
boring cities and from the interior and are here shipped for other ports* 
There are, probatbly, three hundred junks of all sizes trading at this 
port — many of them are the property of Amoy merchants. They trade with 
the northern and southern ports of China, with the island of Formosa, in the 
Straits of Singapore and ports in that region. Besides, a daily communication 
by means of small vessels is kept up with the principal cities which can be 
reached from Amoy by water, boats go and come loaded with passengers 
and merchandize. In fact most of the important places on the main-land and 
far in the interior are dependant upon this place for many articles of consump- 
tion which they do not manufacture themselves but which they find imported 
into this city This creates a large native trade with Amoy and gives it an 
importance which it could not otherwise command. 

" Of the population of the island not much can at present be said. The 
whole island contains probably 350, 000 or 400, 000 inh»ibitants. The aggre- 
gate of 66 villages with which more or less communication has been had and 
many of which have been visited, is accordinj^ to statements received from 
the natives and confirmed in many cases by personal observation, 40, 660- 
There are 136 villa-Tes on the iriland and some of the largest are not included 
in the preceding estimate. Perhaps 100, 000 is as close an approximation to 
the true number of the village population as can be made under present 
circuTiitances. The city and suburbs, at Ihe lowest computation, contain 
250,000, some say 300,000 inhabitants. This makes the whole population of 
the island, as before stated, 350,000, or 400,000. 

" This is a large number of human beings to be crowded into so limited a 
space, and one woi|ld infer from such statistics that the prosperity of trade and 

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964 Noiius #f the EiM « Gntai. Jclt, 

I onit be fmt to afloie tofedier mud asppoit to i 
in go wmH > coniiw, Hov fiur thb fmMperi^ leaDy eztendii, ths writer 
has QOC iketi mlfideflt opon whieli to fband any itateaient beyond wfaet hat 
already been aaid, eicept thai the majority ofthe popohtion doea not exhibit 
any ejaemal endencea of being in pio ap e ro oi cirenogtancea. Maay oomplain 
of oppfeanre taxen To one wholly ignorant of the chaiacter of thia 
people and paaaing throogfa thia ialand, the inference finom what he would oee, 
would be that the place ia on the retrognde^^or at leaat atationaiy. Tme, 
be would aee the fielda in a high alate of cultivation and many leaidencea 
poaweming comfort and |denty widiin— but he would alao aee a far greater 
number of wretched dwellinga and neglected templea and a vaat amount of 
aqualledneaa. Theae things would indicate anything but general prosperity. 
The demand for laboien is folly supplied and much more than supplied, 
consequently the fields will be well cnltivated and the wealthy will occupy 
lair dwellings, but for the laborers themaeWea ail is pressing necessity or 
pinching poverty. A few are enriched by commerDe and abound in plenty ; 
the mass live as they" can, consuming to day the little they have earned and 
compelled to permit the morrow to care for the things of itaelt" 

Art. VI. Notices of the riot in Cemton, which occurred on the 

evening of July 8M, 1846. 
About sunset Wednesday July 8th, a scene of disorder opened just 
without Old China Street, near the corner and in front of what baa 
been known as Mingkwa's hong. Within half an hour it had assum* 
ed a very serious aspect: showers of stones and brickbats were 
hurled against the house of a resident gentleman, occupying the 
front rooms of Mingkwa's hong, and scores of vagabonds were de- 
molishing the fence and gates before the same, shouting and jelling 
like so many demons. The noise of the rioters spread rapidly, 
every moment drawing together larger numbers, and very soon an 
indiscriminate attack was made on all foreigners within reach of the 
mob, stones being furiously thrown at them and against the windows 
of the American factory. Of these proceedings the Chinese police 
on the spot, belonging to the station at the entrance of Old China 
street, were idle spectators, making no attempt to seize or inter- 
fere with the rioters. 

Before 7 o'clock, H. B. M.'s consul, Francis C. Macgregor Esq., 
had dispatched messengers to the Chinese authorities, requesting the 
as^iistance requisite for protection from violence and depredation of 

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1846. Nifticei of the Riot in Canton, 365 

the rioteni. A similar request to the governor, and to the local 
magistrates was shortly afler repeated by the American Charg6 d* 
Affaires, the Hon. Peter Parker. 

Shot fan kwei, ti fan kwd, " kill the foreign deTils," " beat the 
foreign devils," rang and reechoed through all the streets in the 
▼icinity of the foreign factories. Hundreds of the basest of men were 
already collected and many hundreds more were hastening to the 
scene of riot 

It was now past 8 o'clock, and the action of the mob was every 
moment becoming more violent and more extensive. The gates 
and outer wall of Mingkw^'s hong had been demolished ; one of the 
walls of the cook-house battered down;, some of the iron-barred 
and stone-cased windows of the huupe dug out of the solid wall, 
against which a heavy battering-ram was being plied with great fury. 
It was impossible to mistake the intentions of the mob. Unless force 
were interposed immediately, it was evident the scenes of 1842-— 
when the British factories were sacked and burnt — were to be 
reacted. Indeed, two attempts had been already made to set the 
house on lire. Moreover, an officer of the Chinese government with 
his attendants, having come to the scene, had been driven back. 

Under these circumstances the only alternative for foreigners 
was, either to see their factories pillaged and burnt and themselves 
pelted and chased into the river, or to step forward and disperse 
the rioters by such means as they chanced to have at command. 
They had assembled in considerable numbers in front of the fae* 
tories and in the American garden, most of them prepared for the 
exigencies of the occasion. The peril of life and property was now 
such, that any longer delay was deemed unjustifiable. No succor was 
at hand from the authorities, and it was impossible to tell when 
troops would arrive, or what they would effect if they came, they 
recently having been found unable or unwilling to defend from the 
mob the domicile and offices of one of their own functionaries, the 
prefect of Canton. The rioters were making every possible effort to 
get the buildings on fire. The danger was most imminent. Self- 
defense and self-preservation required immediate action. 

The gates leading to the scene of riot, from the front of the fac- 
tories, were at length opened, while the missiles were flying and the 
mob shouting and exulting more than ever. The foreigners moved 
in a mass against the crowd, and that part of it which was on the 
south retreated precipitately from before Mingkwa's, the French and 
the Spanish hongs and then down the southern Danish, a »quad fall 

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;)66 Notices of the Riot in Canton. Ji:li% 

ing off into New China street, and a few stragglers skulking clown 
towards the river in Old China street. A party, close by the police 
station, near the gates of Old China street, was more determined. 
Twice or thrice the villains rallied and were nothing daunted, but 
rather emboldened by the repeated warning from the foreigners. 
Two or three of their number fell, before the mob gave way. Nearly 
at the same moment, the gang that had been driven down the street 
of the Danish hong, returned to renew the attack, and their leader 
paid dearly for his temerity. 

The foreigners were now masters of the entire space from the 
police station at the entrance of Old China street to the entrance 
of the Danish hong, and thus had free communication from one 
extreme of their factories to the other. 

Soon after nine o'clock the Chinese authorities with troops came 
to the assistance of those who, till then, had been left to shift for 
themselves. By degrees the troops extended their lines over the 
ground already occupied, through the Old and New China streets, 
Hog Lane, the Thirteen-factory street or that immediately in the 
rear of the factories, Lw^nhing street or that on the west of the 
Danish hong, making the Hall of the Hong-merchants, the *' Consoo 
house,'' their head-quarters; and before midnisfht, with permission 
from the proper quarter, about 290 of the Chinese soldiers were 
marched into the American garden. 

We were spectators of only a part of these proceedings, having 
been on the opposite side of the river, in Hondm, when the riot be- 
gan ; but on the authority of many who were eye-witnepses, we are 
able to give, what we believe to be, a correct account of the principal 
acts which occurred during this trying scene. 

In consequence of there having been frequent and serious distur- 
bances in Canton, occasioned by the intrusion of vagabonds, the 
Chinese government agreed, on the ratification of the Treaty of 
WAnghiA, July 1844, to keep all idlers and vagrants away from the 
vicinity :)f the factories. As that agreement has an important bear- 
ing on the present case, we here introduce the document entire, bor- 
rowing it from papers sent by Mr. Cushinjr to his government, and 
transmitted by the prej^ident of the United States to the Senate, dur- 
ing the 2d session of the 2^th congress. 

The following are the art»cles which have been deliberated upon, and settled ■ 

I. The citizens' shops in the vicinity of the Thirteen Factories bein^ dense- 
ly crowded together, there is great liability to the calamity of fire, and wc must, 
in anticipation, gvard against it. Hereafter, it is permitted to the merchants 

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1846. Notices of the Riot in Canton. 367 

and citizens of foreign nations to erect walls on the foundation of their own 
premises, forty cubits high, and from one cubit and a half to two cubits thick ; 
all the additional expense of building, labor, and materials, to be defrayed by 
the occupiDts of the factories. 

2. From the hejid of Sintau Lin (Green" Pea street) on the east, and 
from the entrance of Tsing-yacn Kai (Old China street) on the west, to the 
river, the old wooden fenee shall be chantred, and a strong wall erected, either 
of stone or brick, the expense thereof to be dffrr.ypd by the foreign merchanUi. 
This is granted to avoid the Chinese, in passing and repassing, looking through 
the fence, causing disturbances ond quarrels. 

3. In the three streets, Tung-wan Kdi, (New China street,) Tsing-yuen 
Kai, (Old China street,) and Sintau J^an, on the north, and on the rear of 
the Factories, it is also permitted the foreign occnpants thereof to erect high 
walls, and at the north and south ends of these streets to make strong doors of 
wood, covered with sheet iron. 

4. Chinese and foreigners being mixed up together, it is easy for trouble to 
arise; hereaOer, therefore, at the six gates of the three streets, it is right to 
establish. a military station and posts for sentries, who shall constantly dwell 
tliere, and keep guard. Men bearing things about upon their shoulders to 
trallic with, (pedlars,) are not permitted in front and outhe right and lefl of the 
Factories, to expose for sale melons, fruits, cakes, etcetera ; and likewise all 
quacks, fortune-tellers, beggars, and showmen, and all idlers, and the like, are 
not permitted to pass and repass in front and on the right and lefl of the Fac- 
tories, obstructing the way, and collecting a crowd of idlers. Whoever vio- 
lates this (regulation) shall be scrch^d out, and pursued to the utmost. In the 
event of any quarrel, or of the calamity of fire, those six gates shall be imme- 
diately shut and locked and the idlers shall not be permitted to look through ; 
and should any bandits insist on violently entering, and wrangle with the 
guards and soldiers, the bandits shall be rigorously seized and punished to the 
utmost. If the soldiers and guards are remiss in expelling them, they shall be 
severely punished. 

5. At the official stations at the head of Tsing-yuen Kk'u (Old China 
street,) a clever and able military officer shall- be appointed who shall const- 
antly have command, with soldiers and guards attached to him, who shall re- 
side there to keep watch. Should any wrangling or trifling disturbance occur, 
it shall be warded off by the said military oihcer in charge of the place ; but in 
the event of a riot, the said mandarin shall petition the high officers of Govern- 
ment to lead out police men and soldiers in great numbers, and proceed to 
make investigitiun, and so to manage as to preserve peace. 

6. Henceforth the street in front of the factories is not to be a thoroughfare, 
and the gates at both ends, by order of the consul, may be closed at sunset, and 
also upon the Sabbath, in order that there may be no confusion. 

7. If any of the shops in the neighborhood of the Thirteen Factories cland- 
estinely sell ardent spirits to foreigners to drink, on being found out, the said 
shops shall be closed, and the proprietors thereof shall be seized and punished. 

8. It is not permitted to throw out and accumulate filth at the head of the 
streets. This has long been pubVcly prohibited, it being required that all in 
front and rear of the hongs, and at the head of the streets, should be kept pure 

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368 iXoticei of the Riot in Canton Jutr, 

and clean. Whoever shall throw out and accumulate filth there, shall, on 
being found out, be sent to the officers of Govcrninenl, to be tried and punish- 

9. The foregoing regulations shall be stereotyped and printed, and deliver- 
ed over to the military officers, to be posted up at the head of each street, that 
all may clearly understand. 

July 12, 1844. (Signed) Hwang Ngantuno. 

Peter Parkrr. 

It is obvious to remark here, that the Inte riot could never have 
occurred, if the foregoing res^ulations had been kept; and that they 
have not been is not the fault of the foreign residents. Application 
to enforce them has been repeatedly and officially made to the im* 
perial commissioner. He has received the application and acknow- 
ledged the propriety of keeping the regulations. " This is on record" 
Nevertheless for many months past, the streets adjacent the factories 
have been thronged with all manner of hucksters — an intolerable 
nuisance. Often they have been literally blocked up and rendered 
quite impassable to any and to all, who were not prepared to elbow 
their way amidst barbers, butchers, portable-cook shops, fruit-stalls, 
cat-sellers and denuded and indescribable rifT-rnff, such as could be 
congregated only in a half-civilized and pagan nation. 

On the afternoon of the 8th, the crowd of this sort in front of Old 
China street — one of those places the Chinese authorities had pledged 
themselves to keep clear — was unusually dense, when an English 
gentleman, having occasion to pass that way and finding the street 
filled with idlers, pushed one of them aside. Whereupon the man 
turned and struck him on the bick, with his fist. This the gentle- 
man returned